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Technical Paper

Experimental Modal Methodologies for Quantification of Body/Chassis Response to Brake Torque Variation

2007-05-15
2007-01-2343
Brake torque variation is a source of objectionable NVH body/chassis response. Such input commonly results from brake disk thickness variation. The NVH dynamic characteristics of a vehicle can be assessed and quantified through experimental modal testing for determination of mode resonance frequency, damping property, and shape. Standard full vehicle modal testing typically utilizes a random input excitation into the vehicle frame or underbody structure. An alternative methodology was sought to quantify and predict body/chassis sensitivity to brake torque variation. This paper presents a review of experimental modal test methodologies investigated for the reproduction of vehicle response to brake torque variation in a static laboratory environment. Brake caliper adapter random and sine sweep excitation input as well as body sine sweep excitation in tandem with an intentionally locked brake will be detailed.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Welded Aluminum Blanks for Liftgate Inner

2007-04-16
2007-01-0421
Tailor welded steel blanks have long been applied in stamping of automotive parts such as door inner, b-pillar, rail, sill inner and liftgate inner, etc. However, there are few known tailor welded aluminum blanks in production. Traditional laser welding equipment simply does not have the capability to weld aluminum since aluminum has much higher reflectivity than steel. Welding quality is another issue since aluminum is highly susceptible to pin holes and undercut which leads to deterioration in formability. In addition, high amount of springback for aluminum panels can result in dimension control problem during assembly. A tailor-welded aluminum blank can help reducing dimension variability by reducing the need for assembly. In this paper, application of friction stir and plasma arc welded blanks on a liftgate inner will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Head Impact Waveform to Minimize HIC

2007-04-16
2007-01-0759
To mitigate head impact injuries of vehicle occupants in impact accidents, the FMVSS 201 requires padding of vehicle interior so that under the free-moving-head-form impact, the head injury criterion (HIC) is below the limit. More recently, pedestrian head impact on the vehicle bonnet has been a subject being studied and regulated as requirements to the automobile manufacturers. Over the years, the square wave has been considered as the best waveform for head impacts, although it is impractical to achieve. This paper revisits the head impact topic and challenges the optimality of aiming at the square waveform. It studies several different simple waveforms, with the objective to achieve minimal HIC or minimal crush space required in head-form impacts. With that it is found that many other waveforms can be more efficient and more practical than the square wave, especially for the pedestrian impact.
Technical Paper

Simulation Process to Investigate Suspension Sensitivity to Brake Judder

2007-04-16
2007-01-0590
Brake judder, which is a low frequency excitation of the suspension and thus, the body structure during low-G braking, is mainly felt at the steering wheel and throughout the vehicle structure. Brake judder is a problem that costs manufacturers millions of dollars in warranty cost and undesirable trade offs. The magnitude of judder response depends not only on the brake torque variation, but also on the suspension design character-istics. This paper discusses the judder simulation process using ADAMS software to investigate the suspension design sensitivity to the first order brake judder performance. The paper recommends “tuning knobs” to suspension designers and vehicle development engineers to resolve issues in the design and development stages. Various suspension design varia-bles including geometry and compliances as well as brake related characteristics were investigated.
Technical Paper

Reliability Analysis of Dynamometer Loading Parameters during Vehicle Cell Testing

2007-04-16
2007-01-0600
In automotive testing, a chassis dynamometer is typically used, during cell testing, to evaluate vehicle performance by simulating actual driving conditions. The use of indoor cell testing has the advantage of running controlled tests where the cell temperature and humidity and solar loads can be well controlled. Driving conditions such as vehicle speed, wind speed and grade can be also controlled. Thus, repeated tests can be conducted with minimum test variations. The tractive effort required at the wheels of a vehicle for a given set of operating parameters is determined by taking into account a set of variables which affect vehicle performance. The forces considered in determination of the tractive effort include the constant friction force, variable friction force due to mechanical and tire friction, forces due to inertia and forces due to aerodynamic and wind effects. In addition, forces due to gravity are considered when road grades are simulated.
Technical Paper

Shock Absorber Force and Velocity Sensitivity to Its Damping Characteristics

2007-04-16
2007-01-1349
In this study, a full vehicle with durability tire model established with ADAMS is applied to simulate the dynamic behavior of the vehicle under severe rough road proving ground events, where the shock force-velocity characteristics are modeled as nonlinear curves and multi-stage representations, respectively. The shock forces and velocities at each corner are resolved and through full factorial DOE, the shock forces and velocities response surface models are established to analyze the sensitivities of shock force and velocity to the shock damping characteristics.
Technical Paper

Advancing the State of Strong Hybrid Technology

2006-10-16
2006-21-0058
As the hybrid automotive market becomes quickly saturated with highly competitive products and vehicles, auto manufacturers struggle with business models and the combination of current manufacturing with next generation development. The hybrid development cooperation amongst General Motors, DaimlerChrysler, and BMW offers a new business model that promotes the advancement of the state of strong hybrid technology while maintaining the strong global leadership and competition.
Technical Paper

Truck Frame Motion Prediction and Correlation

2006-04-03
2006-01-1257
Accurate motion prediction can be used to evaluate vibrations at seat track and steering wheel. This paper presents the prediction and correlation of truck frame motion from wheel force transducer (WFT) measurements. It is assumed that the method can be used to predict vibrations at seat track and steering wheel for unibody vehicles. Two durability events were used for calculation. WFT measurements were used as inputs applied on frame from suspension. Frame loads were then used as inputs to calculate frame motions using a FEA approach. The predicted frame motions are represented by four exhaust hangers and they are compared with measured motions of the same locations. The correlations include displacement, velocity, and acceleration. It is shown that good correlations are obtained in velocity and displacement. Acceleration shows bigger differences than velocity and displacement.
Technical Paper

Beam Element Leaf Spring Suspension Model Development and Assessment Using Road Load Data

2006-04-03
2006-01-0994
Knowledge of the loads experienced by a leaf spring suspension is required for the optimal design of the suspension components and frame. The most common method of representing leaf springs is the SAE 3 link model, which does not give good results in the lateral direction. In this paper, a beam element leaf spring model is developed. This model is validated using data obtained from laboratory tests done on leaf spring assemblies. The model is then subjected to actual road load data measured on the Proving Ground. Lastly, results from the beam element model are presented and compared with results obtained from proving ground tests. Overall, the beam element model gives good results in all directions except in situations where it is subjected to high fore/aft acceleration and high reverse braking events.
Technical Paper

Lightweight Magnesium Intensive Body Structure

2006-04-03
2006-01-0523
This paper describes a lightweight magnesium intensive automobile body structure concept developed at DaimlerChrysler to support a high fuel-efficiency vehicle project. This body structure resulted in more than 40% weight reduction over a conventional steel structure while achieving significantly improved structural performance as evaluated through CAE simulations. A business case analysis was conducted and showed promising results. One concept vehicle was built for the purpose of demonstrating concept feasibility. The paper also identifies areas for further development to enable such a vehicle to become a production reality at a later time.
Technical Paper

Reliability and Robust Design of Automotive Thermal Systems - A Federated Approach

2006-04-03
2006-01-1576
Today automotive thermal systems development is a joint effort between an OEM and its suppliers. This paper presents a pilot program showing how OEMs and suppliers can jointly develop a reliable and robust thermal system using CAE tools over the internet. Federated Intelligent Product Environment (FIPER) has been used to establish B2B communication between OEMs and suppliers. Suppliers remotely run thermal systems computer models at the OEM site using the FIPER B2B feature.
Technical Paper

Suspension Tuning Parameters Affecting Impact Harshness Performance Evaluation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0991
In this paper, a comprehensive evaluation index for impact harshness (IH) is proposed. A mid-sized uni-body SUV is selected for this study, with the acceleration responses at the various vehicle body locations as objective functions. A sensitivity study is conducted using an ADAMS full vehicle model with flexible body structure representation over an IH event to analyze the influence of various suspension tuning parameters, including suspension springs, shock damping, steer gear ratio, unsprung mass, track-width, and bushing stiffness.
Technical Paper

A Failure Criterion for Stretch Bendability of Advanced High Strength Steels

2006-04-03
2006-01-0349
Studies in an Angular Stretch Bend Test (ASBT) have demonstrated that the failure location moves from the side wall to punch nose area. This occurs as the R/T ratio decreases below a certain limit and applies to most low carbon steels with the exception of Dual Phase (DP) steels. Such behavior in DP steels indicates that bending effects have a severe impact on the formability of DP materials. Therefore, the traditional criterion using the forming limit curve (FLC) is not suitable to assess the formability at punch radius areas for DP steels due in part to its uniqueness of unconventional microstructures. In this paper, a new failure criterion, ‘Bending-modified’ FLC (BFLC), is proposed by extending the traditional FLC using the “Stretch Bendability Index” (SBI) concept for the stretch bendability assessment.
Technical Paper

Body/Chassis Dynamic Response Under Experimental Modal Test

2005-05-16
2005-01-2463
Mode management is an essential part of the design process for NVH performance. System resonances must be sufficiently separated to minimize interaction from source inputs and each other [1]. Such resonances are typically determined through experimental modal testing conducted in a lab environment under controlled and repeatable conditions. Global vehicle and suspension system response demonstrate soft nonlinear behavior, however. Their resonant frequencies may thus decrease under on-road input not reproducible in a lab environment. Subsequently, mode management charts derived from lab testing may not be representative of the vehicle's on-road dynamic response. This paper presents modal model determination methodologies, and examines suspension system and vehicle global dynamic response under lab modal test and operating conditions. Vehicle suspension modes measured under static and dynamic (rolling) conditions will be compared.
Technical Paper

Effect of Tire Stiffness on Vehicle Loads

2005-04-11
2005-01-0825
Tire stiffness can have a significant effect on the spindle and component loads. While its’ effect on the component loads may show a different trend. This paper deals with data acquisition loads using Wheel Force Transducer (WFT) with 17 inch, 18 inch and 20 inch tires and shows how the spindle loads changed for different tire. These loads are applied on the analytical suspension model to generate both component and the body attachment loads. Some of the measured channels are correlated for all the wheel sizes for multiple events to ensure the confidence in the model. It is found that even if spindle loads are increased with tire stiffness, the component loads do not necessarily show a similar trend. This paper studies why higher spindle forces do not always give higher component loads and what are the possible alternatives one may look into to shortlist or select one set of loads over the other.
Technical Paper

Sensitivities of Suspension Bushings on Vehicle Impact Harshness Performances

2005-04-11
2005-01-0827
In this paper, we study the sensitivity of a vehicle impact harshness (IH) performance to the suspension bushing rates. A mid-sized uni-body SUV is selected for this study, with the acceleration responses at the driver seat track and the steering wheel as objective functions. A sensitivity study is conducted using an ADAMS full vehicle model including a tire model and flexible body structure representation over an IH event. The study resulted in the identification of key bushings that affect the IH performance and its sensitivity to the bushing rates. Based on the results, we came-up with an “optimal” bushing set that minimizes impact harshness, which was subjectively verified to result in significant improvement in IH.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Intake Primary Runner Blockages on Combustion and Emissions in SI Engines under Part-Load Conditions

2004-10-25
2004-01-2973
Charge motion is known to accelerate and stabilize combustion through its influence on turbulence intensity and flame propagation. The present work investigates the effect of charge motion generated by intake runner blockages on combustion characteristics and emissions under part-load conditions in SI engines. Firing experiments have been conducted on a DaimlerChrysler (DC) 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine, with spark range extending around the Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing. Three blockages with 20% open area are compared to the fully open baseline case under two operating conditions: 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure (bmep) at 1600 rpm, and 0.78 bar bmep at 1200 rpm. The blocked areas are shaped to create different levels of swirl, tumble, and cross-tumble. Crank-angle resolved pressures have been acquired, including cylinders 1 and 4, intake runners 1 and 4 upstream and downstream of the blockage, and exhaust runners 1 and 4.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Hot Stamping Process With Advanced Material Modeling

2004-03-08
2004-01-0168
Advanced material modeling was conducted to describe the thermal-mechanical behavior of Boron Steel during hot stamping, a process in which blanks at 900 °C are formed and quenched between cold dies. Plastic deformation, thermal dilatation and phase transformation were incorporated in the constitutive model and a user-defined subroutine was developed to interface with LS-DYNA. Simulation was conducted on the hot stamping process of a door intrusion beam to gain insight into the physics of the process. Results showed significant influence of the thermal cycle on final product. It was also demonstrated that the program developed can be used as an early feasibility tool to determine baseline processing parameters and to detect potential defects in products without physical prototyping.
Technical Paper

A Graphical Representation of Road Profile Characteristics

2004-03-08
2004-01-0769
Load data representing severe customer usage is required during the chassis development process. One area of current research is the use of road profiles for predicting chassis loads. The most direct method of predicting these loads is to run dynamic simulations of the vehicle using numerous road profiles as the excitation. This onerous task may be avoided, and a greatly reduced number of simulations would be required, if roads having similar characteristics can be grouped. Currently, road profiles are characterized by their spectral content. It has been noted by several researches, however, that road profiles are generally nonstationary signals that contain significant transient events and are not well described in the spectral domain. The objective of this work, then, is to develop a method by which the characteristics of the road can be captured by describing these constitutive transient events.
Technical Paper

Structure Borne Insertion Loss of Sound Package Components

2003-05-05
2003-01-1549
Typical automotive sound package components are usually characterized by their absorption coefficients and their acoustic power-based insertion loss. This insertion loss (IL) is usually obtained by subtracting the transmission loss (TL) of a bare flat steel plate from the TL of the same plate covered with the trim material. While providing useful information regarding the performance of the component, air-borne insertion loss is based solely on acoustic excitations and thus provides very little information about the structure-borne performance of the component. This paper presents an attempt to introduce a standard procedure to define the power-based structure-borne insertion loss of sound package components. A flat steel plate is excited mechanically using a shaker. Different carpet constructions are applied on the plate and tested. Based on velocity measurements, a force transducer and intensity probe, the mechanical input and the acoustic radiated power are obtained.
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