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Technical Paper

A Simulation Method for the Calculation of Water Condensation inside Charge Air Coolers

2021-04-06
2021-01-0226
The automotive industry uses supercharging in combination with various EGR strategies to meet the increasing demand for Diesel engines with high efficiency and low engine emissions. The charge air is heated by the EGR and the compression in the turbocharger to such an extent that high NOx emissions and a reduction in engine performance occurs. For this reason, the charge air cooler cools down the charge air before it enters the air intake manifold. In case of low pressure EGR, the charge air possesses a high moisture content and under certain operating conditions an accumulation of condensate takes place within the charge air cooler. During demanding engine loads, the condensate is entrained from the charge air cooler into the combustion chamber, resulting in misfiring or severe engine damage.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of the Pressure Drop during Water Condensation inside Charge Air Coolers

2021-04-06
2021-01-0202
This paper investigates the pressure drop with and without condensation inside a charge air cooler. The background to this investigation is the fact that the stored condensate in charge air coolers can be torn into the combustion chamber during different driving states. This may result in misfiring or in the worst-case lead to an engine failure. In order to prevent or reduce the accumulated condensate inside charge air coolers, a better understanding of the detailed physics of this process is required. To this end, one single channel of the charge air side is investigated in detail by using an experimental setup that was built to reproduce the operating conditions leading to condensation. First, measurements of the pressure drop without condensation are conducted and a good agreement with experimental data of a comparable heat exchanger reported in Kays and London [1] is shown.
Journal Article

Optimization of an Asymmetric Twin Scroll Volute Turbine under Pulsating Engine Boundary Conditions

2020-04-14
2020-01-0914
Future CO2 emission legislation requires the internal combustion engine to become more efficient than ever. Of great importance is the boosting system enabling down-sizing and down-speeding. However, the thermodynamic coupling of a reciprocating internal combustion engine and a turbocharger poses a great challenge to the turbine as pulsating admission conditions are imposed onto the turbocharger turbine. This paper presents a novel approach to a turbocharger turbine development process and outlines this process using the example of an asymmetric twin scroll turbocharger applied to a heavy duty truck engine application. In a first step, relevant operating points are defined taking into account fuel consumption on reference routes for the target application. These operation points are transferred into transient boundary conditions imposed on the turbine.
Technical Paper

Performance Improvement of an Asymmetric Twin Scroll Turbocharger Turbine through Secondary Flow Injection

2020-04-14
2020-01-1011
A powerful and efficient turbocharger turbine benefits the engine in many aspects, such as better transient response, lower NOx emissions and better fuel economy. The turbine performance can be further improved by employing secondary flow injection through an injector over the shroud section. A secondary flow injection system can be integrated with a conventional turbine without affecting its original design parameters, including the rotor, volute, and back disk. In this study, a secondary flow injection system has been developed to fit for an asymmetric twin-scroll turbocharger turbine, which was designed for a 6-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine, aiming at improving the vehicle’s performance at 1100 rpm under full-loading conditions. The shape of the flow injector is similar to a single-entry volute but can produce the flow angle in both circumferential and meridional directions when the flow leaves the injector and enters the shroud cavity.
Technical Paper

Imaging and Simulation of Oil Transport Phenomena in the Upper Piston Skirt Region

2019-12-19
2019-01-2359
The oil transport phenomena in the chamfer beneath the oil control ring of a piston in a motored engine were investigated with a combined experimental-numerical approach. High-speed laser-induced fluorescence was used to visualize the oil distribution crank-angle-resolved on both thrust side and anti-thrust side of an optically accessible single cylinder engine. Corresponding three-dimensional volume-of-fluid CFD simulations were calibrated with the experiment and then utilized to analyze the cross sectional flows in the chamfer. Phenomena triggered by inertial forces and the lateral piston motion, e.g. oil transport from the piston to the liner (bridging) and the formation of a circular flow in the chamfer, are described in detail.
Technical Paper

Development of a LIF-Imaging System for Simultaneous High-Speed Visualization of Liquid Fuel and Oil Films in an Optically Accessible DISI Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0634
Downsizing and direct injection in modern DISI engines can lead to fuel impinging on the cylinder walls. The interaction of liquid fuel and engine oil due to fuel impinging on the cylinder wall causes problems in both lubrication and combustion. To analyze this issue with temporal and spatial resolution, we developed a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system for simultaneous kHz-rate imaging of fuel and oil films on the cylinder wall. Engine oil was doped with traces of the laser dye pyrromethene 567, which fluoresces red after excitation by 532 nm laser radiation. Simultaneously, the liquid fuel was visualized by UV fluorescence of an aromatic “tracer” in a non-fluorescent surrogate fuel excited at 266 nm. Two combinations of fuel and tracer were investigated, iso-octane and toluene as well as a multi-component surrogate and anisole. The fluorescence from oil and fuel was spectrally separated and detected by two cameras.
Technical Paper

Steady-State Experimental and Meanline Study of an Asymmetric Twin-Scroll Turbine at Full and Unequal and Partial Admission Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0971
The use of twin-scroll turbocharger turbines has gained popularity in recent years. The main reason is its capability of isolating and preserving pulsating exhaust flow from engine cylinders of adjacent firing order, hence enabling more efficient pulse turbocharging. Asymmetrical twin-scroll turbines have been used to realize high pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) using only one scroll while designing the other scroll for optimal scavenging. This research is based on a production asymmetrical turbocharger turbine designed for a heavy duty truck engine of Daimler AG. Even though there are number of studies on symmetrical twin entry scroll performance, a comprehensive modeling tool for asymmetrical twin-scroll turbines is yet to be found. This is particularly true for a meanline model, which is often used during the turbine preliminary design stage.
Technical Paper

Wall Heat Transfer in a Multi-Link Extended Expansion SI-Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0016
The real cycle simulation is an important tool to predict the engine efficiency. To evaluate Extended Expansion SI-engines with a multi-link cranktrain, the challenge is to consider all concept specific effects as best as possible by using appropriate submodels. Due to the multi-link cranktrain, the choice of a suitable heat transfer model is of great importance since the cranktrain kinematics is changed. Therefore, the usage of the mean piston speed to calculate a heat-transfer-related velocity for heat transfer equations is not sufficient. The heat transfer equation according to Bargende combines for its calculation the actual piston speed with a simplified k-ε model. In this paper it is assessed, whether the Bargende model is valid for Extended Expansion engines. Therefore a single-cylinder engine is equipped with fast-response surface-thermocouples in the cylinder head. The surface heat flux is calculated by solving the unsteady heat conduction equation.
Technical Paper

Implementation of an Open-Loop Controller to Design the Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics in Passenger Cars

2017-03-28
2017-01-1107
In order to offer a wide range of driving experiences to their customers, original equipment manufacturers implement different driving programs. The driver is capable of manually switching between these programs which alter drivability parameters in the engine control unit. As a result, acceleration forces and gradients are modified, changing the perceived driving experience. Nowadays, drivability is calibrated iteratively through road testing. Hence, the resulting set of parameters incorporated within the engine control unit is strongly dependent on the individual sentiments and decisions of the test engineers. It is shown, that implementing a set of objective criteria offers a way to reduce the influences of personal preferences and sentiments in the drivability calibration process. In combination with the expertise of the test engineers, the desired vehicle behavior can be formalized into a transient set point sequence to give final shape to the acceleration behavior.
Journal Article

Use of an Eulerian/Lagrangian Framework to Improve the Air Intake System of an Automobile with Respect to Snow Ingress

2017-03-28
2017-01-1319
A simulation approach to predict the amount of snow which is penetrating into the air filter of the vehicle’s engine is important for the automotive industry. The objective of our work was to predict the snow ingress based on an Eulerian/Lagrangian approach within a commercial CFD-software and to compare the simulation results to measurements in order to confirm our simulation approach. An additional objective was to use the simulation approach to improve the air intake system of an automobile. The measurements were performed on two test sites. On the one hand we made measurements on a natural test area in Sweden to reproduce real driving scenarios and thereby confirm our simulation approach. On the other hand the simulation results of the improved air intake system were compared to measurements, which were carried out in a climatic wind tunnel in Stuttgart.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Predicting Component Temperature Collectives for Vehicle Thermal Management

2017-03-28
2017-01-0134
There is a growing need for life-cycle data – so-called collectives – when developing components like elastomer engine mounts. Current standardized extreme load cases are not sufficient for establishing such collectives. Supplementing the use of endurance testing data, a prediction methodology for component temperature collectives utilizing existing 3D CFD simulation models is presented. The method uses support points to approximate the full collective. Each support point is defined by a component temperature and a position on the time axis of the collective. Since it is the only currently available source for component temperature data, endurance testing data is used to develop the new method. The component temperature range in this data set is divided in temperature bands. Groups of driving states are determined which are each representative of an individual band. Each of the resulting four driving state spaces is condensed into a substitute load case.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Wheel Forces and Moments and Their Influence to the Interior Noise

2016-06-15
2016-01-1834
This paper describes the prediction process of wheel forces and moments via indirect transfer path analysis, followed by an analysis of the influence of wheel variants and suspension modifications. It proposes a method to calculate transmission of noise to the vehicle interior where wheel forces and especially moments were taken into account. The calculation is based on an indirect transfer path analysis with geometrical modifications of the frequency response functions. To generate high quality broadband results, this paper also points out some of the main clearance cutting criteria. The method has been successfully implemented to show the influence of wheel tire combinations as well as the influence of suspension modifications. Case studies have been performed and will be presented in this paper. Operational noise and vibration measurements have been carried out on Daimler NVH test tracks. The frequency response functions were estimated in an acoustic laboratory.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Opportunities of Numerically Simulating the Idle Load Case for Vehicle Thermal Management

2015-04-14
2015-01-0340
Collective life-cycle data is needed when developing components like elastomer suspension mounts. Life-time prediction is only possible using thermal load frequency distributions. In addition to current extreme load cases, the Idle Load Case is examined at Mercedes-Benz Car Group as a collective load case for Vehicle Thermal Management (VTM) numerical simulations in early development stages. It combines validation opportunities for HVAC, cooling and transmission requirements in hot-country-type ambient conditions. Experiments in climatic wind tunnels and coupled 3D CFD and heat transfer simulations of the Idle Load Case have been performed. Measurements show steady conditions at the end of the load case. Decoupling of the torque converter, changes in ambient temperature and the technical implementation of a wind barrier for still air conditions exhibit influence on component-level results. Solar load, however, does not significantly change the examined component temperatures.
Journal Article

Optical Investigations of the Ignition-Relevant Spray Characteristics from a Piezo-Injector for Spray-Guided Spark-Ignited Engines

2015-01-01
2014-01-9053
The spray-guided combustion process offers a high potential for fuel savings in gasoline engines in the part load range. In this connection, the injector and spark plug are arranged in close proximity to one another, as a result of which mixture formation is primarily shaped by the dynamics of the fuel spray. The mixture formation time is very short, so that at the time of ignition the velocity of flow is high and the fuel is still largely present in liquid form. The quality of mixture formation thus constitutes a key aspect of reliable ignition. In this article, the spray characteristics of an outward-opening piezo injector are examined using optical testing methods under pressure chamber conditions and the results obtained are correlated with ignition behaviour in-engine. The global spray formation is examined using high-speed visualisation methods, particularly with regard to cyclical fluctuations.
Technical Paper

Approach for Parameter Determination for Objective Comfort Evaluation of the Vehicle Vibration Induced by Powertrain

2014-06-30
2014-01-2065
The driving comfort influences the customer purchase decision; hence it is an important aspect for the vehicle development. To better quantify the comfort level and reduce the experiment costs in the development process, the subjective comfort assessment by test drivers is nowadays more and more replaced by the objective comfort evaluation. Hereby the vibration comfort is described by scalar objective characteristic parameters that correlate with the subjective assessments. The correlation analysis requires the assessments and measurements at different vehicle vibration. To determine the objective parameters regarding the powertrain excitations, most experiments in the previous studies were carried out in several test vehicles with different powertrain units.
Technical Paper

NVH-Development of Electric Powertrains - CAE-Methods and NVH-Criteria

2014-06-30
2014-01-2072
Electric cars are getting popular more and more and the expectations of the customers are very challenging. Concerning comfort, the situation is clear: customers want an electric car to be quiet and without any annoying noise from the powertrain. To develop an electric powertrain with a minimum noise level and minimized whining it is necessary to have an accurate CAE-simulation and precise criteria to assess whining noise. Based on the experience with electric powertrains in research cars the CAE-modelling was improved and a new ‘whining intensity factor’ was acquired for the development of Daimler's electric cars. The results are a very low noise level and a minimized whining noise, nearly not noticeable giving a comfortable sound to the customers of the smart electric drive and the B-Class Electric Drive.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Automotive HVAC System with the Use of Liquid Cooled Condenser

2014-04-01
2014-01-0681
Air-cooled fin and tube heat exchangers are used as a condenser in the conventional automotive Heating Ventilation & Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems. In this study, the use of liquid cooled plate heat exchanger as a condenser in the automotive HVAC systems has been investigated. In the proposed configuration, the cabin heat absorbed by the refrigerant in HVAC system is rejected to the coolant through a liquid cooled condenser and then to the ambient air through a low temperature radiator. Hence, the proposed configuration combines heat rejection from HVAC system with a low temperature radiator circuit of power train cooling. Mixture of Ethylene glycol & Water (coolant), which is used in power train cooling system, is used as secondary fluid in the condenser.
Technical Paper

Stoichiometric Natural Gas Combustion in a Single Cylinder SI Engine and Impact of Charge Dilution by Means of EGR

2013-09-08
2013-24-0113
In this paper experimental results of a medium duty single cylinder research engine with spark ignition are presented. The engine was operated with stoichiometric natural gas combustion and additional charge dilution by means of external and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The first part of this work considers the benefits of cooled EGR on thermo-mechanical stress of the engine including exhaust gas temperature, cylinder head temperature, and knock behaviour. This is followed by the analysis of the influence of cooled EGR on the heat release rate. In this context the impact of fuel gas composition is also under investigation. The influence of increasing EGR on fuel efficiency, which is caused by a changed combustion process due to higher fractions of inert gases, is shown in this section. By application of different pistons a relationship between the piston bowl geometry and the flame propagation has been demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Sensors for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-0497
Since the last decade, alternative powertrains are playing an important role in the strategy of car manufacturers. One important goal is the introduction of zero emission powertrains. These powertrain systems raise increasing political and public interest with the hydrogen fuel cell engine being the most competitive powertrain technology. During the development of this new technology, all the functional aspects including the automotive vehicle safety need to be considered. Hydrogen sensors are installed in the system to optimize the performance of a hydrogen fuel cell system and to enhance the safety concept. New results of sensor optimization and innovative test and development methods based on real vehicle data are described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Transient Heat-Up of a Passenger Vehicle during a Trailer Towing Uphill Drive

2013-04-08
2013-01-0873
In the digital prototype development process of a new Mercedes-Benz, thermal protection is an important task that has to be fulfilled. In the early stages of development, numerical methods are used to detect thermal hotspots in order to protect temperature sensitive parts. These methods involve transient full Vehicle Thermal Management (VTM) simulations to predict dynamic vehicle heat-up during critical load cases. In order to simulate thermal control mechanisms, a coupled 1D to 3D thermal vehicle model is built in which the coolant and oil circuit of the engine, as well as the exhaust flow are captured in detail. When performing a transient 3D VTM analysis, the conduction and radiation phenomena are simulated using a transient structure model while the convective phenomena are co-simulated in a steady state fluid model. Both models are brought to interaction at predetermined points by an automatized coupling method.
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