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Technical Paper

Heavy Truck Frontal Crash Protection System Development

2007-10-30
2007-01-4289
Heavy trucks are produced with a great variety of vehicle configurations, operate over a wide range of gross vehicle weight and sometimes function in extreme duty environments. Frontal crashes of heavy trucks can pose a threat to truck occupants when the vehicle strikes another large object such as bridge works, large natural features or another heavy-duty vehicle. Investigations of heavy truck frontal crashes indicate that the factors listed above all affect the outcome for the driver and the resulting damage to the truck Recently, a new chassis was introduced for on-highway heavy truck models that feature frontal airbag occupant protection. This introduction presented an opportunity to incorporate the knowledge gained from crash investigation into the process for developing the crash sensor's parameter settings.
Technical Paper

3D-CFD Simulation of DI-Diesel Combustion Applying a Progress Variable Approach Accounting for Detailed Chemistry

2007-10-29
2007-01-4137
A chemical sub-model for realistic CFD simulations of Diesel engines is developed and demonstrated by application to some test cases. The model uses a newly developed progress variable approach to incorporate a realistic treatment of chemical reactions into the description of the reactive flow. The progress variable model is based on defining variables that represent the onset and temporal development of chemical reactions before and during self ignition, as well as the stage of the actual combustion. Fundamental aspects of the model, especially its physical motivation and finding a proper progress variable, are discussed, as well as issues of practical implementation. Sample calculations of Diesel-typical combustion scenarios are presented which are based on the progress-variable model, showing the capability of the model to realistically describe the ignition-and combustion phase.
Technical Paper

Validation of Eulerian Spray Concept coupled with CFD Combustion Analysis

2007-09-16
2007-24-0044
The main objective of engine 3D CFD simulation is nowadays the support for combustion design development. New combustion concepts (e.g. Low Temperature Combustion, HCCI, multiple injection strategies …) could be analyzed and predicted through detailed thermodynamical computation. To achieve this aim many simulation tools are needed: each of them has to be capable to reproduce the sensitivities of combustion design parameters through physically based models. The adopted approach consists of the coupling of different models for 3D-nozzle flow, orifice-resolved spray formation in Eulerian coordinates and combustion. The advantages of the method will be proofed on an operative DI-diesel truck engine case, run with different nozzle geometries.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Rotating Wheels on Vehicle Aerodynamics - Numerical and Experimental Investigations

2007-04-16
2007-01-0107
Investigations of the aerodynamic influence of rotating wheels on a simplified vehicle model as well as on a series production car are presented. For this research CFD simulations are used together with wind tunnel measurements like LDV and aerodynamic forces. Several wheel rim geometries are examined in stationary and in rotating condition. A good agreement could be achieved between CFD simulations and wind tunnel measurements. Based on the CFD analysis the major aerodynamic mechanisms at rotating wheels are characterized. The flow topology around the wheels in a wheel arch is revealed. It is shown, that the reduction of drag and lift caused by the wheel rotation on the isolated wheel and the wheel in the wheel arch are based on different effects of the airflow. Though the forces decrease at the front wheel due to the wheel rotation locally, the major change in drag and lift happens directly on the automotive body itself.
Technical Paper

Simulation Of NOx Storage and Reduction Catalyst: Model Development And Application

2007-04-16
2007-01-1117
To fulfill future emission standards for diesel engines, combined after-treatment systems consisting of different catalyst technologies and diesel particulate filters (DPF) are necessary. For designing and optimizing the resulting systems of considerable complexity, effective simulation models of different catalyst and DPF technologies have been developed and integrated into a common simulation environment called ExACT (Exhaust After-treatment Components Toolbox). This publication focuses on a model for the NOx storage and reduction catalyst as a part of that simulation environment. A heterogeneous, spatially one-dimensional (1D), physically and chemically based mathematical model of the catalytic monolith has been developed. A global reaction kinetic approach has been chosen to describe reaction conversions on the washcoat. Reaction kinetic parameters have been evaluated from a series of laboratory experiments.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of NO/NO2/NH3 Reactions on SCR-Catalytic Converters:Model Development and Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0468
A 1D+1D numerical model describing the ammonia based SCR process of NO and NO2 on vanadia-titania catalysts is presented. The model is able to simulate coated and extruded monoliths. Basing on a fundamental investigation of the catalytic processes a reaction mechanism for the NO/NO2 - NH3 reacting system is proposed and modeled. After the parameterization of the reaction mechanism the reaction kinetics have been coupled with models for heat and mass transport. Model validation has been performed with engine test bench experiments. Finally the model has been applied to study the influence of NO2 on SCR efficiency within ETC and ESC testcycles, Additional simulations have been conducted to identify the potential for catalyst volume reduction if NO2 is present in the inlet feed.
Technical Paper

Powernet Simulation as a Tool for the Development of a Highly Reliable Energy Supply for Safety Relevant Control Systems in X-By-Wire Vessels in the EU SPARC Project

2006-04-03
2006-01-0115
The EU SPARC Project (Secure Propelled Vehicle with Advanced Redundant Control) has developed a new system architecture that enables effective application of driver assisted systems in an X-by-wire powertrain. A major challenge in the conception of such a system is development of a reliable electrical energy supply. A simulation is the most important tool for enabling the fundamental aspects to work, as for example, a dimensioning of the powernet. This article explains our approach in this SPARC simulation. We provide suggestions through examples of how to find simulation solutions for powernet dimensioning, as well as for the conception and validation of energy management strategies.
Technical Paper

Optimization and Minimization of Boundary Mannequins

2005-06-14
2005-01-2736
Boundary mannequin is an important concept in digital human modeling and simulation, yet complicated to deal with and utilize. In theory, the number of boundary mannequins could be as much as (n!)2n for a single gender, where n is the number of critical anthropometric dimensions. It has been recommended [1] to break a complicated task into smaller tasks to reduce the scale of problem, and limit n=2 whenever possible. Even then, the number of boundary mannequins is still high for simulations. In this paper, the authors intend to further simplify the issue. An Excel worksheet is created for the purpose. The input can be as few as two points. An ellipse representing the boundary is automatically generated through regression analysis, and the extremes on the major and minor axes of the ellipse are then obtained, and taken as the optimal boundary mannequins.
Technical Paper

Vibro-acoustic FEA Modeling of Two Layer Trim Systems

2005-05-16
2005-01-2325
This paper investigates the potential of using FEA poro-elastic Biot elements for the modeling carpet-like trim systems in a simplified setup. A comparison between FEA computations and experiments is presented for two layer (mass-spring) trim systems placed on a test-rig consisting in a 510×354×1.6 mm flat steel plate clamped in a stiff frame excited at its base. Results are presented for a given heavy layer with two different poro-elastic materials: one foam and one fibrous material. The investigations included accelerometer measurements on the steel plate, laser-doppler vibrometer scans of the heavy layer surface, sound pressure measurements in free field at a distance of 1 meter above the plate, as well as sound pressure in a closed rectangular concrete-walled cavity (0.5×0.6×0.7 m) put on top of the test-rig. Computations were carried out using a commercial FEA software implementing the Biot theory for poro-elastic media.
Technical Paper

Underhood Temperature Analysis in Case of Natural Convection

2005-05-10
2005-01-2045
This paper describes a method to simulate underhood temperature distributions in passenger cars. A simplified engine compartment simulation test rig is used to perform measurements with well known boundary conditions to validate the simulation strategy. The measurement setup corresponds to idle without working fan. The aim of this setup is to validate cases with strong natural convection, e.g. thermal soaking. A coupled steady-state CFD run and thermal analysis is undertaken to simulate the temperature distribution in the test rig. Convective heat transfer coefficients and air temperatures are calculated in StarCD™. The radiative and conductive heat transfer is considered in a RadTherm™ analysis. The strong coupling of flow field and wall temperature in buoyancy driven flows requires an iterative process. Calculated temperatures are compared to measured results in order to validate the simulation method as far as possible. Some of the results are reported in this paper.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Ammonia SCR-Catalytic Converters: Model Development and Application

2005-04-11
2005-01-0965
A two-dimensional numerical model describing the ammonia based SCR-process on vanadia-titania catalysts is presented. The model is able to simulate coated and extruded monoliths. For the determination of the intrinsic kinetics of the various NH3-NOx reactions, unsteady microreactor experiments were used. In order to account for the influence of transport effects the kinetics were coupled with a fully transient two-phase 1D+1D monolith channel model. The model has been validated extensively with laboratory data and engine test bench measurements. After validation the model has been applied to calculate catalyst NOx conversion maps, which were used to define catalyst sizes. Additional simulations were conducted studying the influence of cell density and NH3-dosage ratio.
Technical Paper

Study of a Sintered Metal Diesel Particulate Trap

2005-04-11
2005-01-0968
This paper describes work supporting the development of a new Diesel particulate trap system for heavy duty vehicles based on porous sintered metal materials that exhibit interesting characteristics with respect to ash tolerance. Experimental data characterizing the material (permeability, soot and ash deposit properties) are obtained in a dedicated experimental setup in the side-stream of a modern Diesel engine as well as in an accelerated ash loading rig. System level simulations coupling the new media characteristics to 3-D CFD software for the optimization of complete filter systems are then performed and comparative assessment results of example designs are given.
Technical Paper

Automotive Gateway Design Using Evolutionary Algorithms

2005-04-11
2005-01-1696
Because of the rapidly increasing amount of electronic components and busses in a vehicle, the use of gateways in Electronic Control Units (ECUs) becomes more important. The upcoming question is how to design an optimal gateway. This paper describes a method for designing an optimal automotive gateway in an FPGA by using Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs). The complete gateway functionality is diagrammed in a specification graph which consists of a function graph and an architecture graph. The function graph describes the complete functionality of the gateway. The architecture graph shows the variety of the different implementation options of the mapped function graph. Each gateway task in the function graph can be realized either in a parallel way (different kinds of hardware implementations) or in a sequential way (software on a microprocessor core).
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Vehicle Refrigeration Cycle with Dymola/Modelica

2005-04-11
2005-01-1899
Development times in the automotive industry are becoming increasingly shorter. For this reason, design decisions based on simulation results must be made at an early development stage. The dynamic simulation of an automotive refrigeration cycle with Dymola/Modelica as part of the design process will be described in the following paper. The component supplier's expertise as well as the automotive manufacturer's knowledge of vehicle parameters in one simulation platform will also be discussed.
Technical Paper

Evolutionary Safety Testing of Embedded Control Software by Automatically Generating Compact Test Data Sequences

2005-04-11
2005-01-0750
Whereas the verification of non-safety-related, embedded software typically focuses on demonstrating that the implementation fulfills its functional requirements, this is not sufficient for safety-relevant systems. In this case, the control software must also meet application-specific safety requirements. Safety requirements typically arise from the application of hazard and/or safety analysis techniques, e.g. FMEA, FTA or SHARD. During the downstream development process it must be shown that these requirements cannot be violated. This can be achieved utilizing different techniques. One way of providing evidence that violations of the safety properties identified cannot occur is to thoroughly test each of the safety requirements. This paper introduces Evolutionary Safety Testing (EST), a fully automated procedure for the safety testing of embedded control software.
Technical Paper

Bionic Optimization of Air-Guiding Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-1377
Topology optimization in structural analysis is known for many years. In the presented procedure, “topology optimization” is used for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for the first time. It offers the possibility of a very fast optimization process under utilization of the physical information in the flow field instead of using optimization algorithms like for example evolution strategies or gradient based methods. This enables the design engineer to generate in a first layout air guiding systems with low pressure drop in a fast and easy manner, which can than be improved further due to constraints of styling or production requirements. This procedure has been tested with many examples and shows promising results with a reduction in pressure loss up to 60% compared to a duct designed in CAD in the traditional way.
Technical Paper

Correction of Nozzle Gradient Effects in Open Jet Wind Tunnels

2004-03-08
2004-01-0669
In open jet wind tunnels with high blockage ratios a sharp rise in drag is observed for models approaching the nozzle exit plane. The physical background for this rise in drag will be analyzed in the paper. Starting with a basic analysis of the dependencies of the effect on model and wind tunnel properties, the key parameters of the problem will be identified. It will be shown using a momentum balance and potential flow theory that interaction between model and nozzle exit can result in significant tunnel-induced gradients at the model position. In a second step, a CFD-based investigation is used to show the interaction between nozzle exit and a bluff body. The results cover the whole range between open jet and closed wall test section interaction. The model starts at a large distance from the nozzle, then moves towards the nozzle, enters the nozzle and is finally completely inside the nozzle.
Technical Paper

3D-Simulation of DI-Diesel Combustion Applying a Progress Variable Approach Accounting for Complex Chemistry

2004-03-08
2004-01-0106
A progress variable approach for the 3D-CFD simulation of DI-Diesel combustion is introduced. Considering the Diesel-typical combustion phases of auto-ignition, premixed and diffusion combustion, for each phase, a limited number of characteristic progress variables is defined. By spatial-temporal balancing of these progress variables, the combustion process is described. Embarking on this concept, it is possible to simulate the reaction processes with detailed chemistry schemes. The combustion model is coupled with a mesh-independent Eulerian-spray model in combination with orifice resolving meshes. The comparison between experiment and simulation for various Diesel engines shows good agreement for pressure traces, heat releases and flame structures.
Technical Paper

Flow around an Isolated Wheel - Experimental and Numerical Comparison of Two CFD Codes

2004-03-08
2004-01-0445
This paper presents velocity and pressure measurements obtained around an isolated wheel in a rotating and stationary configuration. The flow field was investigated using LDA and a total pressure probe in the model scale wind tunnel at IVK/FKFS. Drag and lift were determined for both configurations as well as for the wheel support only. These results were used as a reference for comparing numerical results obtained from two different CFD codes used in the automotive industry, namely STAR-CD™ and PowerFLOW™. The comparison gives a good overall agreement between the experimental and the simulated data. Both CFD codes show good correlation of the integral forces. The influence of the wheel rotation on drag and lift coefficients is predicted well. All mean flow structures which can be found in the planes measured with LDA can be recognized in the numerical results of both codes. Only small local differences remain, which can be attributed to the different CFD codes.
Technical Paper

LS-DYNA 3D Interface Component Analysis to Predict FMVSS 208 Occupant Responses

2003-03-03
2003-01-1294
Today's interior systems engineer has been challenged with providing cost-effective instrument panel design solutions to meet NHTSA's new FMVSS 208 front crash regulations. Automotive manufacturers are in continuous search of newer methods and techniques to reduce prototype tests and cost. Analytical methods of predicting occupant and structural behavior using computer-aided engineering (CAE) analysis has been in place for quite some time. With the new FMVSS 208 regulations requiring both 5th and 50th percentile occupant testing, CAE analysis of predicting occupant response has become increasingly important. The CAE analyst is challenged with representing the barrier test condition, which involves the structure and the occupant moving at velocities of 25, 30 and 35 mph. Representing the cab kinematics in high-speed impacts is crucial, since capturing the vehicle intrusion and pitching should be made part of the input variables.
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