Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Pressure Drop during Water Condensation inside Charge Air Coolers

2021-04-06
2021-01-0202
This paper investigates the pressure drop with and without condensation inside a charge air cooler. The background to this investigation is the fact that the stored condensate in charge air coolers can be torn into the combustion chamber during different driving states. This may result in misfiring or in the worst-case lead to an engine failure. In order to prevent or reduce the accumulated condensate inside charge air coolers, a better understanding of the detailed physics of this process is required. To this end, one single channel of the charge air side is investigated in detail by using an experimental setup that was built to reproduce the operating conditions leading to condensation. First, measurements of the pressure drop without condensation are conducted and a good agreement with experimental data of a comparable heat exchanger reported in Kays and London [1] is shown.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Method for the Calculation of Water Condensation inside Charge Air Coolers

2021-04-06
2021-01-0226
The automotive industry uses supercharging in combination with various EGR strategies to meet the increasing demand for Diesel engines with high efficiency and low engine emissions. The charge air is heated by the EGR and the compression in the turbocharger to such an extent that high NOx emissions and a reduction in engine performance occurs. For this reason, the charge air cooler cools down the charge air before it enters the air intake manifold. In case of low pressure EGR, the charge air possesses a high moisture content and under certain operating conditions an accumulation of condensate takes place within the charge air cooler. During demanding engine loads, the condensate is entrained from the charge air cooler into the combustion chamber, resulting in misfiring or severe engine damage.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Tonal Noise at Automotive Side Mirrors due to Aeroacoustic Feedback

2020-09-30
2020-01-1514
This paper describes the possibility to resolve aeroacoustic feedback with a commercial 2nd/3rd order finite volume CFD code [1]. After a first comparison to a NACA 0012 test case, tonal noise components of a realistic automotive side view mirror are validated with in-house wind tunnel measurements. A zonal RANS/LES approach is used to ensure a realistic flow around the exterior side mirror mounted on a Mercedes-Benz passenger car. The provided compressible large eddy simulations are using non-reflecting boundary conditions in combination with a sponge zone approach to reduce hydrodynamic fluctuations and are in great accordance to measurements. The possibility of localizing and investigating the underlying feedback mechanism enables the chance for a targeted design of different appropriate remedies, which are finally confirmed by means of experimental comparison.
Journal Article

Optimization of an Asymmetric Twin Scroll Volute Turbine under Pulsating Engine Boundary Conditions

2020-04-14
2020-01-0914
Future CO2 emission legislation requires the internal combustion engine to become more efficient than ever. Of great importance is the boosting system enabling down-sizing and down-speeding. However, the thermodynamic coupling of a reciprocating internal combustion engine and a turbocharger poses a great challenge to the turbine as pulsating admission conditions are imposed onto the turbocharger turbine. This paper presents a novel approach to a turbocharger turbine development process and outlines this process using the example of an asymmetric twin scroll turbocharger applied to a heavy duty truck engine application. In a first step, relevant operating points are defined taking into account fuel consumption on reference routes for the target application. These operation points are transferred into transient boundary conditions imposed on the turbine.
Technical Paper

Thermal Behavior of an Electronics Compartment with Respect to Real Driving Conditions

2020-04-14
2020-01-1299
The reliability of electronic components is of increasing importance for further progress towards automated driving. Thermal aging processes such as electromigration is one factor that can negatively affect the reliability of electronics. The resulting failures depend on the thermal load of the components within the vehicle lifetime - called temperature collective - which is described by the temperature frequency distribution of the components. At present, endurance testing data are used to examine the temperature collective for electronic components in the late development stage. The use of numerical simulation tools within Vehicle Thermal Management (VTM) enables lifetime thermal prediction in the early development stage, but also represents challenges for the current VTM processes [1, 2]. Due to the changing focus from the underhood to numerous electronic compartments in vehicles, the number of simulation models has steadily increased.
Technical Paper

Performance Improvement of an Asymmetric Twin Scroll Turbocharger Turbine through Secondary Flow Injection

2020-04-14
2020-01-1011
A powerful and efficient turbocharger turbine benefits the engine in many aspects, such as better transient response, lower NOx emissions and better fuel economy. The turbine performance can be further improved by employing secondary flow injection through an injector over the shroud section. A secondary flow injection system can be integrated with a conventional turbine without affecting its original design parameters, including the rotor, volute, and back disk. In this study, a secondary flow injection system has been developed to fit for an asymmetric twin-scroll turbocharger turbine, which was designed for a 6-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine, aiming at improving the vehicle’s performance at 1100 rpm under full-loading conditions. The shape of the flow injector is similar to a single-entry volute but can produce the flow angle in both circumferential and meridional directions when the flow leaves the injector and enters the shroud cavity.
Technical Paper

Imaging and Simulation of Oil Transport Phenomena in the Upper Piston Skirt Region

2019-12-19
2019-01-2359
The oil transport phenomena in the chamfer beneath the oil control ring of a piston in a motored engine were investigated with a combined experimental-numerical approach. High-speed laser-induced fluorescence was used to visualize the oil distribution crank-angle-resolved on both thrust side and anti-thrust side of an optically accessible single cylinder engine. Corresponding three-dimensional volume-of-fluid CFD simulations were calibrated with the experiment and then utilized to analyze the cross sectional flows in the chamfer. Phenomena triggered by inertial forces and the lateral piston motion, e.g. oil transport from the piston to the liner (bridging) and the formation of a circular flow in the chamfer, are described in detail.
Technical Paper

Possibilities of Wall Heat Transfer Measurements at a Supercharged Euro VI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with High EGR-Rates, an In-Cylinder Peak Pressure of 250 Bar and an Injection Pressure up to 2500 Bar

2019-09-09
2019-24-0171
A raise of efficiency is the strongest selling point concerning the total cost of ownership (TCO), especially for commercial vehicles (CV). Accompanied by legislations, with contradictive development demands, satisfying solutions have to be found. The analysis of energy losses in modern engines shows three influencing parameters. Wall heat transfer (WHT) losses are awarded with the highest optimization potential. Critical for the occurrence of these losses is the WHT, which can be described by representing coefficients. To reduce WHT accompanying losses a decrease of energy transfer between combustion gas and combustion chamber wall is necessary. A measurement of heat fluxes is necessary to determine the WHT relations of the combustion chamber in an engine. As this has not been done for a Heavy-Duty (HD) engine, with peak pressures up to 250 bar, an increased in-cylinder turbulence and high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)-rates before, it is presented in the following.
Technical Paper

Development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel Standard

2019-04-02
2019-01-0264
The TOP TIERTM Diesel fuel standard was first established in 2017 to promote better fuel quality in marketplace to address the needs of diesel engines. It provides an automotive recommended fuel specification to be used in tandem with regional diesel fuel specifications or regulations. This fuel standard was developed by TOP TIERTM Diesel Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) sponsors made up of representatives of diesel auto and engine manufacturers. This performance specification developed after two years of discussions with various stakeholders such as individual OEMs, members of Truck and Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA), fuel additive companies, as well as fuel producers and marketers. This paper reviews the major aspects of the development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel program including implementation and market adoption challenges.
Technical Paper

How to Model Real-World Driving Behavior? Probability-Based Driver Model for Energy Analyses

2019-04-02
2019-01-0511
A wide variety of applications such as driver assistant and energy management systems are researched and developed in virtual test environments. The safe testing of the applications in early stages is based on parameterizable and reproducible simulations of different driving scenarios. One possibility is modeling the microscopic driving behavior to simulate the longitudinal vehicle dynamics of individual vehicles. The currently used driver models are characterized by a conflict regarding comprehensibility, accuracy and calibration effort. Due to the importance for further analyses this conflict of interests is addressed by the presentation of a new microscopic driver model in this paper. The proposed driver model stores measured driving behaviors with its statistical distributions in maps. Thereby, the driving task is divided into free flow, braking in front of stops and following vehicles ahead. This makes it possible to display the driving behavior in its entirety.
Technical Paper

Daimler Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel: 5 Years of Operational Experience and Recent Improvements

2018-09-24
2018-01-5038
Since 2013 the new Daimler Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel (AAWT) is in operation at the Mercedes-Benz Technology Center in Sindelfingen, Germany. This construction was the second stage of a wind tunnel center project, which was launched in 2007 and started with the climatic wind tunnels including workshop and office areas. The AAWT features a test facility for full-scale cars and vans with a nozzle exit area of 28 m2, a five-belt system, and underfloor balance to measure forces with best possible road simulation. With a remarkable low background noise level of the wind tunnel, vehicle acoustics can be investigated under excellent conditions using high-performance measurement systems. An overview is given about the building and the design features of the wind tunnel layout. The aerodynamic and aeroacoustic properties are summarized. During the first years of operation, further improvements regarding the wind tunnel background noise and vehicle handling were made.
Technical Paper

Reduced Model of a Vehicle Cabin for Transient Thermal Simulation

2018-05-30
2018-37-0022
In the proposed work the transient thermal modeling of a vehicle cabin has been performed. Therefore, a reduced model has been developed based on a one-node discretization of the cabin air. The conduction in the solid parts is accounted for by a one-dimensional heat transfer approach, the radiation exchange between the surfaces is based on view factors adopted from a 3D reference and the convective heat transfer from the cabin surfaces to the cabin air is conducted with the help of heat transfer coefficients calculated in a 3D reference simulation. The cabin surface is discretized by planar wall elements, including the outer shell of the cabin and inner elements such as seats. Each wall element is composed of several homogeneous material layers with individual thicknesses. Investigations have been conducted on the temporal and spatial resolution of the layer structure of these wall elements, for the 3D model as well as for the reduced one.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Disc Deflection Behavior of Shim Valves in Vehicle Shock Absorbers

2018-04-03
2018-01-0701
Todays tuning of hydraulic vehicle shock absorbers is mainly an empirical iterative process performed in time-consuming and expensive ride tests, whereas the majority of damper simulation models used for investigating vehicle ride behavior is based on an abstract parameterization. For the manufacturing of automotive dampers, however, the valve code is essential. Minor changes in the valve code describing the shim stack in the hydraulic valves may have a noticeable impact on the damper characteristics, while the physical effects are still not sufficiently understood. Therefore, the paper presents a detailed physics-based structural model to investigate the pressure-deflection behavior of shim stacks and the influence of specific discs in the stack. The model includes a variety of effects like friction and preload, and is capable to predict the damper characteristics.
Technical Paper

Development of a LIF-Imaging System for Simultaneous High-Speed Visualization of Liquid Fuel and Oil Films in an Optically Accessible DISI Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0634
Downsizing and direct injection in modern DISI engines can lead to fuel impinging on the cylinder walls. The interaction of liquid fuel and engine oil due to fuel impinging on the cylinder wall causes problems in both lubrication and combustion. To analyze this issue with temporal and spatial resolution, we developed a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system for simultaneous kHz-rate imaging of fuel and oil films on the cylinder wall. Engine oil was doped with traces of the laser dye pyrromethene 567, which fluoresces red after excitation by 532 nm laser radiation. Simultaneously, the liquid fuel was visualized by UV fluorescence of an aromatic “tracer” in a non-fluorescent surrogate fuel excited at 266 nm. Two combinations of fuel and tracer were investigated, iso-octane and toluene as well as a multi-component surrogate and anisole. The fluorescence from oil and fuel was spectrally separated and detected by two cameras.
Technical Paper

Steady-State Experimental and Meanline Study of an Asymmetric Twin-Scroll Turbine at Full and Unequal and Partial Admission Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0971
The use of twin-scroll turbocharger turbines has gained popularity in recent years. The main reason is its capability of isolating and preserving pulsating exhaust flow from engine cylinders of adjacent firing order, hence enabling more efficient pulse turbocharging. Asymmetrical twin-scroll turbines have been used to realize high pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) using only one scroll while designing the other scroll for optimal scavenging. This research is based on a production asymmetrical turbocharger turbine designed for a heavy duty truck engine of Daimler AG. Even though there are number of studies on symmetrical twin entry scroll performance, a comprehensive modeling tool for asymmetrical twin-scroll turbines is yet to be found. This is particularly true for a meanline model, which is often used during the turbine preliminary design stage.
Technical Paper

Wall Heat Transfer in a Multi-Link Extended Expansion SI-Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0016
The real cycle simulation is an important tool to predict the engine efficiency. To evaluate Extended Expansion SI-engines with a multi-link cranktrain, the challenge is to consider all concept specific effects as best as possible by using appropriate submodels. Due to the multi-link cranktrain, the choice of a suitable heat transfer model is of great importance since the cranktrain kinematics is changed. Therefore, the usage of the mean piston speed to calculate a heat-transfer-related velocity for heat transfer equations is not sufficient. The heat transfer equation according to Bargende combines for its calculation the actual piston speed with a simplified k-ε model. In this paper it is assessed, whether the Bargende model is valid for Extended Expansion engines. Therefore a single-cylinder engine is equipped with fast-response surface-thermocouples in the cylinder head. The surface heat flux is calculated by solving the unsteady heat conduction equation.
Technical Paper

Implementation of an Open-Loop Controller to Design the Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics in Passenger Cars

2017-03-28
2017-01-1107
In order to offer a wide range of driving experiences to their customers, original equipment manufacturers implement different driving programs. The driver is capable of manually switching between these programs which alter drivability parameters in the engine control unit. As a result, acceleration forces and gradients are modified, changing the perceived driving experience. Nowadays, drivability is calibrated iteratively through road testing. Hence, the resulting set of parameters incorporated within the engine control unit is strongly dependent on the individual sentiments and decisions of the test engineers. It is shown, that implementing a set of objective criteria offers a way to reduce the influences of personal preferences and sentiments in the drivability calibration process. In combination with the expertise of the test engineers, the desired vehicle behavior can be formalized into a transient set point sequence to give final shape to the acceleration behavior.
Journal Article

Use of an Eulerian/Lagrangian Framework to Improve the Air Intake System of an Automobile with Respect to Snow Ingress

2017-03-28
2017-01-1319
A simulation approach to predict the amount of snow which is penetrating into the air filter of the vehicle’s engine is important for the automotive industry. The objective of our work was to predict the snow ingress based on an Eulerian/Lagrangian approach within a commercial CFD-software and to compare the simulation results to measurements in order to confirm our simulation approach. An additional objective was to use the simulation approach to improve the air intake system of an automobile. The measurements were performed on two test sites. On the one hand we made measurements on a natural test area in Sweden to reproduce real driving scenarios and thereby confirm our simulation approach. On the other hand the simulation results of the improved air intake system were compared to measurements, which were carried out in a climatic wind tunnel in Stuttgart.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Predicting Component Temperature Collectives for Vehicle Thermal Management

2017-03-28
2017-01-0134
There is a growing need for life-cycle data – so-called collectives – when developing components like elastomer engine mounts. Current standardized extreme load cases are not sufficient for establishing such collectives. Supplementing the use of endurance testing data, a prediction methodology for component temperature collectives utilizing existing 3D CFD simulation models is presented. The method uses support points to approximate the full collective. Each support point is defined by a component temperature and a position on the time axis of the collective. Since it is the only currently available source for component temperature data, endurance testing data is used to develop the new method. The component temperature range in this data set is divided in temperature bands. Groups of driving states are determined which are each representative of an individual band. Each of the resulting four driving state spaces is condensed into a substitute load case.
Journal Article

Generation of Replacement Vehicle Speed Cycles Based on Extensive Customer Data by Means of Markov Models and Threshold Accepting

2017-01-10
2017-26-0256
The reduction of fuel consumption as well as the rising demands of customers regarding a vehicle’s driving dynamic and the legislator’s continually rising demands are a current issue in vehicle development. Hybrid vehicles offer a possibility to rise to this challenge. Realistic driving cycles are of utmost importance for the calibration of a hybrid vehicle’s operational strategy. Deriving replacement speed cycles from extensive customer data sets seems to be an approach for solving these problems. The contribution at hand describes the derivation of replacement cycles by using stochastic models, probabilistic (weighted) drawings and a combinatorial optimisation. The novelty value is that the characteristic influences of all drivers are being considered in the generation due to the stochastic modelling.
X