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Technical Paper

Multi-Domain Optimization for Fuel Economy Improvement of HD Trucks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0312
Fuel usage negatively impacts the environment and is a significant portion of operational costs of moving freight globally. Reducing fuel consumption is key to lessening environmental impacts and maximizing freight efficiency, thereby increasing the profit margin of logistic operators. In this paper, fuel economy improvements of a cab-over style 49T heavy duty Foton truck powered by a Cummins 12-liter engine are studied and systematically applied for the China market. Most fuel efficiency improvements are found within the vehicle design when compared to opportunities available at the engine level. Vehicle design (improved aerodynamics), component selection/matching (low rolling resistance tires), and powertrain electronic features integration (shift schedule/electronic trim) offer the largest opportunities for lowering fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Development of Parametric Tool to Design Base Frame for Cummins Marine Application Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0798
A spread sheet based parametric tool is developed to design the base frame for a marine generator-set. Factors such as engine details, generator details, anti-vibration mount (AVM) etc., that determine the design of the base frame, are set as parameters in the spreadsheet. The spreadsheet has formulae to calculate channel specifications, and AVM deflections. It is linked to channel standards database and selects the optimal channel based on calculations. Similarly, the tool provides guidance in selection of AVM from supplier catalogues, helps to predict number of anti-vibration mounts required and their location on base frame. This spread sheet is integrated with a generic base frame 3D model and 2D print in “Creo 3d modelling software” (Creo), which is auto-updated based on calculated parameters in the spreadsheet. Using this tool, the user can generate a 3D-model and 2D print. This tool helps to standardize the design process and reduces design turnaround time considerably.
Technical Paper

Cooling Fan Selection in Power Car Application Using CFD and FEA Analysis

2019-04-02
2019-01-0900
This paper describes the methodology used to select an application-based fan that has optimum operating characteristics in terms of cooling air flow rate, fan power, and noise. The selected fan is then evaluated for structural strength. To evaluate different fans, complete rail coach under-hood simulations were carried out using steady-state 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. These simulations considered an actual, highly non-uniform flow field. For each fan option, fan power, air flow rate, and surface acoustic power was evaluated. Pressure profiles on the fan blades were studied to assess the effect of non-uniform downstream air passage designs. Surface acoustic power was calculated using broadband noise source (BNS) model in ANSYS Fluent®. Surface pressure profiles over fan blades imported from 3D CFD were used in finite element analysis (FEA) in ANSYS. Analyses were carried out for blade linear and non-linear properties.
Technical Paper

Alternate Approach: Acoustics and Cooling Performance Management

2018-04-03
2018-01-0084
Development of quick and efficient numerical tools is key to the design of industrial machines. While Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques based on Navier Stokes (N-S) and Lattice Boltzman methods are becoming popular, predicting aeroacoustic behavior for complex geometries remains computationally intensive for design process and iteration. The goal of this paper is to evaluate application Navier-Stokes approach coupled with Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H), and Broad-band Noise Model (BNS) to evaluate noise levels and predict design direction for industrial applications. Steady-state RANS based approaches are used to evaluate under-hood cooling performance and fan power demand. At each design iteration, noise levels and strength of noise source are evaluated using Gutin’s and broad-band noise models, respectively along with cooling performance. Each design feature selected for the final design has lower fan power and noise level with improved cooling.
Technical Paper

Fan Shroud Optimization Using Adjoint Solver

2016-09-27
2016-01-8070
Fan and fan-shroud design is critical for underhood air flow management. The objective of this work is to demonstrate a method to optimize fan-shroud shape in order to maximize cooling air mass flow rates through the heat exchangers using the Adjoint Solver in STAR-CCM+®. Such techniques using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis enable the automotive/transport industry to reduce the number of costly experiments that they perform. This work presents the use of CFD as a simulation tool to investigate and assess the various factors that can affect the vehicle thermal performance. In heavy-duty trucks, the cooling package includes heat exchangers, fan-shroud, and fan. In this work, the STAR-CCM+® solver was selected and a java macro built to run the primal flow and the Adjoint solutions sequentially in an automated fashion.
Journal Article

Multi-Domain Simulation Model of a Wheel Loader

2016-09-27
2016-01-8055
Wheel loader subsystems are multi-domain in nature, including controls, mechanisms, hydraulics, and thermal. This paper describes the process of developing a multi-domain simulation of a wheel loader. Working hydraulics, kinematics of the working tool, driveline, engine, and cooling system are modeled in LMS Imagine.Lab Amesim. Contacts between boom/bucket and bucket/ground are defined to constrain the movement of the bucket and boom. The wheel loader has four heat exchangers: charge air cooler, radiator, transmission oil cooler, and hydraulic oil cooler. Heat rejection from engine, energy losses from driveline, and hydraulic subsystem are inputs to the heat exchangers. 3D CFD modeling was done to calibrate airflows through heat exchangers in LMS Amesim. CFD modeling was done in ANSYS FLUENT® using a standard k - ε model with detailed fan and underhood geometry.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Aerodynamic Influence on Truck Platooning

2015-09-29
2015-01-2895
This paper investigates the aerodynamic influence of multiple on-highway trucks in different platooning configurations. Complex pressure fields are generated on the highways due to interference of multiple vehicles. This pressure field causes an aerodynamic drag to be different than the aerodynamic drag of a vehicle in a no-traffic condition. In order to study the effect of platooning, three-dimensional modeling and numerical simulations were performed using STAR-CCM+® commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool. The aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles were analyzed in five different platooning configurations with two and three vehicles in single and multiple lanes. A significant Yaw Averaged Aerodynamic Drag (YAD) reduction was observed in both leading and trailing vehicles. YAD was based on the average result of three different yaw angles at 0°, −6° and 6°. In single-lane traffic, YAD reduction was up to 8% and 38% in leading and trailing vehicles, respectively.
Technical Paper

Analytical Evaluation of Integrated Drivetrain NVH Phenomena

2015-09-29
2015-01-2781
This paper demonstrates the use of a system level model that includes torsional models of a Cummins diesel engine and an Allison transmission to study and improve system NVH behavior. The study is a case where the two suppliers of key powertrain components, Cummins Inc. and Allison Transmission Inc., have collaborated to solve an observed NVH problem for a vehicle customer. A common commercial tool, Siemens' AMESim, was used to develop the drivetrain torsional system model. This paper describes a method of modelling and calibration of baseline engine and transmission models to identify the source of vibration. Natural frequencies, modal shapes, and forced response were calculated for each vehicle drive gear ratio to study the torsional vibration. Several parametric studies such as damping, inertia, and stiffness were carried out to understand their impact on torsional vibration of the system.
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