Measurement of Dioxin and Furan Emissions during Transient and Multi-Mode Engine Operation
This study analyzed the impact of transient and multi-mode engine conditions on emissions of dioxins and furans from a variety of diesel aftertreatment configurations. Exhaust aftertreatment systems included combinations of diesel oxidation catalyst, diesel particulate filter, and either Cu/zeolite or Fe/zeolite selective catalytic reduction catalyst. EPA method TO-9A was modified for proportional exhaust gas sampling, whereas EPA method 0023A was modified for raw exhaust gas sampling. Dioxin and furan emissions were first measured with modified method TO-9A during Federal Test Procedure transient cycles, but no toxic dioxins or furans were detected. Measurements were then taken with modified method 0023A during Ramped Mode Cycles-Supplemental Emissions Test experiments. Because more rigorous pre-cleaning and sample extraction procedures were used with this method and lower detection limits were achieved by the analytical laboratory, some dioxin and furan congeners were detected.