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Technical Paper

Study of Starting Friction during the Running of Plain Journal Bearing under Hydrodynamic Lubrication Regime

Study of starting friction during the running of the engineering application has an important role in designing them, especially working at low speed and high load conditions. A significant portion of research and development today is concentrated on saving the energy by reducing the friction. The present paper addresses the measurement technique and analysis of the starting friction during the running of the journal bearing. The experiments were performed during the hydrodynamic lubrication regime using SAE 15W-30 lubricating oil. A journal bearing having journal diameter as 22 mm, length/diameter ratio 1 and 0.027 mm radial clearance has been designed and fabricated to test the starting friction. Analysis of starting friction and average friction torque during the running of journal bearing was done at 900, 1150, 1400, 1650, 1900, 2150 and 2400 revolution per minute (rpm) speed of the journal at load values of 250, 400 and 500 N.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on Aerodynamic Effects of Vanes and Flaps on Automotive Underbody Diffusers

The automotive underbody diffuser is an expansion device which works by speeding up the air flowing underneath a vehicle. This reduces the pressure below the vehicle thereby increasing downforce. When designed properly, it can lead to a massive gain in downforce and even a reduction in drag. However, a majority of the research and development is restricted to motorsport teams and supercar manufacturers and is highly secretive. Most of the publicly available research has been done for very simple shapes (bluff bodies) to study the effects of ground clearance and rake angle. Very little research has been done for complex geometries with vanes, flaps and vortex generators. This paper aims to investigate the effects of the addition of vanes/strakes and flaps, their location as well as angle, on diffuser performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations have been carried out using three dimensional, steady state RANS equations with the k-ε turbulence model on STAR CCM+ V9.06.
Technical Paper

Optimisation of Expansion Ratio of an Advanced Compressed Air Engine Kit

Worldwide, research is going on numerous types of engines that practice green and alternative energy such as natural gas engines, hydrogen engines, and electric engines. One of the possible alternatives is the air powered car. Air is abundantly available and can be effortlessly compressed to higher pressure at a very low cost. After the successful development of Compressed Air Engines, engineers shifted their focus in making this technology cost effective and feasible. This led to advancement in the field of pneumatics that is advanced Compressed Air Engine Kit (used for conversion of a small-two stroke SI engine to Compressed Air Engine) where its frugality and compatibility is kept at high priority. This research is in continuation with our previous project of development of an advanced Compressed Air Engine kit and optimisation of injection angle and injector nozzle area for maximum performance.
Technical Paper

Development of a Dedicated Hydrogen Port Injection Kit for Small Engines

The danger posed by climate change and the striving for securities of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Man's energy requirements are touching astronomical heights. The natural resources of the Earth can no longer cope with it as their rate of consumption far outruns their rate of regeneration. The automotive sector is without a doubt a chief contributor to this mayhem as fossil fuel resources are fast depleting. The harmful emissions from vehicles using these fuels are destroying our forests and contaminating our water bodies and even the air that we breathe. The need of the hour is to look not only for new alternative energy resources but also clean energy resources. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future to meet the stringent emission norms.
Technical Paper

Study on Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Techniques for Application in V/STOL Aircrafts

The art and science of thrust vectoring technology has seen a gradual shift towards fluidic thrust vectoring techniques owing to the potential they have to greatly influence the aircraft propulsion systems. The prime motive of developing a fluidic thrust vectoring system has been to reduce the weight of the mechanical thrust vectoring system and to further simplify the configuration. Aircrafts using vectored thrust rely to a lesser extent on aerodynamic control surfaces such as ailerons or elevator to perform various maneuvers and turns than conventional-engine aircrafts and thus have a greater advantage in combat situations. Fluidic thrust vectoring systems manipulate the primary exhaust flow with a secondary air stream which is typically bled from the engine compressor or fan. This causes the compressor operating curve to shift from the optimum condition, allowing the optimization of engine performance. These systems make both pitch and yaw vectoring possible.