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Technical Paper

A CFD Investigation of Aerodynamic Effects of Wheel Center Geometry on Brake Cooling

Improving brake cooling has commanded substantial research in the automotive sector, as safety remains paramount in vehicles of which brakes are a crucial component. To prevent problems like brake fade and brake judder, heat dissipation should be maximized from the brakes to limit increasing temperatures. This research is a CFD investigation into the impact of existing wheel center designs on brake cooling through increased cross flow through the wheel. The new study brings together the complete wheel and disc geometries in a single CFD study and directly measures the effect on brake cooling, by implementing more accurately modeled boundary conditions like moving ground to replicate real conditions correctly. It also quantifies the improvement in the cooling rate of the brake disc with a change in wheel design, unlike previous studies. The axial flow discharge was found to be increased to 0.47 m3/min for the suggested design in comparison to 0.04 m3/min for traditional design.
Technical Paper

Design and Simulated Analysis of Regenerative Suspension System with Hydraulic Cylinder, Motor and Dynamo

With the ever increasing number of vehicles on road and the rise of the electric and automated vehicles, it is important to minimize the consumption of energy by each vehicle, regenerative braking is in wide use today, however, the research in the field of regenerative suspension is limited. The regenerative suspension has huge capabilities in power generation especially on third world roads having rather bumpy rides. A huge amounts of energy is wasted in shock absorbers due to friction. This study emphasizes on the implementation of the energy present in the suspension system by replacing the Shock Absorber with a Energy transfer system Involving Hydraulic cylinder, Hydraulic Motor and Dynamo. The energy which is usually lost as heat due to friction in conventional Suspension is used to drive a dynamo through Hydraulic System designed in this paper and electricity is generated.
Technical Paper

Development of an Intake Runner of a CI Engine for Performance Enhancement and Emission Reductions Due to Variations in Air Flow Pattern within the Runner

Recent scenario of fossil fuel depletion as well as rising emission levels has witnessed an ever aggravating trend for decades. The solution to the problems has been addressed by investments and research in the field of fuels; such as the use of cleaner fuels involving biodiesel, alcohol blends, hydrogen and electric drivelines, as well as improvement in traditional technologies such as variable geometry systems, VVT load control strategies etc. The developments have highlighted the enormous potential present in such systems in terms of maximizing engine efficiency and emission reductions. The present paper aims at designing and implementing an intake runner system for a CI engine capable of providing flexibility with variations in operating conditions. Primarily, the design aims at altering the air flow phenomenon within the primary intake of the engine by inducing swirl in the runner through a secondary runner.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Single Seat, Four Wheeled All-Terrain Vehicle for Baja Collegiate Design Series

There has been a rapid increase in popularity of multipurpose All-terrain vehicles (ATV) across the globe over the past few years. SAE BAJA event gives student-community an opportunity to delve deeper into the nitty-gritty of designing a single seat, four-wheeled off road vehicle. The design and development methodology presented in this paper is useful in conceptualization of an ATV for SAE BAJA event. The vehicle is divided into various subsystems including chassis, suspension, drive train, steering, and braking system. Further these subsystems are designed and comprehensively analyzed in software like SolidWorks, ANSYS, WINGEO and MS-Excel. The 3-D model of roll cage is designed in SolidWorks and analyzed in ANSYS 9.0 for front, rear and side impact along with front and side roll-over conditions. Special case of wheel bump is also analyzed. Weight, wall thickness and bending strength of tubing used for roll cage are comprehensively studied.
Technical Paper

Optimization Techniques to Improve the Efficiency of Regenerative (Magnetic) Braking Systems

At present, vast numbers of problems are triggered due to growing global energy crisis and rising energy costs. Since, on-road vehicles constitute the majority share of transportation; any energy losses in them will have a direct effect on the overall global energy scenario. Most of the energy lost is dissipated from the exhaust, cooling, and lubrication systems, and, most importantly, in the braking system. About 6% of the total energy produced is lost with the airstream in form of heat energy when brakes are applied. Thus, various technological systems need to be developed to conserve energy by minimize energy losses while application of brakes. Regenerative Braking is one such system or an energy recovery mechanism causing the vehicle to decelerate by converting its kinetic energy into another form (usually electricity), which further can be used either immediately or stored until needed.
Technical Paper

Three Dimensional CFD Analysis on Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of a Bluff Tractor Trailer Body using Vortex Generators

This paper presents a CFD analysis for drag reduction of a Class 8 Tractor-Trailer arrangement. A three dimensional bluff body model of the truck is simulated for a zero degree yaw angle at a speed of 50 miles per hour for a Reynolds Number of 3.3 million. In this paper, the role of vortex generators is investigated for overall drag reduction of the body. The key areas of interest for lowering the drag coefficient are the tractor-trailer gap and the trailer end. The designing of the body was done on DS SolidWorks whereas the CFD simulations were performed on commercial software Ansys Fluent. The Standard k-ε turbulence model was chosen for the simulation while the convergence criterion for the residuals was set at 10−6. The simple bluff body showed a drag coefficient of 1.654. The first design iteration involved increasing the tractor frontal area which resulted in a reduction of 4% in the drag coefficient.