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Technical Paper

Mass Benefit Analysis of 4-Stroke and Wankel Range Extenders in an Electric Vehicle over a Defined Drive Cycle with Respect to Vehicle Range and Fuel Consumption

The gradual push towards electric vehicles (EV) as a primary mode of transport has resulted in an increased focus on electric and hybrid powertrain research. One answer to the consumers’ concern over EV range is the implementation of small combustion engines as generators to supplement the energy stored in the vehicle battery. Since these range extender generators have the opportunity to run in a small operating window, some engine types that have historically struggled in an automotive setting have the potential to be competitive. The relative merits of two different engine options for range extended electric vehicles are simulated in vehicle across the WLTP drive cycle. The baseline electric vehicle chosen was the BMW i3 owing to its availability as an EV with and without a range extender gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

A Study on Dynamic Torque Cancellation in a Range Extender Unit

A range extended electric vehicle (REEV) has the benefit of zero pipeline emission for most of the daily commute driving using the full electric mode while maintaining the capability for a long-range trip without the requirement of stop-and-charge. This capability is provided by the on-board auxiliary power unit (APU) which is used to maintain the battery state of charge at a minimum limit. Due to the limited APU package size, a small capacity engine with low-cylindercount is normally used which inherently exposes more severe torque pulsation, that arises from a low firing frequency. By using vector control, it is feasible to vary the generator in-cycle torque to counteract the engine torque oscillation dynamically. This allows for a smoother operation of the APU with the possibility of reducing the size of the engine flywheel. In this paper, a series of motor/generator control torque patterns were applied with the aim of cancelling the engine in-cycle torque pulses.
Technical Paper

Stability Study of DC Electric Power System with Paralleled Generators for More-Electric Aircraft

Many More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) Electric Power System (EPS) architecture paradigms are being studied in order to provide the on-board electrical loads with high-quality supply and to ensure safe operation. EPS with dc distribution appears to be more promising due to higher efficiency, higher reliability, easier integration and lower overall weight. Another advantage of dc systems is the ease of sources paralleling, together with the optimization of load power sharing, this can lead to further EPS weight reduction. The DC bus can be fed by multiple sources such as generators, batteries and other energy storage devices. Many loads in MEA EPS are tightly controlled by power electronic converters and often behave as constant power loads (CPL). These are known as main contributors to the degradation of EPS stability margins. Therefore, stability study is one of the key topics in the assessment of potential EPS architecture candidates.
Technical Paper

Energy Harvesting as Strategy for Reducing Vehicles Emissions

In vehicular mobility context, it is extremely important for the environmental sustainability that the available energy will be used as efficiently as possible, both in the use of internal combustion engines (ICE) as powertrain, as well in the application of Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Motors (HEV/EV). In this comparison, ICE has a lower efficiency when compared to electric motors, wasting much of the potential energy of the fuel in form of heat and noise. On the other hand, the electric vehicles face limitation in autonomy and recharge time, demanding for a more efficient use of energy stored in batteries. This study aims to present emerging technologies for reuse of energy within the automotive context, originally known as “Energy Harvesting” and “Renewable Energies”.
Technical Paper

Full Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Battery Pack System Design, CFD Simulation and Testing

CFD analysis was performed using the FLUENT software to design the thermal system for a hybrid vehicle battery pack. The battery pack contained multiple modular battery elements, called bricks, and the inlet and outlet bus bars that electrically connected the bricks into a series string. The simulated thermal system was comprised of the vehicle cabin, seat cavity, inlet plenum, battery pack, a downstream centrifugal fan, and the vehicle trunk. The fan was modeled using a multiple reference frame approach. A full system analysis was done for airflow and thermal performance optimization to ensure the most uniform cell temperatures under all operating conditions. The mesh for the full system was about 13 million cells run on a 6-node HP cluster. A baseline design was first analyzed for fluid-thermal performance. Subsequently, multiple design iterations were run to create uniform airflow among all the individual bricks while minimizing parasitic pressure drop.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of Hybrid Powertrain Strategies

Hybrid electric vehicles have the potential to reduce air pollution and improve fuel economy without sacrificing the present conveniences of long range and available infrastructure that conventional vehicles offer. Hybrid vehicles are generally classified as series or parallel hybrids. A series hybrid vehicle is essentially an electric vehicle with an on-board source of power for charging the batteries. In a parallel hybrid vehicle, the engine and the electric motor can be used to drive the vehicle simultaneously. There are various possible configurations of parallel hybrid vehicles depending on the role of the electric motor/generator and the engine. In this paper, a comparative study of the drivetrains of five different hybrid vehicles is presented. The underlying design architectures are examined, with analysis as to the tradeoffs and advantages represented in these architectures.
Technical Paper

A Review of Cell Equalization Methods for Lithium Ion and Lithium Polymer Battery Systems

Lithium-based battery technology offers performance advantages over traditional battery technologies at the cost of increased monitoring and controls overhead. Multiple-cell Lead-Acid battery packs can be equalized by a controlled overcharge, eliminating the need to periodically adjust individual cells to match the rest of the pack. Lithium-based based batteries cannot be equalized by an overcharge, so alternative methods are required. This paper discusses several cell-balancing methodologies. Active cell balancing methods remove charge from one or more high cells and deliver the charge to one or more low cells. Dissipative techniques find the high cells in the pack, and remove excess energy through a resistive element until their charges match the low cells. This paper presents the theory of charge balancing techniques and the advantages and disadvantages of the presented methods.
Technical Paper

Dual-Voltage Electrical System with a Fuel Cell Power Unit

Fuel cells show great promise in generating electrical power for a variety of uses. In the automotive realm, one focus has been on the use of fuel cells for primary vehicle propulsion. Another emerging application is the fuel cell as the primary provider of electrical power to the vehicle, augmenting or replacing the traditional alternator, while producing higher power levels. The advantage of the fuel cell in this role is that the fuel cell operation is de-coupled from that of the engine. High power levels can be achieved independent of engine speed and power can be produced without the engine running. This paper examines the application of a fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) to a dual-voltage 42V/14V automotive electrical system meeting the evolving 42V PowerNet specifications. An architecture for this electrical system is presented, followed by a sizing analysis to properly match the fuel cell stack to the voltage of the PowerNet and to a 42V battery pack.
Technical Paper

Batteries for 42/14 Volt Automotive Electrical Systems

The automotive industry is moving to a higher voltage for the electrical system. This change will occur because the total electrical power required by the vehicles will increase to a level where the current requirements at 14 volts will be impractical. Some of the new loads will change the duty cycle of the battery. The most notable change is the proposed start/stop mode of vehicle operation where the engine is stopped and restarted frequently to avoid prolonged operation at idle. An additional feature would be to use an electric motor to assist in acceleration and/or to actually launch the vehicle. This paper addresses the changes in battery requirements brought on by these new features. A means of analysis for choosing the appropriate battery technology is presented. We also propose a life test to establish a benchmark for current battery technology when it is used in a new duty cycle.