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Technical Paper

Heavy Truck Frontal Crash Protection System Development

2007-10-30
2007-01-4289
Heavy trucks are produced with a great variety of vehicle configurations, operate over a wide range of gross vehicle weight and sometimes function in extreme duty environments. Frontal crashes of heavy trucks can pose a threat to truck occupants when the vehicle strikes another large object such as bridge works, large natural features or another heavy-duty vehicle. Investigations of heavy truck frontal crashes indicate that the factors listed above all affect the outcome for the driver and the resulting damage to the truck Recently, a new chassis was introduced for on-highway heavy truck models that feature frontal airbag occupant protection. This introduction presented an opportunity to incorporate the knowledge gained from crash investigation into the process for developing the crash sensor's parameter settings.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Zeolite- and V-Based SCR Catalytic Converters

2007-04-16
2007-01-1136
A numerical model describing the ammonia based SCR process of NOX on zeolite catalysts is presented. The model is able to simulate coated and extruded monoliths. The development of the reaction kinetics is based on a study which compares the activity of zeolite and vanadium based catalysts. This study was conducted in a microreactor loaded with washcoat powder and with crushed coated monoliths. A model for the SCR reaction kinetics on zeolite catalysts is presented. After the parameterization of the reaction mechanism the reaction kinetics were coupled with models for heat and mass transport. The model is validated with laboratory data and engine test bench measurement data over washcoated monolith catalysts. A numerical simulation study is presented, aiming to reveal the differences between zeolite and vanadium based SCR catalysts.
Technical Paper

Simulation Of NOx Storage and Reduction Catalyst: Model Development And Application

2007-04-16
2007-01-1117
To fulfill future emission standards for diesel engines, combined after-treatment systems consisting of different catalyst technologies and diesel particulate filters (DPF) are necessary. For designing and optimizing the resulting systems of considerable complexity, effective simulation models of different catalyst and DPF technologies have been developed and integrated into a common simulation environment called ExACT (Exhaust After-treatment Components Toolbox). This publication focuses on a model for the NOx storage and reduction catalyst as a part of that simulation environment. A heterogeneous, spatially one-dimensional (1D), physically and chemically based mathematical model of the catalytic monolith has been developed. A global reaction kinetic approach has been chosen to describe reaction conversions on the washcoat. Reaction kinetic parameters have been evaluated from a series of laboratory experiments.
Technical Paper

Optimum Diesel Fuel for Future Clean Diesel Engines

2007-01-23
2007-01-0035
Over the next decades to come, fossil fuel powered Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) will still constitute the major powertrains for land transport. Therefore, their impact on the global and local pollution and on the use of natural resources should be minimized. To this end, an extensive fundamental and practical study was performed to evaluate the potential benefits of simultaneously co-optimizing the system fuel-and-engine using diesel as an example. It will be clearly shown that the still unused co-optimizing of the system fuel-and-engine (including advanced exhaust after-treatment) as a single entity is a must for enabling cleaner future road transport by cleaner fuels since there are large, still unexploited potentials for improvements in road fuels which will provide major reductions in pollutant emissions both in vehicles already in the field and even more so in future dedicated vehicles.
Technical Paper

HSDI Diesel Engine Optimisation for GTL Diesel Fuel

2007-01-23
2007-01-0027
A Mercedes E320 CDI vehicle has been modified for more optimal operation on Gas-To-Liquids (GTL) diesel fuel, in order to demonstrate the extent of exhaust emission reductions which are enabled by the properties of this fuel. The engine hardware changes employed comprised the fitment of re-specified fuel injectors and the reduction of the compression ratio from 18:1 to 15:1, as well as a re-optimisation of the software calibration. The demonstration vehicle has achieved a NOx emission of less that 0.08 g/km in the NEDC test cycle, while all other regulated emissions still meet the Euro 4 limits, as well as those currently proposed for Euro 5. CO2 emissions and fuel consumption, were not degraded with the optimised engine. This was achieved whilst employing only cost-neutral engine modifications, and with the standard vehicle exhaust system (oxidation catalyst and diesel particulate filter) fitted.
Technical Paper

Potential of Synthetic Fuels in Future Combustion Systems for HSDI Diesel Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0232
In view of limited crude oil resources, alternative fuels for internal combustion engines are currently being intensively researched. Synthetic fuels from natural gas offer a promising interim option before the development of CO2-neutral fuels. Up to a certain degree, these fuels can be tailored to the demands of modern engines, thus allowing a concurrent optimization of both the engine and the fuel. This paper summarizes investigations of a Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) diesel fuel in a modern, post-EURO 4 compliant diesel engine. The focus of the investigations was on power output, emissions performance and fuel economy, as well as acoustic performance, in comparison to a commercial EU diesel fuel. The engine investigations were accompanied by injection laboratory studies in order to assist in the performance analyses.
Technical Paper

Catalyst Temperature Rise during Deceleration with Fuel Cut

2006-04-03
2006-01-0411
Automotive catalysts close coupled to gasoline engines operated under high load are frequently subjected to bed temperatures well above 950 °C. Upon deceleration engine fuel cut is usually applied for the sake of fuel economy, robustness and driveability. Even though catalyst inlet gas temperatures drop down immediately after fuel cut - catalyst bed temperatures may rise significantly. Sources for catalyst temperature rise upon deceleration with fuel cut are discussed in this contribution.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of NO/NO2/NH3 Reactions on SCR-Catalytic Converters:Model Development and Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0468
A 1D+1D numerical model describing the ammonia based SCR process of NO and NO2 on vanadia-titania catalysts is presented. The model is able to simulate coated and extruded monoliths. Basing on a fundamental investigation of the catalytic processes a reaction mechanism for the NO/NO2 - NH3 reacting system is proposed and modeled. After the parameterization of the reaction mechanism the reaction kinetics have been coupled with models for heat and mass transport. Model validation has been performed with engine test bench experiments. Finally the model has been applied to study the influence of NO2 on SCR efficiency within ETC and ESC testcycles, Additional simulations have been conducted to identify the potential for catalyst volume reduction if NO2 is present in the inlet feed.
Technical Paper

On Road Testing of Advanced Common Rail Diesel Vehicles with Biodiesel from the Jatropha Curcas plant

2005-10-23
2005-26-356
This paper addresses the use of neat, indigenous biodiesel in advanced Mercedes-Benz passenger cars. Modern, unmodified EU3 Common-Rail diesel engines with second generation common rail technology were used to determine the effects of neat biodiesel on performance and emission characteristics. The biodiesel was made from the seeds of the Jatropha Curcas plant and sourced from the Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute in Bhavnagar, India. The production of biodiesel and the vehicle tests are part of a PPP project, funded jointly by the DaimlerChrysler AG and the German DEG. The project aims at providing additional jobs and income in rural Indian areas along with reclaiming unused wasteland. The test vehicles were operated for a cumulative 8000 kilometers with an intention to expose the vehicle and fuel to diverse climatic conditions.
Technical Paper

Emissions Performance of GTL Diesel Fuel and Blends with Optimized Engine Calibrations

2005-05-11
2005-01-2187
The results of a comprehensive experimental investigation into the exhaust emission performance and combustion properties of neat and blended Gas-To-Liquids (GTL) diesel fuel are presented. A sulphur-free European diesel fuel was used as the reference fuel, and two blends of the GTL diesel fuel with the reference fuel, containing 20% and 50% GTL diesel fuel respectively, were investigated. The study was based on a Mercedes Benz 2.2 liter passenger car diesel engine and presents emission data for both the standard engine calibration settings, as well as settings which were optimized to match the characteristics of each fuel. Vehicle emission tests showed that the GTL diesel fuel results in reductions in HC and CO emissions of greater than 90%, while PM is reduced by 30%, and NOx remains approximately unchanged. Engine bench dynamometer tests showed reductions in soot of between 30% and 60%, and NOx reductions of up to 10% with the GTL diesel fuel, depending on the operating point.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Vehicle Refrigeration Cycle with Dymola/Modelica

2005-04-11
2005-01-1899
Development times in the automotive industry are becoming increasingly shorter. For this reason, design decisions based on simulation results must be made at an early development stage. The dynamic simulation of an automotive refrigeration cycle with Dymola/Modelica as part of the design process will be described in the following paper. The component supplier's expertise as well as the automotive manufacturer's knowledge of vehicle parameters in one simulation platform will also be discussed.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Ammonia SCR-Catalytic Converters: Model Development and Application

2005-04-11
2005-01-0965
A two-dimensional numerical model describing the ammonia based SCR-process on vanadia-titania catalysts is presented. The model is able to simulate coated and extruded monoliths. For the determination of the intrinsic kinetics of the various NH3-NOx reactions, unsteady microreactor experiments were used. In order to account for the influence of transport effects the kinetics were coupled with a fully transient two-phase 1D+1D monolith channel model. The model has been validated extensively with laboratory data and engine test bench measurements. After validation the model has been applied to calculate catalyst NOx conversion maps, which were used to define catalyst sizes. Additional simulations were conducted studying the influence of cell density and NH3-dosage ratio.
Technical Paper

Deactivation of TWC as a Function of Oil Ash Accumulation - A Parameter Study

2005-04-11
2005-01-1097
The oil ash accumulation on modern three way catalyst (TWC) as well as its influence on catalyst deactivation is evaluated as a parameter of oil consumption, kind of oil additive compound and additive concentration. The oil ash accumulation is characterized by XRF and SEM/EDX in axial direction and into the washcoat depth of the catalyst. The deposition patterns of Ca, Mg, P and Zn are discussed. The catalytic activity of the vehicle and engine bench aged catalysts is measured by performing model gas tests and vehicle tests, respectively. The influence of oil ash accumulation on the lifetime emission behavior of the vehicle is discussed.
Technical Paper

Effects Causing Untripped Rollover of Light Passenger Vehicles in Evasive Maneuvers

2004-03-08
2004-01-1057
Accident statistics show that rollover accidents contribute to a large proportion of fatal traffic accidents in the U.S.. In the past it has been documented that some light passenger cars showed tendencies to roll over in evasive lane change maneuvers. In 1997, a newly developed mini van rolled over in a severe double lane change test called “moose-test”. Recently (2001), a new SUV showed similar tendencies in the Consumers Union Short Course test. It is not immediately clear why these evasive test maneuvers are so strongly related to untripped rollover of light passenger vehicles. Therefore, the goal of current research is to understand the circumstances and effects causing modern passenger vehicles to roll over in evasive maneuvers on the road. This paper discusses research activities concerning the following questions: How do critical steering strategies lead to untripped rollover? Are resonant frequencies excited during maneuvers leading to rollover?
Technical Paper

Catalyst Design for High Performance Engines Capable to Fulfill Future Legislation

2004-03-08
2004-01-1276
To meet future emission levels the industry is trying to reduce tailpipe emissions by both, engine measures and the development of novel aftertreatment concepts. The present study focuses on a joint development of aftertreatment concepts for gasoline engines that are optimized in terms of the exhaust system design, the catalyst technology and the system costs. The best performing system contains a close-coupled catalyst double brick arrangement using a new high thermal stable catalyst technology with low precious metal loading. This system also shows an increased tolerance against catalyst poisoning by engine oil.
Technical Paper

Lube Formulation Effects on Transfer of Elements to Exhaust After-Treatment System Components

2003-10-27
2003-01-3109
After-treatment systems (ATS) consisting of new catalyst technologies and particulate filters will be necessary to meet increasingly stringent global regulations limiting particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions from heavy duty and light duty diesel vehicles. Fuels and lubes contain elements such as sulfur, phosphorus and ash-forming metals that can adversely impact the efficiency and durability of these systems. Investigations of the impact of lubricant formulation on the transfer of ash-forming elements to diesel particulate filters (DPF) and transfer of sulfur to NOx storage catalysts were conducted using passenger car diesel engine technology. It was observed that for ATS configurations with catalyst(s) upstream of the DPF, transfer of ash-forming elements to the DPF was significantly lower than expected on the basis of oil consumption and lube composition. Sulfur transfer strongly correlated with oil consumption and lubricant sulfur content.
Technical Paper

Aftertreatment Catalyst Design for the New DaimlerChrysler Supercharged 4-Cylinder Engine with Direct Gasoline Injection

2003-03-03
2003-01-1161
The launching of direct injection gasoline engines is currently one of the major challenges for the automotive industry in the European Union. Besides its potential for a notable reduction of fuel consumption, the engine with direct gasoline injection also offers increased power during stoichiometric and stratified operation. These advantages will most probably lead to a significant market potential of the direct injection concept in the near future. In order to meet the increasingly more stringent European emission levels (EURO IV), new strategies for the exhaust gas aftertreatment are required. The most promising technique developed in recent years, especially for NOx conversion in lean exhaust gases, is the so-called NOx storage catalyst.
Technical Paper

Impact of Future Fuels

2002-10-21
2002-21-0073
The likely transition from today's conventional to future alternative fuels will be discussed. It will be shown that in the very long term renewable fuels might be the most promising road fuels with respect to low CO2 emissions. In the short and medium term, however, liquid alternative fuels will prevail being produced initially from natural gas and later increasingly from biomass. Methanol, Ethanol, GTL Hydrocarbons and other fuels are still under study since lowest WTW CO2 emissions and overall system costs are not yet clarified. The availability of alternative fuels in large quantities will depend on the costs for production and infra-structure, and not least of all, on the market benefits of the resulting fuel / power train systems in a holistic assessment. Cost trends for conventional and alternative fuels will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Utilization of Advanced Three-Way Catalyst Formulations on Ceramic Ultra Thin Wall Substrates for Future Legislation

2002-03-04
2002-01-0349
The LEV II and SULEV/PZEV emission standards legislated by the US EPA and the Californian ARB will require continuous reduction in the vehicles' emission over the next several years. Similar requirements are under discussion in the European Union (EU) in the EU Stage V program. These future emission standards will require a more efficient after treatment device that exhibits high activity and excellent durabilty over an extended lifetime. The present study summarizes the findings of a joint development program targeting such demanding future emission challenges, which can only be met by a close and intensive co-operation of the individual expert teams. The use of active systems, e.g. HC-adsorber or electrically heated light-off catalysts, was not considered in this study. The following parameters were investigated in detail: The development of a high-tech three-way catalyst technology is described being tailored for applications on ultra thin wall ceramic substrates (UTWS).
Technical Paper

Plasma-Enhanced Adsorption and Reduction on Lean NOx-Catalysts

2001-09-24
2001-01-3567
The influence of adsorption and desorption processes on the non-thermal plasma enhanced catalytic reduction of NOx on NaZSM5- and Al2O3-based lean-NOx catalysts (Pt-NH4ZSM5, Cu-NaZSM5, Fe-NaZSM5, Pt-Al2O3, Pd-Al2O3, CuO-Al2O3, Ag-Al2O3) was investigated by temperature programmed reaction experiments in the temperature range from 100 °C to 600 °C. Dodecane was used as a reducing agent. Strong HC adsorption- and desorption effects were observed on the zeolite catalysts, which were not influenced by plasma-pretreatment. Adsorption of NO2 and desorption of NO occurred on Al2O3-based catalysts. By plasma-pretreatment adsorption of NO2 was induced at low temperatures. NOx-reduction rates of the catalysts Cu-NaZSM5, Fe-NaZSM5, and the Ag-Al2O3 were increased substantially by plasma-pretreatment. Both plasma-induced and catalytic oxidation of HCs were limiting factors of the NOx-reduction obtained on these catalysts.
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