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Technical Paper

Phenomenological Investigations of Mid-Channel Ash Deposit Formation and Characteristics in Diesel Particulate Filters

2019-04-02
2019-01-0973
Accumulation of lubricant and fuel derived ash in the diesel particulate filter (DPF) during vehicle operation results in a significant increase of pressure drop across the after-treatment system leading to loss of fuel economy and reduced soot storage capacity over time. Under certain operating conditions, the accumulated ash and/or soot cake layer can collapse resulting in ash deposits upstream from the typical ash plug section, henceforth termed mid-channel ash deposits. In addition, ash particles can bond (either physically or chemically) with neighboring particles resulting in formation of bridges across the channels that effectively block access to the remainder of the channel for the incoming exhaust gas stream. This phenomenon creates serious long-term durability issues for the DPF, which often must be replaced. Mid-channel deposits and ash bridges are extremely difficult to remove from the channels as they often sinter to the substrate.
Technical Paper

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Diesel Engine Exhaust Both with and without Aftertreatment

2018-09-10
2018-01-1812
Since the conception of the internal combustion engine, smoky and ill-smelling exhaust was prevalent. Over the last century, significant improvements have been made in improving combustion and in treating the exhaust to reduce these effects. One group of compounds typically found in exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), usually occurs at very low concentrations in diesel engine exhaust. Some of these compounds are considered carcinogenic, and most are considered hazardous air pollutants (HAP). Many methods have been developed for sampling, handling, and analyzing PAH. For this study, an improved method for dilute exhaust sampling was selected for sampling the PAH in diesel engine exhaust. This sampling method was used during transient engine operation both with and without aftertreatment to show the effect of aftertreatment.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Accelerated Ash Loading Methods for Gasoline Particulate Filters

2018-09-10
2018-01-1703
Recent legislation enacted for the European Union (EU) and the United States calls for a substantial reduction in particulate mass (and number in the EU) emissions from gasoline spark-ignited vehicles. The most prominent technology being evaluated to reduce particulate emissions from a gasoline vehicle is a wall flow filter known as a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Similar in nature to a diesel particulate filter (DPF), the GPF will trap and store particulate emissions from the engine, and oxidize said particulate with frequent regeneration events. The GPF will also collect ash particles in the wall flow substrate, which are metallic components that cannot be oxidized into gaseous components. Due to high temperature operation and frequent regeneration of the GPF, the impact of ash on the GPF has the potential to be substantially different from the impact of ash on the DPF.
Technical Paper

Gear Interference-Fit Joint Considerations and Design for the Resultant Tooth Distortion

2018-04-03
2018-01-1293
Automotive timing gear trains, transmission gearboxes, and wind turbine gearboxes are some of the application examples known to use interference-fit to attach the gear to the rotating shaft. This paper discusses the interference-fit joint design and the finite element analysis to demonstrate the distortion. The mechanism of tooth profile distortion due to the interference-fit assembly in gear trains is discussed by demonstrating the before and after assembly gear profile measurements. An algorithm to calculate the profile slope deviation change is presented. The effectiveness of the computational algorithm to predict the distortion is demonstrated by comparing with measurements. Finally, steps to mitigate the interference assembly effects are discussed.
Technical Paper

FEM Simulation Methodology for Accurately Capturing the Experimental Vibration Response of ECM Assembly on a Commercial Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0467
This paper presents an experimental setup and an equivalent FEM simulation methodology to accurately predict the response of Engine Control Module (ECM) assembly mounted on a commercial vehicle subjected to road vibrations. Comprehensive vibration study is carried out. It involved Modal characteristics determination followed by random vibration characterization of the ECM assembly. A hammer impact experiment is first performed in lab to estimate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of ECM assembly. Mounting conditions in test specimen are kept similar to the actual mounting settings on vehicle. Natural frequencies and mode shapes predicted from free vibration experiment are compared with finite element (FE) based modal analysis. The importance of capturing the assembly stiffness more accurately by incorporating pre-stress effects like bolt-pretension and gravity, is emphasized.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Deactivation for Increased Engine Efficiency and Aftertreatment Thermal Management in Diesel Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0384
Diesel engine cylinder deactivation (CDA) can be used to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the global freight transportation system. Heavy duty trucks require complex exhaust aftertreatment (A/T) in order to meet stringent emission regulations. Efficient reduction of engine-out emissions require a certain A/T system temperature range, which is achieved by thermal management via control of engine exhaust flow and temperature. Fuel efficient thermal management is a significant challenge, particularly during cold start, extended idle, urban driving, and vehicle operation in cold ambient conditions. CDA results in airflow reductions at low loads. Airflow reductions generally result in higher exhaust gas temperatures and lower exhaust flow rates, which are beneficial for maintaining already elevated component temperatures. Airflow reductions also reduce pumping work, which improves fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Kinetic Modeling of Degreened and Aged Three-way Catalysts: Aging Impact on Oxygen Storage Capacity and Catalyst Performance

2018-04-03
2018-01-0950
The aging impact on oxygen storage capacity (OSC) and catalyst performance was investigated on one degreened and one aged (hydrothermally aged at 955 °C for 50 h) commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) by experiments and modeling. The difference of OSC between the degreened and aged TWCs was dependent on catalyst temperature. The largest difference was found at 600 °C, at which the amount of OSC decreased by 45.5%. Catalyst performance was evaluated through lightoff tests at two simulated engine exhaust conditions (lean and rich) on a micro-reactor. The aging impact on the catalyst performance was different under lean and rich environments and investigated separately. At the lean condition, oxidation of CO and C3H6 was significantly suppressed while oxidation of C3H8 was relatively less degraded. At the rich condition, the inhibition effect was more pronounced on the aged TWC and inhibiting hydrocarbon species from C3H6 partial oxidation can survive at temperatures up to 450 °C.
Technical Paper

Dilute Measurement of Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2393
Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) are a group of compounds in engine exhaust that either form during combustion or are part of the fuel and lubricating oil. Since these compounds occur at very low concentrations in diesel engine exhaust, the methods for sampling, handling, and analyzing these compounds are critical to obtaining good results. An improved dilute exhaust sampling method was used for sampling and analyzing SVOC in engine exhaust, and this method was performed during transient engine operation. A total of 22 different SVOC were measured using a 2012 medium-duty diesel engine. This engine was equipped with a stock diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a diesel particulate filter (DPF), and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in series. Exhaust concentrations for SVOC were compared both with and without exhaust aftertreatment. Concentrations for the engine-out SVOC were significantly higher than with the aftertreatment present.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engines Gear Whine: Production Plant Perspective

2017-06-05
2017-01-1809
Engine noise is one of the significant aspects of product quality for light and medium duty diesel engine market applications. Gear whine is one of those noise issues, which is considered objectionable and impacts the customer’s perception of the product quality. Gear whine could result due to defects in the gear manufacturing process and/or due to inaccurate design of the gear macro and micro geometry. The focus of this technical paper is to discuss gear whine considerations from the production plant perspective. This includes quick overview of the measurement process, test cell environment, noise acceptance criteria considerations. A gear whine case study is presented based on the data collected in the test cell at the engine plant. Gear whine data acquired on current product and next generation of prototype engines is analyzed and presented. This paper concludes by highlighting the lessons learned from the case study.
Technical Paper

Axial NO2 Utilization Measurements within a Partial Flow Filter during Passive Regeneration

2017-03-28
2017-01-0988
Measuring axial exhaust species concentration distributions within a wall-flow aftertreatment device provides unique and significant insights regarding the performance of complex devices like the SCR-on-filter. In this particular study, a less complex aftertreatment configuration which includes a DOC followed by two uncoated partial flow filters (PFF) was used to demonstrate the potential and challenges. The PFF design in this study was a particulate filter with alternating open and plugged channels. A SpaciMS [1] instrument was used to measure the axial NO2 profiles within adjacent open and plugged channels of each filter element during an extended passive regeneration event using a full-scale engine and catalyst system. By estimating the mass flow through the open and plugged channels, the axial soot load profile history could be assessed.
Technical Paper

Development of a Kinetic Model to Evaluate Water Storage on Commercial Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalysts during Cold Start

2017-03-28
2017-01-0968
Commercial Cu-Zeolite SCR catalyst can store and subsequently release significant amount of H2O. The process is accompanied by large heat effects. It is critical to model this phenomenon to design aftertreatment systems and to provide robust tuning strategies to meet cold start emissions and low temperature operation. The complex reaction mechanism of water adsorption and desorption over a Cu-exchanged SAPO-34 catalyst at low temperature was studied through steady state and transient experiments. Steady state isotherms were generated using a gravimetric method and then utilized to predict water storage interactions with respect to feed concentration and catalyst temperature. Transient temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments provided the kinetic information required to develop a global kinetic model from the experimental data. The model captures fundamental characteristics of water adsorption and desorption accompanied by the heat effects.
Technical Paper

Lean Breakthrough Phenomena Analysis for TWC OBD on a Natural Gas Engine using a Dual-Site Dynamic Oxygen Storage Capacity Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0962
Oxygen storage capacity (OSC) is one of the most critical characteristics of a three-way catalyst (TWC) and is closely related to the catalyst aging and performance. In this study, a dynamic OSC model involving two oxygen storage sites with distinct kinetics was developed. The dual-site OSC model was validated on a bench reactor and a natural gas engine. The model was capable of predicting temperature dependence on OSC with H2, CO and CH4 as reductants. Also, the effects of oxygen concentration and space velocity on the amount of OSC were captured by the model. The validated OSC model was applied to simulate lean breakthrough phenomena with varied space velocities and oxygen concentrations. It is found that OSC during lean breakthrough is not a constant for a particular TWC catalyst and is dependent on space velocity and oxygen concentration. Specifically, breakthrough time exhibits a non-linear, inverse correlation to oxygen flux.
Journal Article

Effect of Transition Metal Ion Properties on the Catalytic Functions and Sulfation Behavior of Zeolite-Based SCR Catalysts

2017-03-28
2017-01-0939
Copper- and Iron- based metal-zeolite SCR catalysts are widely used in US and European diesel aftertreatment systems to achieve drastic reduction in NOx emission. These catalysts are highly selective to N2 under wide range of operating conditions. Nevertheless, the type of transition metal has a significant impact on the key performance and durability parameters such as NOx conversion, selectivity towards N2O, hydrothermal stability, and sensitivity to fuel sulfur content. In this study, we explained the differences in the performance characteristics of these catalysts based on their relative acidic-basic nature of transition metal present in these catalysts using practically relevant gas species present in diesel exhaust such as NO2, SOx, and NH3. These experiments show that Fe-zeolite has relatively acidic nature as compared to Cu-zeolite that causes NH3 inhibition and hence explains low NOx conversion on Fe-zeolite at low temperature under standard SCR conditions.
Journal Article

Extension of Analytical Methods for Detailed Characterization of Advanced Combustion Engine Emissions

2016-10-17
2016-01-2330
Advanced combustion strategies used to improve efficiency, emissions, and performance in internal combustion engines (IC) alter the chemical composition of engine-out emissions. The characterization of exhaust chemistry from advanced IC engines requires an analytical system capable of measuring a wide range of compounds. For many years, the widely accepted Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Auto/Oil procedure[1,2] has been used to quantify hydrocarbon compounds between C1 and C12 from dilute engine exhaust in Tedlar polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) bags. Hydrocarbons greater than C12+ present the greatest challenge for identification in diesel exhaust. Above C12, PVF bags risk losing the higher molecular weight compounds due to adsorption to the walls of the bag or by condensation of the heavier compounds. This paper describes two specialized exhaust gas sampling and analytical systems capable of analyzing the mid-range (C10 - C24) and the high range (C24+) hydrocarbon in exhaust.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of a Novel, Off Road, Diesel Combustion Concept

2016-04-05
2016-01-0728
There are numerous off-road diesel engine applications. In some applications there is more focus on metrics such as initial cost, packaging and transient response and less emphasis on fuel economy. In this paper a combustion concept is presented that may be well suited to these applications. The novel combustion concept operates in two distinct operation modes: lean operation at light engine loads and stoichiometric operation at intermediate and high engine loads. One advantage to the two mode approach is the ability to simplify the aftertreatment and reduce cost. The simplified aftertreatment system utilizes a non-catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a relatively small lean NOx trap (LNT). Under stoichiometric operation the LNT has the ability to act as a three way catalyst (TWC) for excellent control of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx).
Technical Paper

Automotive Selective Catalytic Reduction System Model-Based Estimators for On-ECU Implementation: A Brief Overview

2016-04-05
2016-01-0972
The amount of ammonia stored on the walls of the catalyst (or ammonia storage) is a parameter with significant impact on NOx reduction efficiency and undesired ammonia slip of Selective Catalytic Reduction catalysts. This makes the ammonia storage interesting for utilization in urea injection control. However, ammonia storage is not directly measurable onboard vehicles, it can only be estimated. Model-based online estimation requires models that are capable of capturing the main phenomena of the SCR and at the same time can be computed onboard vehicle. While the modeling of SCR and model-based control is well present in the literature, it is apparent that few attempts of implementing the models on production ECUs were published. This paper reviews literature on ammonia storage, outlet NH3 and NOx concentration estimation in SCR and SCR/DPF systems-including the estimation of NOx sensor cross-sensitive to NH3-in order to present the state of the art.
Journal Article

Analytic Solution for the Flow Distribution and Pressure Drop of Ceramic Partially-Plugged Wall Flow Diesel Particulate Filters

2015-04-14
2015-01-1056
A 1-dimensional analytic solution has been developed to evaluate the pressure drop and filtration performance of ceramic wall-flow partial diesel particulate filters (PFs). An axially resolved mathematical model for the static pressure and velocity profiles prevailing inside wall-flow filters, with such unique plugging configurations, is being proposed for the first time. So far, the PF models that have been developed are either iterative/numerical in nature [1], or based on commercial CFD packages [7]. In comparison, an analytic solution approach is a transparent and computationally inexpensive tool that is capable of accurately predicting trends as well as, offering explanations to fundamental performance behavior. The simple mathematical expressions that have been obtained facilitate rational decision-making when designing partial filters, and could also reduce the complexity of OBD logic necessary to control onboard filter performance.
Journal Article

Solid Particle Emissions from Vehicle Exhaust during Engine Start-Up

2015-04-14
2015-01-1077
Human exposure to vehicle exhaust during engine start-up can be encountered on a daily basis in parking lots, home garages, and vehicle stop/star traffic environment. This work is the first pilot study to characterize solid particle number and size distribution during engine start-up using various light-duty vehicles with different technology engines. A total of 84 vehicles were tested in this pilot study, consisting of post-2007 diesel engines equipped with high efficiency diesel particulate filters (DPFs) as well as modern gasoline port fuel injected (PFI) and gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines equipped with three-way-catalysts (TWCs). Particle concentration from DPF equipped diesel engines were found to be the lowest, while GDI and 8-cylinder PFI engines had the highest particle emissions.
Journal Article

Test Protocols for Motorcoach Fire Safety

2015-04-14
2015-01-1381
The Department of Transportation (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) awarded a contract to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to conduct research and testing in the interest of motorcoach fire safety. The goal of this program was to develop and validate procedures and metrics to evaluate current and future detection, suppression, and exterior fire-hardening technologies that prevent or delay fire penetration into the passenger compartment of a motorcoach - in order to increase passenger evacuation time. The program was initiated with a literature review and characterization of the thermal environment of motorcoach fires and survey of engine compartments, firewalls, and wheel wells of motorcoaches currently in North American service. These characterizations assisted in the development of test methods and identification of the metrics for analysis. Test fixtures were designed and fabricated to simulate a representative engine compartment and wheel well.
Technical Paper

Development and Demonstration of a Soot Generator Integrated Bench Reactor

2014-04-01
2014-01-1589
Experimental evaluation of soot trapping and oxidation behaviors of various diesel particulate filters (DPF) has been traditionally hampered by several experimental difficulties, such as the deposition of soot particles with well-characterized and consistent properties, and the tracking of the soot oxidation rate in real time. In the present study, an integrated bench flow-reactor system with a soot generator has been developed and its capabilities were demonstrated with regards to: Consistently and controllably loading soot on DPF samples; Monitoring the exhaust gas composition by FTIR, including quantification of the soot oxidation rate using CO and CO2; Measuring soot oxidation characteristics of various DPF samples. Soot particles were produced from a laminar propane co-flow diffusion flame.
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