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Technical Paper

Life Cycle Assessment of a Truck Component - Air Deflection System

1998-11-30
982173
In the past there has been a concentration on performing LCAs of car components. Based on the increasing experience and know-how gained in the past by performing LCAs of car components truck designers get the chance to make a statement about the ecological impact of each alternative. The most significant difference between LCAs of car and truck components is the use phase. This paper describes a Life-Cycle-Assessment (LCA) of different air deflection systems made of composite materials. The actually used system is produced by Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) while a possible alternative could be made out of Sheet Molding Compound (SMC). The calculations have shown that there exists a potential to improve the ecological profiles of composite components by replacing glass fibers with natural fibers.
Technical Paper

Brake-by-Wire Without Mechanical Backup by Using a TTP-Communication Network

1998-02-23
981109
By-wire systems have been established for several years in the area of aircraft constructions. There is the visible trend to realize by-wire applications without mechanical or hydraulic backup systems in vehicles. The required electronic systems must evidently be available and safe. This paper addresses a new automotive architecture approach using the time-triggered fault-tolerant TTP protocol that has been designed for class C safety related control applications, like brake-by-wire or steer-by-wire, due to the SAE classification [1]. As an example we present this approach within a brake-by-wire research car (case study) without mechanical backup. The intention of this architecture is to tolerate one arbitrary fault - excepting faults of actuators - without any effects of the brake performance. For this purpose we use redundancy in communication (TTP) and electric components like sensors, actuators and power supply.
Technical Paper

Innovative Methodology for Brake Torque and Residual Brake Torque Measurement

1998-02-23
980591
During the design, evaluation and optimization process of automotive brake systems brake torque measurements are often crucial. Known brake torque sensors lead to differences in terms of mass, inertia, stiffness and brake cooling compared to a vehicle without measurement equipment. In this contribution a new brake torque sensor is described which proved to be superior to known systems. Either the hub itself is turned into the sensing element or is replaced by a sensing element. Thus mass, inertia, stiffness and cooling conditions are nearly unchanged. A modification of this sensor allows measurement of residual brake torques in a low range (20....50 Nm) with high sensivity and features at the same time a high range (up to 2.000 Nm) with lower sensivity. The application of the sensor in a study to lower energy loss caused by residual brake friction in a passenger car is described.
Technical Paper

The Compatibility of Tractor/Trailer-Combinations During Braking Maneuvers

1997-11-17
973282
The active safety of tractor / trailer-combinations plays an important role in regard to traffic safety in general. For improving the active safety of tractor / trailer-combinations, it is necessary to investigate the interactions between the towing vehicle and the trailer during braking maneuvers. This paper describes the ECE-regulations for the braking force distributions of tractor/full trailer- and tractor / semitrailer-combinations. The influence of different layouts of the braking systems within these regulations on the coupling forces between tractor and trailer and the driving performance of the units during braking is investigated. The dynamical behaviour of a tractor/full-trailer-combination and a tractor / semitrailer-combination are both discussed with the aid of simulations of the ISO-standard testing procedures “Braking in a turn” and “Braking straight ahead”.
Technical Paper

VECTOR-A Vision Enhanced/Controlled Truck for Operational Research

1994-11-01
942284
The importance of autonomous vehicle operation to satisfy future safety and productivity requirements is emphasized by the current National plans for IVHS and AHS development and deployment. Daimler-Benz Research, in cooperation with Freightliner Corporation, is developing a research vehicle VECTOR (Vision Enhanced/Controlled Truck for Operational Research) which currently is undergoing testing of a vision-based control system for lateral guidance. This effort is building on experience from prior Daimler-Benz and PROMETHEUS projects, including the test vehicles VITA (VIsion Technology Application) and OSCAR (Optically Steered CAR). The paper describes this work and future expansion plans to incorporate longitudinal control systems in VECTOR.
Technical Paper

Mercedes-Benz 4MATIC, an Electronically Controlled Four-Wheel Drive System for Improved Active Safety

1986-10-01
861371
Daimler-Benz have developed an automatically/electronically controlled traction system, the 4MATIC. Great store has been set by active safety. This paper deals with the problems involved in 4-Wheel drive and analyzes the reasons which led to the 4MATIC concept. Depending on the conditions encountered, the drive components engage automatically one after the other in the sequence front-wheel drive - interaxle differential lock - rear axle differential lock. The engagement, and thus the approaching limits of driving dynamics, is indicated to the driver by an indicator lamp so that he can adjust to the deteriorated conditions in time. A further important advantage of this system is the automatic disengagement of the differential locks when braking so that the anti-lock braking remains fully effective.
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