Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Journal Article

Real-time Sensing of Particulate Matter in a Vehicle Exhaust System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1639
Onboard diagnostic regulations require performance monitoring of diesel particulate filters used in vehicle aftertreatment systems. Delphi has developed a particulate matter (PM) sensor to perform this function. The objective of this sensor is to monitor the soot (PM) concentration in the exhaust downstream of the diesel particulate filter which provides a means to calculate filter efficiency. The particulate matter sensor monitors the deposition of soot on its internal sensing element by measuring the resistance of the deposit. Correlations are established between the soot resistance and soot mass deposited on the sensing element. Currently, the sensor provides the time interval between sensor regeneration cycles, which, with the knowledge of the exhaust gas flow parameters, is correlated to the average soot concentration.
Technical Paper

Development of Electrical-Electronic Controls for a Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0614
Delphi is developing a new combustion technology called Gasoline Direct-injection Compression Ignition (GDCI), which has shown promise for substantially improving fuel economy. This new technology is able to reuse some of the controls common to traditional spark ignition (SI) engines; however, it also requires several new sensors and actuators, some of which are not common to traditional SI engines. Since this is new technology development, the required hardware set has continued to evolve over the course of the project. In order to support this development work, a highly capable and flexible electronic control system is necessary. Integrating all of the necessary functions into a single controller, or two, would require significant up-front controller hardware development, and would limit the adaptability of the electronic controls to the evolving requirements for GDCI.
Technical Paper

Energy Harvesting as Strategy for Reducing Vehicles Emissions

2012-10-02
2012-36-0114
In vehicular mobility context, it is extremely important for the environmental sustainability that the available energy will be used as efficiently as possible, both in the use of internal combustion engines (ICE) as powertrain, as well in the application of Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Motors (HEV/EV). In this comparison, ICE has a lower efficiency when compared to electric motors, wasting much of the potential energy of the fuel in form of heat and noise. On the other hand, the electric vehicles face limitation in autonomy and recharge time, demanding for a more efficient use of energy stored in batteries. This study aims to present emerging technologies for reuse of energy within the automotive context, originally known as “Energy Harvesting” and “Renewable Energies”.
Technical Paper

Palladium/Rhodium Dual-Catalyst LEV 2 and Bin 4 Close-Coupled Emission Solutions

2007-04-16
2007-01-1263
Dual-monolith catalyst systems containing Pd/Rh three-way catalysts (TWCs) provide effective emission solutions for LEV2/Bin 5 and Bin 4 close-coupled applications at low PGM loadings. These systems combine washcoat technology and PGM distribution for front and rear catalysts resulting in optimal hydrocarbon and NOx light-off and transient NOx control. The dual-catalyst [Pd/Rh + Pd/Rh] systems are characterized as a function of Pd-Rh content, PGM location, and catalyst technology for 4-cyl [close-coupled + underfloor] systems and 6-cyl close-coupled applications. The current Pd/Rh dual-catalyst converters significantly reduce NOx emissions compared to earlier [Pd + Pt/Rh] or [Pd + Pd/Rh] LEV/ULEV systems by utilizing uniform Rh distribution and new OSC materials. These new design strategies particularly impact NOx performance, especially during transient A/F excursions.
Technical Paper

The New Wireless Frontier: Home and Vehicle Connectivity

2004-10-18
2004-21-0068
Our customers expect in their vehicles the same constant connectivity that they experience in their homes through high speed internet portals. New services based on these advances will be transparent and ubiquitous - completely integrated into our lives, just as electricity comes to the wall socket or water from the faucet. The Wi-Fi Radio implements this vision using Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) based on the suite of IEEE 802.11 standards. Drivers have constant wireless connectivity and personalized digital content made available to them through the Wi-Fi Radio. Ford and our partner Delphi developed the Wi-Fi Radio to overcome the inherent functional and packaging limitations of our vehicles, to quickly introduce new technology at affordable prices and to seamlessly integrate new services into the vehicle. We chose the radio as the integration site because the radio is accessible to every customer and affordable on every vehicle.
Technical Paper

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit - A Development Update

2002-03-04
2002-01-0411
Delphi Automotive Systems and BMW are jointly developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology for application in the transportation industry primarily as an on-board Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). In the first application of this joint program, the APU will be used to power an electric air conditioning system without the need for operating the vehicle engine. The SOFC based APU technology has the potential to provide a paradigm shift in the supply of electric power for passenger cars. Furthermore, by supplementing the conventional fuel with reformate in the internal combustion engine, extremely low emissions and high system efficiencies are possible. This is consistent with the increasing power demands in automobiles in the new era of more comfort and safety along with environmental friendliness. Delphi Automotive Systems and BMW were successful in demonstrating an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology in February, 2001.
Technical Paper

Impact of Alkali Metals on the Performance and Mechanical Properties of NOx Adsorber Catalysts

2002-03-04
2002-01-0734
Performance of two types of NOx adsorber catalysts, one based on Ba and the other based on Ba with alkali metals, was compared fresh and after thermal aging. Incorporation of sodium(Na), potassium(K) and cesium(Cs) into NOx adsorber washcoat containing barium significantly increases the NOx conversions in the temperature range of 350-600°C over that of the alkali metal free NOx adsorber catalysts. NOx performance benefit and HC performance penalty were observed on both engine dynamometer and vehicle tests for the “Ba+alkali metals” NOx adsorber catalysts. “Ba+alkali metals” NOx adsorber catalysts also demonstrate superior sulfur resistance with better NOx performance after repeated sulfur poisonings and desulfations over the “Ba based” NOx adsorber catalysts.
Technical Paper

Fast Start-Up On-Board Gasoline Reformer for Near Zero Emissions in Spark-Ignition Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-1011
This paper describes recent progress in our program to develop a gasoline-fueled vehicle with an on-board reformer to provide near-zero tailpipe emissions. An on-board reformer converts gasoline (or another hydrocarbon-containing fuel) into reformate, containing hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO). Reformate has very wide combustion limits to enable SI engine operation under very dilute conditions (either ultra-lean or with heavy exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) concentrations). In previous publications, we have presented engine dynamometer results showing very low emissions with bottled reformate. This paper shows results from an engine linked to an experimental, fast start-up reformer. We present both performance data for the reformer as well as engine emissions and performance results. Program results continue to show an on-board reforming system to be an attractive option for providing near-zero tailpipe emissions to meet low emission standards.
Technical Paper

The Solution for Steady State Temperature Distribution in Monolithic Catalytic Converters

2001-03-05
2001-01-0941
This paper presents a simplified thermal model for round catalytic converters in steady state operation. Using this model, the analytic solution for the temperature distribution in the monolithic substrate is obtained. This analytic solution in the substrate is, then, combined with those in the intumescent mat [1] and the metal shell to obtain the temperature profile in the radial direction of the converter except for three unknown temperatures at the three material interfaces, which can be solved using an Excel application program. This analytical temperature solution facilitates the studies of the effects of various design parameters such as the exhaust gas temperature, exhaust gas flow rate, substrate cell geometry, converter dimensions, and ambient temperature and flow, etc.
Technical Paper

Characterization of the Dynamic Response of a Cylinder Deactivation Valvetrain System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0669
This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of a cylinder deactivation valvetrain system for the integration into an Engine Management System (EMS). A control-oriented lumped parameter model of the deactivation valvetrain system is developed and implemented using Matlab/Simulink, and validated by experimental data. Through simulation and experimental data analysis, the effect of operating conditions on the dynamic response is captured and characterized, over a wide range of operating conditions. The algorithm provides a basis for the calibration of the deactivation hardware. The generic characterization of the dynamic response can simplify the calibration parameters for the implementation in engine management systems.
Technical Paper

Development of a Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor Electrical Model for Optimum NOx Removal Performance

2000-10-16
2000-01-2893
A double dielectric barrier discharge reactor driven by an alternating voltage is a relatively simple approach to promote oxidation of NO to NO2 for subsequent reduction in a catalyst bed. The chemical performance of such a non-thermal plasma reactor is determined by its current and electric field behavior in the gap, and by the fraction of the current carried by electrons, because the key reactants which initiate the NO oxidation and accompanying chemical changes are produced there, mostly by electron impact. We have tried to determine by models and experiments the bounds on performance of double dielectric barrier reactors and guidelines for optimization. Models reported here predict chemical results from time-resolved applied voltage and series sense capacitor data.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Corona Reactors of Several Geometries for a Plasma Assisted Nitrogen Oxide Emission Reduction Device

2000-10-16
2000-01-2899
Proposed vehicle emissions regulations for the near future have prompted automotive manufactures and component suppliers to focus heavily on developing more efficient exhaust aftertreatment devices to lower emissions from spark and compression ignition engines. One of the primary pollutants from lean-burn engines, especially from diesels, are oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Current three-way catalytic converters will not have adequate performance to meet future emission reduction requirements. Therefore, there is a need for researchers and engineers to develop efficient exhaust aftertreatment devices that will reduce NOx emissions from lean-burn engines. These devices must have very high conversion of NOx gases, be unaffected by exhaust-gas impurity such as sulfur, and have minimal impact on vehicle operations and fuel economy. An effective technology for NOx control that is currently receiving a lot of attention is a non-thermal plasma system.
Technical Paper

Application of Non-Thermal Plasma Assisted Catalyst Technology for Diesel Engine Emission Reduction

2000-08-21
2000-01-3088
With new legislation and federal regulation for vehicle emission levels, automotive and truck manufacturers have been prompted to focus on emission control technologies that limit the level of exhaust pollutants. One of the primary pollutants, especially from diesel engines, is oxides of nitrogen (NOx). One possible solution to this pollution challenge is to design a more efficient internal combustion engine, which would require better engine operating parameter controls. However, there are limitations associated with such tight engine management. This need has led researchers and engineers to focus on the development of exhaust aftertreatment devices that will reduce NOx emissions with current diesel engines. An optimum aftertreatment device must be unaffected by exhaust-gas impurity poisoning such as sulfur products, and must have minimal impact on vehicle operations and fuel economy.
Technical Paper

The Assembly Deformation and Pressure of Stuffed Catalytic Converter Accounting for the Hysteresis Behavior of Pressure vs Density Curve of the Intumescent Mat

2000-03-06
2000-01-0223
Accurately predicting converter assembly deformation and mat pressure is essential in converter packaging design and manufacturing. In stuffing packaging, the annulus between the deformed shell and the catalyst is larger than that between the stuffing cone and the catalyst. As a result, the mat expands and undergoes unloading process. Tests show that the mat exhibits different loading and unloading characteristics. Using such a hysteresis mat pressure vs density curve in finite element analysis, the computed converter deformations closely agree with test data. Conversly, neglecting the mat hysteresis behavior may overestimate the deformation and pressure by a factor of three to four.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Fast Light-Off Planar Oxygen Sensor Application for Exhaust Emissions Reduction

2000-03-06
2000-01-0888
It is well known that hydrocarbon reduction during a cold start is a major issue in achieving ultra low emissions standards. This paper describes one of the possible approaches for reducing the cold-start hydrocarbon emissions by using a fast “light-off” planar oxygen sensor. The goal of this study was to verify the operation characteristics of Delphi's fast “light-off” planar oxygen sensor's (INTELLEK OSP) operating characteristics and the closed-loop performance for achieving improved hydrocarbon control for stringent emission standards. Tests were conducted in open-loop and closed-loop mode under steady and transient conditions using a 1996 model year 2.4-liter DOHC in-line 4-cylinder engine with a close-coupled catalytic converter. Overall performance of the OSP showed relatively quick reaction time to reach the operating temperature.
Technical Paper

Analytical Solution for Heat Flow in Cylinder and Its Application in Calculating Converter Skin Temperature

2000-03-06
2000-01-0301
In the catalytic converter, the thermal conductivity of the insulation material (intumescent mat) placed between the ceramic catalyst and the metal shell is strongly dependent on the temperature, resulting in the solving of non-linear heat conduction equations. In this paper, the analytic solution for the steady heat flow in a cylinder with temperature dependent conductivity is given. Using this analytic solution for the mat and including convection and radiation at the converter skin, an analytical expression for calculating converter skin temperature is obtained. This expression can be easily incorporated in a Fortran code to calculate the temperatures.
Technical Paper

Palladium and Platinum/Rhodium Dual-Catalyst Emission Solutions for Close-Coupled or Underfloor Applications

2000-03-06
2000-01-0860
Dual-brick catalyst systems containing Pd-only catalysts followed by Pt/Rh three-way catalysts (TWCs) are effective emission solutions for both close-coupled and underfloor LEV/ULEV applications due to optimal hydrocarbon light-off, NOx control, and balance of precious metal (PGM) usage. Dual-brick [Pd +Pt/Rh] systems on 3.8L V-6 LEV-calibrated vehicles were characterized as a function of PGM loading, catalyst technology, converter volumes, and substrate cell density. While hydrocarbon emissions improve with increasing Pd loading, decreasing the front catalyst volume at constant Pd content (resulting in higher Pd density) improved light-off emissions. Use of 600cpsi substrates improved underfloor NMHC emissions on a 3.8L vehicle by ∼ 6-10mg/mi compared to 400cpsi catalysts, and thus allowing reduction of catalyst volume while achieving ULEV emission levels without air addition.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Oxygen Sensor

2000-03-06
2000-01-1364
Optimization of the mechanical aspects of a heated conical oxygen sensor for desired performances, such as low heater power, good poison resistance, fast light-off, and broad temperature range, etc. was achieved with computer modeling. CFD analysis was used to model the flow field in and around a sensor in an exhaust pipe to predict the convection coefficients, poisoning, and switching time. Heat transfer analysis coupled with electrical heating was applied to predict temperature and light-off time. Results of the optimization are illustrated, with good agreements between modeling and testing.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Non-Thermal Plasma System for Remediation of NOx in Diesel Exhaust

1999-10-25
1999-01-3639
With ever more stringent CO2 emissions mandates, many automobile manufacturers are seeking the fuel economy benefits of diesel and lean-burn gasoline engines. At the same time the emissions standards that diesel and gasoline engines will have to meet in the next decade continue to reduce. Proposed solutions for meeting the stringent emissions standards all appear to have limitations, such as propensities to poisoning from sulfur, narrow operating temperature windows, and requirements for controls that give rapid rich excursions. Non-thermal plasma-catalyst systems have shown good performance in bench testing while being largely unaffected by these same issues. A two-stage system with a unique non-thermal plasma reactor combined with a zeolite-based catalyst has been constructed and shown to work over a wide temperature range.
Technical Paper

CFD-Aided Development of Spray for an Outwardly Opening Direct Injection Gasoline Injector

1998-02-23
980493
A high pressure outwardly opening fuel injector has been developed to produce sprays that meet the stringent requirements of gasoline direct injection (DI) combustion systems. Predictions of spray characteristics have been made using KIVA-3 in conjunction with Star-CD injector flow modeling. After some modeling iterations, the nozzle design has been optimized for the required flow, injector performance, and spray characteristics. The hardware test results of flow and spray have confirmed the numerical modeling accuracy and the spray quality. The spray's average Sauter mean diameter (SMD) is less than 15 microns at 30 mm distance from the nozzle. The DV90, defined as the drop diameter such that 90% of the total liquid volume is in drops of smaller diameter, is less than 40 microns. The maximum penetration is about 70 mm into air at atmospheric pressure. An initial spray slug is not created due to the absence of a sac volume.
X