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Technical Paper

Quantifying the Effects of Biodiesel Blend Ratio, at Varying Ambient Temperatures, on Vehicle Performance and Emissions

A number of studies have been carried out examining the impact of biodiesel blend ratio on vehicle performance and emissions, however there is relatively little data available on the interaction between blend ratio and reduced ambient temperatures over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). This study examines the effects of increasing the blend ratio of Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) on the NEDC fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions of a vehicle equipped with a 2.0 litre common rail diesel engine, tested on a chassis dynamometer at ambient temperatures of 25, 10 & −5°C. This study found that under low temperature ambient conditions increasing blend ratios had a significant detrimental effect on vehicle particulate emissions reversing the benefits observed at higher ambient temperatures. Blend ratio was found to have minimal impact on hydrocarbon emissions regardless of ambient temperature while carbon monoxide and NOx emissions were found to increase by up to 20% and 5.5% respectively.
Journal Article

Experimental Characterisation of Heat Transfer in Exhaust Pipe Sections

This paper describes the characterisation of heat transfer in a series of 11 test sections designed to represent a range of configurations seen in production exhaust systems, which is part of a larger activity aimed at the accurate modeling of heat transfer and subsequent catalyst light off in production exhaust systems comprised of similar geometries. These sections include variations in wall thickness, diameter, bend angle and radius. For each section a range of transient and steady state tests were performed on a dynamic test cell using a port injected gasoline engine. In each case a correlation between observed Reynolds number (Re) and Nusselt number (Nu) was developed. A model of the system was implemented in Matlab/Simulink in which each pipe element was split into 25 sub-elements by dividing the pipe into five both axially and radially. The modeling approach was validated using the experimental data.