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Technical Paper

An Integrated Engine Cycle Simulation Model with Species Tracking in Piping System

Due to compressibility, reactivity, evaporation and mixing, the gas species concentration varies significantly along the intake and exhaust pipes of an engine. An understanding of this behavior is vital to correctly predict catalyst performance because the behavior of a catalyst very much depends on the instantaneous local species concentrations, rather than those in the cylinder. Also, knowing this behavior is more important to assess the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The objective of this research is to develop a tool that is capable of predicting the instantaneous species concentration throughout the entire intake and exhaust system, and to lay out a foundation to model catalysts in the near future. This is done by first developing a complete engine cycle simulation model that is able to accurately predict wave dynamics in the piping system. Then, species tracking is accomplished by solving the species conservation equations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Novel Two-Stroke Engine Scavenging Arrangement: The Neutron Engine

A unique two-stroke engine design is investigated in which fresh mixture is introduced into the cylinder through a valve in the piston crown, and exhausted through peripheral cylinder ports. The engine behaves as a free-piston engine through a portion of the cycle when the piston lifts off the valve seat. The fresh air jet rising along the cylinder centerline effectively displaces the burned gases with little mixing of the two streams. The concept was analyzed by a combination of dynamic cycle simulation and prediction of the in-cylinder flow characteristics by multidimensional modeling. The cycle simulation program considered the dynamics of the piston during its free motion as well as under the kinematic constraints of the crank system. A zero-dimensional thermodynamic model of the cylinder was used to predict cycle pressure and temperature, indicated power, fuel consumption, and flow in and out of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Parametric Design of Helical Intake Ports

The design of helical Intake ports for swirl generation is a process that has been developed over a number of years through primarily empirical methods. A number of design rules have been established that enable designers to develop ports that approach the state-of-the-art for maximum swirl generation with minimum pressure loss. More recently, computer-aided design (CAD) tools have been introduced that permit geometry and features to be accurately defined by mathematical surface descriptions, and to be parameterized such that derived geometry is updated automatically along with parent features. The author has developed a parametric design approach for helical ports that incorporates the lessons learned from experience into a systematic design procedure. This procedure takes advantage of the current CAD capabilities to expedite the design process and improve the result.
Technical Paper

Analytical Engine Design Methods: A Review

Computer based analytical design techniques are transforming the engine design process. Analytical tools allow faster and more accurate design optimization. The design process is also shortened because the electronic transfer of files permits the design to be worked concurrently by engineers working with different analysis packages or on various parts of the design. Prototype parts and tooling can be made directly from the Computer-Aided Design (CAD) by various rapid prototyping methods. The analytical design techniques can also permit a highly optimized design with less possibility of corrections being necessary in the development stages. This paper reviews these new design techniques and examines how they can be used to improve the design technique. The following design tools are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Heavy-Fueled Engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

The growing usage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for aerial surveillance and reconnaissance in military applications calls for lightweight, reliable powerplants that burn heavy distillate fuels. While mass-produced engines exist that provide adequate power-to-weight ratio in the low power class needed for UAVs, they all use a spark-ignited combustion system that requires high octane fuels. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has embarked upon an internal research effort to design and demonstrate an engine that will meet the requirements of high power density, power output compatible with small unmanned aircraft, heavy-fuel combustion, reliable, durable construction, and producible design. This effort has culminated in the successful construction and operation of a demonstrator engine.
Technical Paper

Cam/Roller Component Fatigue Reliability Analysis

Life prediction and reliability analysis of a cam roller system were investigated. From the tribological analysis, the cam roller system was found to operate under low film parameter conditions and components were subjected to the risk of contact fatigue. Surface analysis performed on the failed rollers indicated that the surface distress was the primary cause for failure. Then, numerical analyses were performed to evaluate the cam roller life and its related reliability. The adopted approach combined a contact fatigue crack growth calculations with a probabilistic model for controlling the design uncertainty. The computation-efficient Fast Probabilistic Integration (FPI™) code was used to solve the problem. With appropriate descriptions for uncertainty distributions, the surface fatigue life of the specified cam roller system can be predicted along with a confident reliability level.
Technical Paper

Piston Ring Pack Friction and Lubrication Analysis of an Automotive Engine Using a Mixed Lubrication Model

A ring pack friction model has been developed based on the mixed lubrication concept to investigate the effects of ring surface topology on ring/liner interfacial frictions. The simulated friction results were verified by using the moving liner test rig and good correlations were established. The developed model was then extended to simulate the ring pack frictions under engine firing conditions. Surface roughness pattern oriented in the transverse, isotropic, and longitudinal directions were analyzed. The results indicate that the influence of surface pattern on ring pack friction is very substantial. A reduction of 9 percent of the ring pack friction is observed simply due to the surface pattern change. Friction reduction is a result from an increase in film thickness. This also helps to decrease the friction spikes near the dead centers and reduce ring wear. An increase in surface roughness magnitude significantly increases the ring pack friction.
Technical Paper

Instantaneous Unburned Oil Consumption Measurement in a Diesel Engine Using SO2 Tracer Technique

The contribution of lubricating oil to diesel engine particulate emissions is of concern not only because of stringent particulate emissions standards but also because of engine-to-engine variability. Unburned oil contributes directly to the particulate soluble organic fraction. A real-time oil consumption measurement technique previously developed was further refined to also measure real-time unburned oil consumption. The technique uses high sulfur oil, low sulfur fuel, and fast response, sensitive SO2 detection instrumentation. Total and unburned oil consumption maps over the engine operating range are presented. Results show that both total and unburned oil consumption generally increase as speed and load are increased. Unburned oil consumption shows some peaks at intermediate speed, high-load conditions. Oil consumption from individual cylinders was measured and shown to be approximately equal.
Technical Paper

On-Line Oil Consumption Measurement and Characterization of an Automotive Gasoline Engine by SO2 Method

An on-line oil consumption measurement system using the SO2 tracer method has characterized automotive gasoline engine oil consumption under various engine operating conditions, including a 200-hour durability test. An oil consumption map of total engine, individual cylinder, and valve train was produced for various speed and load ranges under both steady-state and step-transient operating conditions. The effect of spark timing as an additional engine parameter on the oil consumption was also investigated. Oil consumption maps have enlightened the conventional understanding of oil consumption characteristics and broadened the areas of concern for control technologies. This paper reports the benefit of the on-line oil consumption measurement system, the result of oil consumption history over the durability test, discrete measurement of oil consumption contribution within the engine, and various oil consumption characteristics affected by engine operating conditions.