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Journal Article

Real-time Sensing of Particulate Matter in a Vehicle Exhaust System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1639
Onboard diagnostic regulations require performance monitoring of diesel particulate filters used in vehicle aftertreatment systems. Delphi has developed a particulate matter (PM) sensor to perform this function. The objective of this sensor is to monitor the soot (PM) concentration in the exhaust downstream of the diesel particulate filter which provides a means to calculate filter efficiency. The particulate matter sensor monitors the deposition of soot on its internal sensing element by measuring the resistance of the deposit. Correlations are established between the soot resistance and soot mass deposited on the sensing element. Currently, the sensor provides the time interval between sensor regeneration cycles, which, with the knowledge of the exhaust gas flow parameters, is correlated to the average soot concentration.
Technical Paper

Development of Electrical-Electronic Controls for a Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0614
Delphi is developing a new combustion technology called Gasoline Direct-injection Compression Ignition (GDCI), which has shown promise for substantially improving fuel economy. This new technology is able to reuse some of the controls common to traditional spark ignition (SI) engines; however, it also requires several new sensors and actuators, some of which are not common to traditional SI engines. Since this is new technology development, the required hardware set has continued to evolve over the course of the project. In order to support this development work, a highly capable and flexible electronic control system is necessary. Integrating all of the necessary functions into a single controller, or two, would require significant up-front controller hardware development, and would limit the adaptability of the electronic controls to the evolving requirements for GDCI.
Technical Paper

Energy Harvesting as Strategy for Reducing Vehicles Emissions

2012-10-02
2012-36-0114
In vehicular mobility context, it is extremely important for the environmental sustainability that the available energy will be used as efficiently as possible, both in the use of internal combustion engines (ICE) as powertrain, as well in the application of Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Motors (HEV/EV). In this comparison, ICE has a lower efficiency when compared to electric motors, wasting much of the potential energy of the fuel in form of heat and noise. On the other hand, the electric vehicles face limitation in autonomy and recharge time, demanding for a more efficient use of energy stored in batteries. This study aims to present emerging technologies for reuse of energy within the automotive context, originally known as “Energy Harvesting” and “Renewable Energies”.
Journal Article

HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities Using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Development of a Production Intent Cam-Based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit

2012-04-16
2012-01-1134
While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single-cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000 rpm.
Journal Article

Ignition Systems for Spray-Guided Stratified Combustion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0598
The success of stratified combustion is strongly determined by the injection and ignition system used. A large temporal and spatial variation of the main parameters - mixture composition and charge motion - in the vicinity of the spark location are driving the demands for significantly improved ignition systems. Besides the requirements for conventional homogeneous combustion systems higher ignition energy and breakdown voltage capability is needed. The spark location or spark plug gap itself has to be open and well accessible for the mixture to allow a successful flame kernel formation and growth into the stratified mixture regime, while being insensitive to potential interaction with liquid fuel droplets or even fuel film. For this purpose several different ignition concepts are currently being developed. The present article will give an ignition system overview for stratified combustion within Delphi Powertrain Systems.
Technical Paper

Full Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Battery Pack System Design, CFD Simulation and Testing

2010-04-12
2010-01-1080
CFD analysis was performed using the FLUENT software to design the thermal system for a hybrid vehicle battery pack. The battery pack contained multiple modular battery elements, called bricks, and the inlet and outlet bus bars that electrically connected the bricks into a series string. The simulated thermal system was comprised of the vehicle cabin, seat cavity, inlet plenum, battery pack, a downstream centrifugal fan, and the vehicle trunk. The fan was modeled using a multiple reference frame approach. A full system analysis was done for airflow and thermal performance optimization to ensure the most uniform cell temperatures under all operating conditions. The mesh for the full system was about 13 million cells run on a 6-node HP cluster. A baseline design was first analyzed for fluid-thermal performance. Subsequently, multiple design iterations were run to create uniform airflow among all the individual bricks while minimizing parasitic pressure drop.
Technical Paper

Palladium/Rhodium Dual-Catalyst LEV 2 and Bin 4 Close-Coupled Emission Solutions

2007-04-16
2007-01-1263
Dual-monolith catalyst systems containing Pd/Rh three-way catalysts (TWCs) provide effective emission solutions for LEV2/Bin 5 and Bin 4 close-coupled applications at low PGM loadings. These systems combine washcoat technology and PGM distribution for front and rear catalysts resulting in optimal hydrocarbon and NOx light-off and transient NOx control. The dual-catalyst [Pd/Rh + Pd/Rh] systems are characterized as a function of Pd-Rh content, PGM location, and catalyst technology for 4-cyl [close-coupled + underfloor] systems and 6-cyl close-coupled applications. The current Pd/Rh dual-catalyst converters significantly reduce NOx emissions compared to earlier [Pd + Pt/Rh] or [Pd + Pd/Rh] LEV/ULEV systems by utilizing uniform Rh distribution and new OSC materials. These new design strategies particularly impact NOx performance, especially during transient A/F excursions.
Technical Paper

Use of CFD Simulation to Predict Fan Power and Airflow Pattern Inside the Climatic Chamber

2004-11-16
2004-01-3254
For A/C and cooling systems development is usual send vehicles to US or Europe for wind tunnel tests, witch is expensive and has a long lead-time. Here in Brazil Delphi has at the Piracicaba Technical Center a chamber equipped with temperature control and chassis dynamometer. There is a up-grade project for it that consist in add ducts with fans inside the chamber that will get air from the chamber, already in the right temperature, accelerate and homogenate the air flow and blow it out direct to the front end of the vehicle. For development purposes may be possible eliminate totally the necessity of sending vehicle abroad. It was then decided to use CFD simulation to predict firstly the required fan power necessary to supply winds until 120 km/h at the front end of the vehicle and secondly predict the airflow pattern inside the chamber, considering chamber inlet air, chamber outlet air, exhaust outlet, duct outlet and flow pattern around the vehicle.
Technical Paper

The New Wireless Frontier: Home and Vehicle Connectivity

2004-10-18
2004-21-0068
Our customers expect in their vehicles the same constant connectivity that they experience in their homes through high speed internet portals. New services based on these advances will be transparent and ubiquitous - completely integrated into our lives, just as electricity comes to the wall socket or water from the faucet. The Wi-Fi Radio implements this vision using Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) based on the suite of IEEE 802.11 standards. Drivers have constant wireless connectivity and personalized digital content made available to them through the Wi-Fi Radio. Ford and our partner Delphi developed the Wi-Fi Radio to overcome the inherent functional and packaging limitations of our vehicles, to quickly introduce new technology at affordable prices and to seamlessly integrate new services into the vehicle. We chose the radio as the integration site because the radio is accessible to every customer and affordable on every vehicle.
Technical Paper

Transient Simulation of DGI Engine Injector with Needle Movement

2002-10-21
2002-01-2663
Utilization of direct injection systems is one of the most promising technologies for fuel economy improvement for SI engine powered passenger cars. Engine performance is essentially influenced by the characteristics of the injection equipment. This paper will present CFD analyses of a swirl type GDI injector carried out with the Multiphase Module of AVL's FIRE/SWIFT CFD code. The simulations considered three phases (liquid fuel, fuel vapor, air) and mesh movement. Thus the transient behavior of the injector can be observed. The flow phenomena known from measurement and shown by previous simulation work [2, 7, 10, 11] were reproduced. In particular the simulations shown in this paper could explain the cause for the outstanding atomization characteristics of the swirl type injector, which are caused by cavitation in the nozzle hole.
Technical Paper

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit - A Development Update

2002-03-04
2002-01-0411
Delphi Automotive Systems and BMW are jointly developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology for application in the transportation industry primarily as an on-board Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). In the first application of this joint program, the APU will be used to power an electric air conditioning system without the need for operating the vehicle engine. The SOFC based APU technology has the potential to provide a paradigm shift in the supply of electric power for passenger cars. Furthermore, by supplementing the conventional fuel with reformate in the internal combustion engine, extremely low emissions and high system efficiencies are possible. This is consistent with the increasing power demands in automobiles in the new era of more comfort and safety along with environmental friendliness. Delphi Automotive Systems and BMW were successful in demonstrating an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology in February, 2001.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Brake Caliper Seal-Groove Design

2002-03-04
2002-01-0927
It is well known that the design of the seal groove assembly in the brake caliper greatly influences the braking performance. The rubber seal performs the dual function of sealing the piston bore and retracting the caliper piston after a brake apply. However, the seal function is affected by the configuration of the seal groove, as well as the friction at the piston/seal and groove/seal interfaces. The material properties of the rubber seal are also important design parameters. Issues such as fluid displacement, piston retraction, piston sliding force, and brake drag are some of the critical brake performance parameters that must be considered in every caliper seal-groove design. Presently, the brake caliper seal groove design is still based on empirical rules established mainly from past experience and its performance is achieved through prototype testing.
Technical Paper

Impact of Alkali Metals on the Performance and Mechanical Properties of NOx Adsorber Catalysts

2002-03-04
2002-01-0734
Performance of two types of NOx adsorber catalysts, one based on Ba and the other based on Ba with alkali metals, was compared fresh and after thermal aging. Incorporation of sodium(Na), potassium(K) and cesium(Cs) into NOx adsorber washcoat containing barium significantly increases the NOx conversions in the temperature range of 350-600°C over that of the alkali metal free NOx adsorber catalysts. NOx performance benefit and HC performance penalty were observed on both engine dynamometer and vehicle tests for the “Ba+alkali metals” NOx adsorber catalysts. “Ba+alkali metals” NOx adsorber catalysts also demonstrate superior sulfur resistance with better NOx performance after repeated sulfur poisonings and desulfations over the “Ba based” NOx adsorber catalysts.
Technical Paper

Fast Start-Up On-Board Gasoline Reformer for Near Zero Emissions in Spark-Ignition Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-1011
This paper describes recent progress in our program to develop a gasoline-fueled vehicle with an on-board reformer to provide near-zero tailpipe emissions. An on-board reformer converts gasoline (or another hydrocarbon-containing fuel) into reformate, containing hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO). Reformate has very wide combustion limits to enable SI engine operation under very dilute conditions (either ultra-lean or with heavy exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) concentrations). In previous publications, we have presented engine dynamometer results showing very low emissions with bottled reformate. This paper shows results from an engine linked to an experimental, fast start-up reformer. We present both performance data for the reformer as well as engine emissions and performance results. Program results continue to show an on-board reforming system to be an attractive option for providing near-zero tailpipe emissions to meet low emission standards.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Vehicle Stability with Engine Drag Control

2002-03-04
2002-01-1217
This paper describes the development and implementation of an Engine Drag Control algorithm to improve vehicle stability performance. Engine drag can occur on low and high coefficient surfaces when the driver suddenly releases the throttle. If the engine drag force becomes larger than the frictional force between the tire and the road, the tires will break loose from the surface and slip. This could induce vehicle instability especially with rear drive vehicles on low-coefficient surfaces. The EDC algorithm has been developed to provide accurate control of the wheels. EDC will help reduce the yaw rate of the vehicle and thus achieve greater vehicle stability. The paper also presents methods used to test the robustness of such a system. The purpose of the testing was to ensure that there would be no false activations of EDC under normal driving conditions and also to ensure that, when the system is active, it is mostly transparent to the driver.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of Hybrid Powertrain Strategies

2001-08-20
2001-01-2501
Hybrid electric vehicles have the potential to reduce air pollution and improve fuel economy without sacrificing the present conveniences of long range and available infrastructure that conventional vehicles offer. Hybrid vehicles are generally classified as series or parallel hybrids. A series hybrid vehicle is essentially an electric vehicle with an on-board source of power for charging the batteries. In a parallel hybrid vehicle, the engine and the electric motor can be used to drive the vehicle simultaneously. There are various possible configurations of parallel hybrid vehicles depending on the role of the electric motor/generator and the engine. In this paper, a comparative study of the drivetrains of five different hybrid vehicles is presented. The underlying design architectures are examined, with analysis as to the tradeoffs and advantages represented in these architectures.
Technical Paper

Engine Control Using Torque Estimation

2001-03-05
2001-01-0995
In recent years, the increasing interest and requirements for improved engine diagnostics and control has led to the implementation of several different sensing and signal processing technologies. In order to optimize the performance and emission of an engine, detailed and specified knowledge of the combustion process inside the engine cylinder is required. In that sense, the torque generated by each combustion event in an IC engine is one of the most important variables related to the combustion process and engine performance. This paper introduces torque estimation techniques in the real-time basis for engine control applications using the measurement of crankshaft speed variation. The torque estimation scheme presented in this paper consists of two entirely different approaches, “Stochastic Analysis” and “Frequency Analysis”.
Technical Paper

The Solution for Steady State Temperature Distribution in Monolithic Catalytic Converters

2001-03-05
2001-01-0941
This paper presents a simplified thermal model for round catalytic converters in steady state operation. Using this model, the analytic solution for the temperature distribution in the monolithic substrate is obtained. This analytic solution in the substrate is, then, combined with those in the intumescent mat [1] and the metal shell to obtain the temperature profile in the radial direction of the converter except for three unknown temperatures at the three material interfaces, which can be solved using an Excel application program. This analytical temperature solution facilitates the studies of the effects of various design parameters such as the exhaust gas temperature, exhaust gas flow rate, substrate cell geometry, converter dimensions, and ambient temperature and flow, etc.
Technical Paper

Characterization of the Dynamic Response of a Cylinder Deactivation Valvetrain System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0669
This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of a cylinder deactivation valvetrain system for the integration into an Engine Management System (EMS). A control-oriented lumped parameter model of the deactivation valvetrain system is developed and implemented using Matlab/Simulink, and validated by experimental data. Through simulation and experimental data analysis, the effect of operating conditions on the dynamic response is captured and characterized, over a wide range of operating conditions. The algorithm provides a basis for the calibration of the deactivation hardware. The generic characterization of the dynamic response can simplify the calibration parameters for the implementation in engine management systems.
Technical Paper

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit - A Paradigm Shift in Electric Supply for Transportation

2000-11-01
2000-01-C070
Delphi Automotive Systems and BMW have been jointly developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology for application in the transportation industry primarily as an on-board Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). In the first application of this joint program, the APU will be used to power an electric air conditioning system without the need for operating the vehicle engine. The SOFC-based APU technology has the potential to provide a paradigm shift in the supply of electric power for passenger cars. Furthermore, supplementing the conventional fuel with reformate in the internal combustion engine, extremely low emissions and high system efficiencies are possible. This is consistent with the increasing power demands in automobiles in the new era of more comfort and safety along with environmental friendliness.
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