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Technical Paper

Use of Fuzzy Logic in Wheel Slip Assignment - Part II: Yaw Rate Control with Sideslip Angle Limitation

This paper is an extension to the work presented in part I [1]. The control objective is still the same - use a logic based control design technique to assign a wheel slip, λ, to each corner of a vehicle, to track overall desired vehicle dynamics. As in part I, a fuzzy logic based controller is the primary control, with additional logic to select the inside/outside classifiers for the wheels. In part I, only the reduction of yaw rate error, e, was considered. It was shown that, although the overall system had satisfactory performance, there was slight deteriorization in the tracking performance when trying to compensate through a significant vehicle sideslip angle, β. In this paper, additional logic is introduced into the control to limit the vehicle sideslip angle, β; thus, allowing for a more robust desired yaw rate, Ωd, tracking control performance. The emergency lane change maneuver is simulated to show the effectiveness of the redesigned control.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Assessment of Rotor Distortion Attributed to Wheel Assembly

The lateral runout of disc brake corner components can lead to the generation of brake system pulsation. Emphasis on reducing component flatness and lateral runout tolerances are a typical response to address this phenomenon. This paper presents the results of an analytical study that examined the effect that the attachment of the wheel to the brake corner assembly could have on the lateral distortion of the rotor. An analysis procedure was developed to utilize the finite element method and simulate the mechanics of the assembly process. Calculated rotor distortions were compared to laboratory measurements. A statistical approach was utilized, in conjunction with the finite element method, to study a number of wheel and brake corner parameters and identify the characteristics of a robust design.
Technical Paper

Kansei Engineering Application on Commercial Truck Interior Design Harmony

Vehicle interior harmony has drawn increasing attention from customers in recent years. Kansei Engineering is an effective approach to quantify the relationship between design parameters and customer perceptions of the product. This article is a continuation of our previous study on commercial truck interior harmony. Herein, we investigated the customer perception of the visual aspects of commercial truck door interior design using classification methods. This article describes how these visual impressions are related to design elements using quantification theory, a commonly used method in Kansei Engineering. The results reveal that trim material, shape, color, window shape, and map pocket are design elements that strongly affect the perception of elegance and preferences of truck drivers. The results also showed a significant difference between the perception of the truck drivers and design engineers.
Technical Paper

The Effectiveness of Adjustable Pedals Usage

This study evaluates the comfort benefits of adjustable pedals by determining their effect on the distance between the occupant and steering wheel, occupant posture and foot kinematics. For the study, 20 volunteers were tested in a small and large vehicle equipped with adjustable pedals. Twenty volunteers were tested in a small and large vehicle at 3 pedal positions: normal, comfortable and maximum tolerable. In the small car, the decrease in ankle-to-steering wheel distance between the normal and comfortable position was higher in the short-statured group than the medium group. The mean change in chest-to-steering wheel distance was about 50 mm in the medium and in the order of 40 mm in the short group. The seatback angle increased by 2° in the medium group and decreased by 3° in the short group. In the large car, the decrease in ankle-to-steering wheel distance between comfortable and the normal position was about 70 mm in the short-statured and medium group.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Vehicle Side Slip Angle and Yaw Rate

An algorithm for estimation of vehicle yaw rate and side slip angle using steering wheel angle, wheel speed, and lateral acceleration sensors is proposed. It is intended for application in vehicle stability enhancement systems, which use controlled brakes or steering. The algorithm first generates two initial estimates of yaw rate from wheel speeds and from lateral acceleration. A new estimate is subsequently calculated as a weighted average of the two initial ones, with the weights proportional to confidence levels in each estimate. This preliminary estimate is fed into a closed loop nonlinear observer, which generates the final estimate of yaw rate along with estimates of lateral velocity and side slip angle. Parameters of the observer depend on the estimated surface coefficient of adhesion, thus providing adaptation to changes in road surface coefficient of adhesion.
Technical Paper

Powertrains of the Future: Reducing the Impact of Transportation on the Environment

Tomorrow's winning powertrain solutions reside in those technology combinations providing optimized propulsion systems with zero emissions and no cost or performance penalty compared with today's vehicles. The recent Kyoto Protocol for CO2 reduction and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) thrust for zero emission vehicles along with the European Regulatory community, motivate car manufacturers to adopt new light body structures with low aerodynamic drag coefficients, low-rolling resistance and the highest efficiency powertrains. The environmental equation expresses car manufacturers aptitude and desire to create zero emission vehicles at acceptable levels of performance unlike limited range electrical powered vehicle products. The cheapest solution to the environmental equation remains the conventional internal combustion engine ($30 to $50 per kW).
Technical Paper

Sensory Evaluation of Commercial Truck Interiors

Vehicle interior harmony is related to human factors but it deals with human emotional attachment to the product. Kansei, or sensory engineering provides an effective approach to address harmony issues. This paper reports a preliminary investigation of human sensory evaluation of commercial truck interiors, especially the door interiors. To investigate the end users' needs and preference, a questionnaire survey was administered to twenty-six commercial truck drivers. Responses on usability, styling, harmony, and ergonomics issues of each driver's own truck were recorded. Furthermore, a set of 12 semantic differential scales, together with a preference ranking scale, was served to evaluate six truck door interiors. Results show that commercial truck drivers are more concerned with functionality and usability than styling and visual harmony.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction of Brake Fluid Temperature Rise During Braking and Heat Soaking

Long repetitive braking, such as one which occurs during a mountain descent, will result in a brake fluid temperature rise and may cause brake fluid vaporization. This may be a concern particularly for passenger cars equipped with aluminum calipers and with a limited air flow to the wheel brake systems. This paper describes the computer modeling techniques to predict the brake fluid temperature rise as well as other brake component temperatures during braking and heat soaking. Numerical results are compared to the measured vehicle data and the effects of relevant brake system parameters on the fluid temperature are investigated. The techniques developed in this study will help brake engineers to build a safer brake system and reduce the extensive vehicle tests currently required.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Door & Seat Side-Impact Airbags for Passenger Van and Sport-Utility Vehicles

Side impact accounts for a significant source of societal harm, injury and death. To address this issue, Europe and US have introduced legislation to be met for the new vehicle certification. In an effort to meet these regulations and the market demand for safety, Automotive manufacturers have significantly improved vehicle side structure integrity and introduced side impact airbags are for added protection. Today, passenger vans, light truck and sport-utility type vehicles are all popular consumer choices in the US. These vehicles differ significantly from passenger cars in many respects and as such need special design considerations for side airbags. Here, MADYMO-3D model of a generic passenger van / Sport-Utility type vehicle is created and correlated to FMVSS-214 side impact crash test. This model is used to evaluate both door and seat mounted side airbag designs in different orientations at standard test impact condition and at a higher speed.