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Technical Paper

Grammatical Evolution Based Tool for Predicting Multivariable Response Surface for Laser Lap Welding

2008-04-14
2008-01-1372
The problem of predicting the quality of weld is critical to manufacturing. A great deal of data is collected under multiple conditions to predict the quality. The data generated at Daimler Chrysler has been used to develop a model based on grammatical evolution. Grammatical Evolution Technique is based on Genetic Algorithms and generates rules from the data which fit the data. This paper describes the development of a software tool that enables the user to choose input variables such as the metal types of top and bottom layers and their thickness, intensity and speed of laser beam, to generate a three dimensional map showing weld quality. A 3D weld quality surface can be generated in response to any of the two input variables picked from the set of defining input parameters. This tool will enable the user to pick the right set of input conditions to get an optimal weld quality. The tool is developed in Matlab with Graphical User Interface for the ease of operation.
Technical Paper

Application of the Modal Compliance Technique to a Vehicle Body in White

2007-05-15
2007-01-2355
This paper describes the application of the modal compliance method to a complex structure such as a vehicle body in white, and the extension of the method from normal modes to the complex modes of a complete vehicle. In addition to the usual bending and torsion calculations, the paper also describes the application of the method to less usual tests such as second torsion, match-boxing and breathing. We also show how the method can be used to investigate the distribution of compliance throughout the structure.
Technical Paper

Experimental Modal Methodologies for Quantification of Body/Chassis Response to Brake Torque Variation

2007-05-15
2007-01-2343
Brake torque variation is a source of objectionable NVH body/chassis response. Such input commonly results from brake disk thickness variation. The NVH dynamic characteristics of a vehicle can be assessed and quantified through experimental modal testing for determination of mode resonance frequency, damping property, and shape. Standard full vehicle modal testing typically utilizes a random input excitation into the vehicle frame or underbody structure. An alternative methodology was sought to quantify and predict body/chassis sensitivity to brake torque variation. This paper presents a review of experimental modal test methodologies investigated for the reproduction of vehicle response to brake torque variation in a static laboratory environment. Brake caliper adapter random and sine sweep excitation input as well as body sine sweep excitation in tandem with an intentionally locked brake will be detailed.
Technical Paper

Axle Imbalance Measurement and Balancing Strategies

2007-05-15
2007-01-2238
This paper summarizes a study on axle balance measurement and balancing strategies. Seven types of axles were investigated. Test samples were randomly selected from products. Two significant development questions were set out to be answered: 1) What is the minimum rotational speed possible in order to yield measured imbalance readings which correlated to in-vehicle imbalance-related vibration. What is the relationship between the measured imbalance and rotational speed. To this end, the imbalance level of each axle was measured using a test rig with different speeds from 800 to 4000 rpm with 200 rpm increments. 2) Is it feasible to balance axle sub-assemblies only and still result in a full-assembly that satisfies the assembled axle specification? To this end, the sub-assemblies were balanced on a balance machine to a specified level. Then with these balanced sub-assemblies, the full assemblies were completed and audited on the same balance test rig in the same way.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Powertrain Cooling System Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0598
This paper identifies the difference in powertrain cooling system content levels using a nominal and a +3 Standard deviation maximum temperature design approach. Variation simulation analysis tools are used along with a 1-D cooling system performance model to predict resulting temperature distribution for different combinations of input variable populations. The analysis will show differential in powertrain cooling system content, mass, and impact to fuel economy for a nominal vs. +3 sigma design approach.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Head Impact Waveform to Minimize HIC

2007-04-16
2007-01-0759
To mitigate head impact injuries of vehicle occupants in impact accidents, the FMVSS 201 requires padding of vehicle interior so that under the free-moving-head-form impact, the head injury criterion (HIC) is below the limit. More recently, pedestrian head impact on the vehicle bonnet has been a subject being studied and regulated as requirements to the automobile manufacturers. Over the years, the square wave has been considered as the best waveform for head impacts, although it is impractical to achieve. This paper revisits the head impact topic and challenges the optimality of aiming at the square waveform. It studies several different simple waveforms, with the objective to achieve minimal HIC or minimal crush space required in head-form impacts. With that it is found that many other waveforms can be more efficient and more practical than the square wave, especially for the pedestrian impact.
Technical Paper

Simulation Process to Investigate Suspension Sensitivity to Brake Judder

2007-04-16
2007-01-0590
Brake judder, which is a low frequency excitation of the suspension and thus, the body structure during low-G braking, is mainly felt at the steering wheel and throughout the vehicle structure. Brake judder is a problem that costs manufacturers millions of dollars in warranty cost and undesirable trade offs. The magnitude of judder response depends not only on the brake torque variation, but also on the suspension design character-istics. This paper discusses the judder simulation process using ADAMS software to investigate the suspension design sensitivity to the first order brake judder performance. The paper recommends “tuning knobs” to suspension designers and vehicle development engineers to resolve issues in the design and development stages. Various suspension design varia-bles including geometry and compliances as well as brake related characteristics were investigated.
Technical Paper

Shock Absorber Force and Velocity Sensitivity to Its Damping Characteristics

2007-04-16
2007-01-1349
In this study, a full vehicle with durability tire model established with ADAMS is applied to simulate the dynamic behavior of the vehicle under severe rough road proving ground events, where the shock force-velocity characteristics are modeled as nonlinear curves and multi-stage representations, respectively. The shock forces and velocities at each corner are resolved and through full factorial DOE, the shock forces and velocities response surface models are established to analyze the sensitivities of shock force and velocity to the shock damping characteristics.
Technical Paper

Advancing the State of Strong Hybrid Technology

2006-10-16
2006-21-0058
As the hybrid automotive market becomes quickly saturated with highly competitive products and vehicles, auto manufacturers struggle with business models and the combination of current manufacturing with next generation development. The hybrid development cooperation amongst General Motors, DaimlerChrysler, and BMW offers a new business model that promotes the advancement of the state of strong hybrid technology while maintaining the strong global leadership and competition.
Technical Paper

In Vehicle Exhaust Mount Load Measurement and Calculation

2006-04-03
2006-01-1258
Exhaust durability is an important measure of quality, which can be predicted using CAE with accurate mount loads. This paper proposes an innovative method to calculate these loads from measured mount accelerations. A Chrysler vehicle was instrumented with accelerometers at both ends of its four exhaust mounts. The vehicle was tested at various durability routes or events at DaimlerChrysler Proving Grounds. These measured accelerations were integrated to obtain their velocities and displacements. The differences in velocities and displacements at each mount were multiplied by its damping and stiffness rates to obtain the mount load. The calculation was conducted for all three translational directions and for all events. The calculated mount loads are shown within reasonable range. Along with CAE, it is suggested to explore this method for exhaust durability development.
Technical Paper

Beam Element Leaf Spring Suspension Model Development and Assessment Using Road Load Data

2006-04-03
2006-01-0994
Knowledge of the loads experienced by a leaf spring suspension is required for the optimal design of the suspension components and frame. The most common method of representing leaf springs is the SAE 3 link model, which does not give good results in the lateral direction. In this paper, a beam element leaf spring model is developed. This model is validated using data obtained from laboratory tests done on leaf spring assemblies. The model is then subjected to actual road load data measured on the Proving Ground. Lastly, results from the beam element model are presented and compared with results obtained from proving ground tests. Overall, the beam element model gives good results in all directions except in situations where it is subjected to high fore/aft acceleration and high reverse braking events.
Technical Paper

A Grammatical Evolution Approach to System Identification of Laser Lap Welding

2006-04-03
2006-01-1614
Laser lap welding quality is a non-linear response based on a host of categorical and numeric material and process variables. This paper describes a Grammatical Evolution approach to the structure identification of the laser lap welding process and compares its performance with linear regression and a neuro-fuzzy inference system.
Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Test Cell for Rapid Evaluation of Advanced Powertrain Technologies using Model-Controlled Dynamometers

2006-04-03
2006-01-1409
Current engine development processes typically involve extensive steady-state and simple transient testing in order to characterize the engine's fuel consumption, emissions, and performance based on several controllable inputs such as throttle, spark advance, and EGR. Steady-state and simple transient testing using idealistic load conditions alone, however, is no longer sufficient to meet powertrain development schedule requirements. Mapping and calibration of an engine under transient operation has become critically important. And, independent engine development utilizing accelerated techniques is becoming more attractive. In order to thoroughly calibrate new engines in accelerated fashion and under realistic transient conditions, more advanced testing is necessary.
Technical Paper

Reliability and Robust Design of Automotive Thermal Systems - A Federated Approach

2006-04-03
2006-01-1576
Today automotive thermal systems development is a joint effort between an OEM and its suppliers. This paper presents a pilot program showing how OEMs and suppliers can jointly develop a reliable and robust thermal system using CAE tools over the internet. Federated Intelligent Product Environment (FIPER) has been used to establish B2B communication between OEMs and suppliers. Suppliers remotely run thermal systems computer models at the OEM site using the FIPER B2B feature.
Technical Paper

The USAMP Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project

2006-04-03
2006-01-0522
Over the past five years, the US Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) has brought together representatives from DaimlerChrysler, General Motors, Ford Motor Company and over 40 other participant companies from the Mg casting industry to create and test a low-cost, Mg-alloy engine that would achieve a 15 - 20 % Mg component weight savings with no compromise in performance or durability. The block, oil pan, and front cover were redesigned to take advantage of the properties of both high-pressure die cast (HPDC) and sand cast Mg creep- resistant alloys. This paper describes the alloy selection process and the casting and testing of these new Mg-variant components. This paper will also examine the lessons learned and implications of this pre-competitive technology for future applications.
Technical Paper

Body/Chassis Dynamic Response Under Experimental Modal Test

2005-05-16
2005-01-2463
Mode management is an essential part of the design process for NVH performance. System resonances must be sufficiently separated to minimize interaction from source inputs and each other [1]. Such resonances are typically determined through experimental modal testing conducted in a lab environment under controlled and repeatable conditions. Global vehicle and suspension system response demonstrate soft nonlinear behavior, however. Their resonant frequencies may thus decrease under on-road input not reproducible in a lab environment. Subsequently, mode management charts derived from lab testing may not be representative of the vehicle's on-road dynamic response. This paper presents modal model determination methodologies, and examines suspension system and vehicle global dynamic response under lab modal test and operating conditions. Vehicle suspension modes measured under static and dynamic (rolling) conditions will be compared.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Transfer Case Imbalance

2005-05-16
2005-01-2297
Different methodologies to test transfer case imbalance were investigated in this study. One method utilized traditional standard single plane and two plane methods to measure the imbalance of the transfer case when running it on a dynamic balance machine at steady RPM, while a second method utilized accelerometers and a laser vibrometer to measure vertical vibration on the transfer case when running it on a dynamic balance machine in 4 Hi open mode during a run up from 1000 to 4000 RPM with a 40 RPM difference between the input and output shaft speeds. A comparison of all of the measurements for repeatability and accuracy was done with the goal of determining an appropriate and efficient method that generates the most consistent results. By using the traditional method, the test results were not repeatable. This may be due to the internal complexity of transfer cases. With the second method, good correlation between the measurements was obtained.
Technical Paper

Development of Portable Self Contained Phase Shifting Digital Shearography for Composite Material Testing

2005-04-11
2005-01-0590
The use of composite materials in the automotive industry has become increasingly widespread. With this increase in use, techniques for non-destructive testing (NDT) have become more and more important. Various optical NDT inspective methods such as holography, moiré techniques, and shearography have been used for material testing. Among these methods, shearography appears to be most practical. Shearography has a simple optical setup due to its “self-referencing” system, and it is relatively insensitive against rigid-body motions. Measurements of displacement derivatives, and thus strain directly, rather than the displacement itself is achieved through this method. Therefore shearography detects defects in objects by correlating anomalies of strain which are usually easier than correlating the anomalies of the displacement itself, as in holography. To date shearography has shown potential as a NDT tool for identifying defects in small structures.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Simulations in Machining Applications

2005-04-11
2005-01-0518
Computer applications have been widely used to assist product design. The successes and sophistication of computer aided engineering (CAE) techniques are respectfully recognized in this field. CAE applications in the manufacturing area however are still developing, although the manufacturing community is increasingly starting to pay attentions to computer simulations in its daily workings. This paper will briefly introduce some of these applications and promote awareness of computer simulations in manufacturing area. It contains four main sections: finite element analysis (FEA) in machining fixture design, FEA applications in component assembly, machining process simulations and machining vibrations in the milling operation. Each section comes with a practical case study, potential benefits are identified and conclusions are presented by using an integrated design and analysis approach.
Technical Paper

Using a Vehicle Exhaust Emission Simulator (VEES) as a Cross Check Tool for Emission Test Cell Correlation

2005-04-11
2005-01-0687
It is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain good repeatability from running lab vehicle correlation testing, since vehicle variability is so significant at the Low ULEV and SULEV emissions levels. These new emission standards are becoming so stringent that it makes it very difficult to distinguish whether a problem is a result of vehicle variability, test cell sampling or the analytical system. A vehicle exhaust emission simulator (VEES) developed by Horiba, can simulate emissions from low emitting gasoline vehicles by producing tailpipe flow rates containing emissions constituents ( HC, CH4, CO, NOx, CO2 ) injected at the tailpipe flow stream via mass flow controllers.
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