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Technical Paper

Particle Emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection Engines during Engine Start-Up (Cranking)

Engine start-up (cranking) can be an important source of particle emissions from vehicles. With the penetration of GDI vehicles in the global vehicle fleet, it is important to analyze and understand the contribution of start-up particle emissions from GDI vehicles, and the potential effects of fuel properties on that process. In this work, chassis dynamometer based investigation on the effect of several gasoline fuels (commercial and blended) on both, naturally aspirated and turbocharged GDI vehicles were conducted to understand the importance of engine start up, in particular, cranking. 10 commercially available gasoline fuels were tested on a naturally aspirated 2010 model year GDI vehicle, 3 among these commercially available fuels were tested on another 2009 model year turbocharged GDI vehicle, and 8 blended gasoline fuels were tested on 12 other GDI vehicles (7 turbocharged and 5 naturally aspirated) ranging in model years 2011-2015.
Journal Article

The Impact of Ammonium Nitrate Species on Low Temperature NOx Conversion Over Cu/CHA SCR Catalyst

Cu/CHA catalysts have been widely used in the industry, due to their desirable performance characteristics including the unmatched hydrothermal stability. While broadly recognized for their outstanding activity at or above 200°C, these catalysts may not show desired levels of NOx conversion at lower temperatures. To achieve high NOx conversions it is desirable to have NO2/NOx close to 0.5 for fast SCR. However even under such optimal gas feed conditions, sustained use of Cu/CHA below 200°C leads to ammonium nitrate formation and accumulation, resulting in the inhibition of NOx conversion. In this contribution, the formation and decomposition of NH4NO3 on a commercial Cu/CHA catalyst have been investigated systematically. First, the impact of NH4NO3 self-inhibition on SCR activity as a function of temperature and NO2/NOx ratios was investigated through reactor testing.

Fundamentals of Engineering High-Performance Actuator Systems

Actuators are the key to allowing machines to become more sophisticated and perform complex tasks that were previously done by humans, providing motion in a safe, controlled manner. As defined in this book, actuator design is a subset of mechanical design. It involves engineering the mechanical components necessary to make a product move as desired. Fundamentals of Engineering High-Performance Actuator Systems, by Ken Hummel, was written as a text to supplement actuator design courses, and a reference to engineers involved in the design of high-performance actuator systems. It highlights the design approach and features what should be considered when moving a payload at precision levels and/or speeds that are not as important in low-performance applications.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Hydrocarbon Measurement with FTIR and FID in a Dual Fuel Locomotive Engine

Exhaust emissions of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and methane were measured from a Tier 3 dual-fuel demonstration locomotive running diesel-natural gas blend. Measurements were performed with the typical flame ionization detector (FID) method in accordance with EPA CFR Title 40 Part 1065 and with an alternative Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy method. Measurements were performed with and without oxidation catalyst exhaust aftertreatment. FTIR may have potential for improved accuracy over the FID when NMHC is dominated by light hydrocarbons. In the dual fuel tests, the FTIR measurement was 1-4% higher than the FID measurement of. NMHC results between the two methods differed considerably, in some cases reporting concentrations as much as four times those of the FID. However, in comparing these data it is important to note that the FTIR method has several advantages over the FID method, so the differences do not necessarily represent error in the FTIR.
Journal Article

Determination of the PEMS Measurement Allowance for PM Emissions Regulated Under the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine In-Use Testing Program

This paper summarizes the Heavy-Duty In-Use Testing (HDUIT) measurement allowance program for Particulate Matter Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PM-PEMS). The measurement allowance program was designed to determine the incremental error between PM measurements using the laboratory constant volume sampler (CVS) filter method and in-use testing with a PEMS. Two independent PM-PEMS that included the Sensors Portable Particulate Measuring Device (PPMD) and the Horiba Transient Particulate Matter (TRPM) were used in this program. An additional instrument that included the AVL Micro Soot Sensor (MSS) was used in conjunction with the Sensors PPMD to be considered a PM-PEMS. A series of steady state and transient tests were performed in a 40 CFR Part 1065 compliant engine dynamometer test cell using a 2007 on-highway heavy-duty diesel engine to quantify the accuracy and precision of the PEMS in comparison with the CVS filter-based method.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Particulate Matter Sensor Signals

Production PM sensors are now available and are likely to be key components of PM aftertreatment systems designed to meet 2013 OBD requirements. In this paper a highly simplified analysis is used to give insight into the sensor response of resistive-based devices, and to motivate possible diagnostic strategies. The method has been applied to successive sets of FTP data recorded with DPF's of different failure levels, and despite the very approximate nature of the underlying model, the method appears to discriminate reliably between them.
Journal Article

Smart Sensing and Decomposition of NOx and NH3 Components from Production NOx Sensor Signals

Production NO sensors have a strong cross-sensitivity to ammonia which limits their use for closed-loop SCR control and diagnostics since increases in sensor output can be caused by either gas component. Recently, Ammonia/NO Ratio (ANR) perturbation methods have been proposed for determining the dominant component in the post-SCR exhaust as part of the overall SCR control strategy, but these methods or the issue of sensor cross-sensitivity have not been critically evaluated or studied in their own right. In this paper the dynamic sensor direct- and cross-sensitivities are estimated from experimental FTIR data (after compensating for the dynamics of the gas sampling system) and compared to nominal values provided by the manufacturer. The ANR perturbation method and the use of different input excitations are then discussed within an analytical framework, and applied to experimental data from a large diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Long-Term Aging of NOx Sensors in Heavy-Duty Engine Exhaust

Research has shown that there are many factors that affect the long-term performance of nitrogen oxides (NOx) control systems used in diesel engine applications. However, if the NOx emissions can be accurately monitored, it might be possible to restore performance by making adjustments to the control systems. This paper presents results from a study that tested the durability of 25 NOx sensors exposed to heavy-duty diesel exhaust for 6,000 hours. The study, conducted by the Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels - Diesel Emission Controls (APBF-DEC) project, tested the sensors at various locations in the exhaust stream.
Technical Paper

Paint Integrity and Corrosion Sensor

Atmospheric corrosion of steels, aluminum alloys, and Al-clad aluminum alloys is a problem for many civil engineering structures, commercial and military vehicles, and aircraft. Paint is usually the primary means to prevent the corrosion of steel bridge components, automobiles, trucks, and aircraft. Under ideal conditions, the coating provides a continuous layer that is impervious to moisture. At present, maintenance cycles for commercial and military aircraft and ground vehicles, as well as engineered structures, is based on experience and appearance rather than a quantitative determination of coating integrity. To improve the maintenance process and reduce costs, sensors are often used to monitor corrosion. The present suite of sensors designed to detect corrosion and marketed to predict the lifetime of the engineered components, however, are not useful for determining the condition of the protective paint coatings.
Technical Paper

Army Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Estimate Selected Properties of Compression Ignition Fuels

The U.S. Army has long identified the need for rapid, reliable methods for analysis of fuels and lubricants on or near the battlefield. The analysis of fuels and lubricants under battlefield or near-battlefield conditions requires that the equipment be small, portable, rugged, quick, and easy to use. Over the past 15 to 20 years, several test kits and portable laboratories have been developed in response to this need. One instrumental technique that has been identified as a likely candidate to meet this need is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR). To evaluate NIR as a candidate, a set of 280 fuel samples was used. This sample set contained samples of diesel fuel grades 1 and 2, Jet A-l, JP-5, and JP-8. Inspection data were collected on all the fuels as sample size permitted. Each sample was then scanned using a near-infrared spectrometer. Data analysis, model building, and calibration were conducted using a software package supplied with the instrument.
Technical Paper

Automated Planning and Resource Management in an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

The Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is a fully automated robot submarine that is capable of maintaining a set of electronic sensors under the polar icecap. This function is primarily an issue of automated planning. The AUV is driven by three independent, and often conflicting, goals. These are mission, survival, and covertness. The plan that must be generated is essentially a route to achieve a mission that is acceptable to all three goals. The conflicting goals are implemented as independent expert systems that place constraints on the route taken. A higher level arbiter is used to help resolve conflicts in the situations where restraints posed by the independent goals preclude any solution being found.
Technical Paper

Diagnostics of Diesel Engines Using Exhaust Smoke and Temperature

An experimental sensor array that measures dynamic exhaust temperature and dynamic smoke for the purpose of diagnosing diesel engine fuel injection equipment was designed, built, and tested. The sensor array is portable and easily installed on truck tailpipes, and was tested using two 6V-53 Detroit Diesel engines. The dynamic temperature sensor is a very high response instrument capable of measuring changes in gas temperature in excess of 104°F/second. The dynamic smokemeter is an optical device designed to measure very low levels of light opacity in the smoke plume, with a response compatible with the engine firing frequency. Dynamic exhaust temperature data had more diagnostic significance than dynamic smoke in the detection of maximum power degrading fuel injection faults.
Technical Paper

Spectrometric Analysis of Used Oils

This paper discusses the techniques and diagnostic significance of atomic absorption, atomic emission, and infrared spectrometric analysis of crankcase lubricants, with the use of supplementary data where pertinent. The parameters affecting used oil analytical data are discussed in terms of examples from Army general purpose vehicle test engines. Wear metals in used gear oils are also discussed and examples are given. Analytical methods and their applications are fully described, and the equipment and procedures for infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography techniques are outlined.