Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Sub-23 nm Particulate Emissions from a Highly Boosted GDI Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0153
The European Particle Measurement Program (PMP) defines the current standard for measurement of Particle Number (PN) emissions from vehicles in Europe. This specifies a 50% count efficiency (D50) at 23 nm and a 90% count efficiency (D90) at 41 nm. Particulate emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have been widely studied, but usually only in the context of PMP or similar sampling procedures. There is increasing interest in the smallest particles - i.e. smaller than 23 nm - which can be emitted from vehicles. The literature suggest that by moving D50 to 10 nm, PN emissions from GDI engines might increase by between 35 and 50% but there remains a lot of uncertainty.
Technical Paper

Inner-Insulated Turbocharger Technology to Reduce Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Modern Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0184
Reducing emissions from light duty vehicles is critical to meet current and future air quality targets. With more focus on real world emissions from light-duty vehicles, the interactions between engine and exhaust gas aftertreatment are critical. For modern engines, most emissions are generated during the warm-up phase following a cold start. For Diesel engines this is exaggerated due to colder exhaust temperatures and larger aftertreatment systems. The De-NOx aftertreatment can be particularly problematic. Engine manufacturers are required to take measures to address these temperature issues which often result in higher fuel consumption (retarding combustion, increasing engine load or reducing the Diesel air-fuel ratio). In this paper we consider an inner-insulated turbocharger as an alternative, passive technology which aims to reduce the exhaust heat losses between the engine and the aftertreatment. Firstly, the concept and design of the inner-insulated turbocharger is presented.
Technical Paper

Morphological Characterization of Gasoline Soot-in-Oil: Development of Semi-Automated 2D-TEM and Comparison with Novel High-Throughput 3D-TEM

2019-09-09
2019-24-0042
Characterization of soot nanoparticle morphology can be used to develop understanding of nanoparticle interaction with engine lubricant oil and its additives. It can be used to help direct modelling of soot-induced thickening, and in a more general sense for combatting reductions in engine efficiency that occur with soot-laden oils. Traditional 2D transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization possesses several important shortcomings related to accuracy that have prompted development of an alternative 3D characterization technique utilizing electron tomography, known as 3D-TEM. This work details progress made towards facilitating semi-automated image acquisition and processing for location of structures of interest on the TEM grid. Samples were taken from a four cylinder 1.4 L gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engine operated in typically extra-urban driving conditions for 20,284 km, with automatic cylinder deactivation enabled.
Technical Paper

Soot in the Lubricating Oil: An Overlooked Concern for the Gasoline Direct Injection Engine?

2019-04-02
2019-01-0301
Formation of soot is a known phenomenon for diesel engines, however, only recently emerged for gasoline engines with the introduction of direct injection systems. Soot-in-oil samples from a three-cylinder turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine have been analysed. The samples were collected from the oil sump after periods of use in predominantly urban driving conditions with start-stop mode activated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to measure the soot content in the drained oils. Soot deposition rates were similar to previously reported rates for diesel engines, i.e. 1 wt% per 15,000 km, thus indicating a similar importance. Morphology was assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Images showed fractal agglomerates comprising multiple primary particles with characteristic core-shell nanostructure. Furthermore, large amorphous structures were observed. Primary particle sizes ranged from 12 to 55 nm, with a mean diameter of 30 nm and mode at 31 nm.
Technical Paper

Mass Benefit Analysis of 4-Stroke and Wankel Range Extenders in an Electric Vehicle over a Defined Drive Cycle with Respect to Vehicle Range and Fuel Consumption

2019-04-02
2019-01-1282
The gradual push towards electric vehicles (EV) as a primary mode of transport has resulted in an increased focus on electric and hybrid powertrain research. One answer to the consumers’ concern over EV range is the implementation of small combustion engines as generators to supplement the energy stored in the vehicle battery. Since these range extender generators have the opportunity to run in a small operating window, some engine types that have historically struggled in an automotive setting have the potential to be competitive. The relative merits of two different engine options for range extended electric vehicles are simulated in vehicle across the WLTP drive cycle. The baseline electric vehicle chosen was the BMW i3 owing to its availability as an EV with and without a range extender gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke Engine Options for Automotive Use: A Fundamental Comparison of Different Potential Scavenging Arrangements for Medium-Duty Truck Applications

2019-01-15
2019-01-0071
The work presented here seeks to compare different means of providing scavenging systems for an automotive 2-stroke engine. It follows on from previous work solely investigating uniflow scavenging systems, and aims to provide context for the results discovered there as well as to assess the benefits of a new scavenging system: the reverse-uniflow sleeve-valve. For the study the general performance of the engine was taken to be suitable to power a medium-duty truck, and all of the concepts discussed here were compared in terms of indicated fuel consumption for the same cylinder swept volume using a one-dimensional engine simulation package. In order to investigate the sleeve-valve designs layout drawings and analysis of the Rolls-Royce Crecy-type sleeve had to be undertaken.
Technical Paper

Testing of a Modern Wankel Rotary Engine - Part I: Experimental Plan, Development of the Software Tools and Measurement Systems

2019-01-15
2019-01-0075
Wankel rotary engines are becoming an increasingly popular area of research with regard to their use as a range extender in the next generation of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). Due to their simple design, lightness, compactness and very favourable power-to-weight ratio, they represent one of the best alternative solutions to classic reciprocating piston engines. On the other hand, current Wankel engines still need improvements in terms of specific fuel consumption and emissions. This paper describes an innovative approach for the assessment of the performance of a modern rotary engine. All the experimental activities will be carried out within the Innovate UK funded ADAPT Intelligent Powertrain project led by Westfield Sportscars Limited.
Journal Article

Assessing the Impact of FAME and Diesel Fuel Composition on Stability and Vehicle Filter Blocking

2019-01-15
2019-01-0049
In recent years, there has been an impetus in the automotive industry to develop newer diesel injection systems with a view to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. This development has led to hardware capable of higher pressures, typically up to 2500 bar. An increase in pressure will result in a corresponding increase in fuel temperature after compression with studies showing changes in fuel temperatures of up to 150 °C in 1000-2500 bar injection systems. Until recently, the addition of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters, FAME, to diesel had been blamed for a number of fuel system durability issues such as injector deposits and fuel filter blocking. Despite a growing acceptance within the automotive and petrochemical industries that FAME is not solely to blame for diesel instability, there is a lack of published literature in the area, with many studies still focusing on FAME oxidation to explain deposit formation and hardware durability.
Technical Paper

Potential Improvements in Turbofan’s Performance by Electric Power Transfer

2018-10-30
2018-01-1962
Bleeding in engines is essential to mitigate the unmatched air massflow between low and High Pressure (HP) compressors at low speed settings, thus avoiding unstable operation due to surge and phenomena. However, by emerging the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) the engine is equipped with electrical machines on both high and Low Pressure (LP) spools which enables transfer of power electrically from one spool to another and hence provides the opportunity to operate engine core components closer to their optimum design point at off-design conditions. At lower power setting of the engine, HPC speed can be increased by taking power from LP shaft and feeding it to HP shaft which can lead to the removal of the bleeding system which in turn reduces weight and fuel consumption and help to overcome engine instability issues. Fuel consumption can be decreased by decreasing inconsistent thrust with the aircraft mission for flight and ground idle settings.
Technical Paper

Transient Stability Analysis of DC Solid State Power Controller (SSPC) for More Electric Aircraft

2018-10-30
2018-01-1927
The solid state power controller (SSPC) is one of the most important power electronic components of the aircraft electrical power distribution (EPS) systems. This paper presents an architecture of the DC SSPC and provides the mitigation techniques for transient voltage overshoot during its turn-off. The high source side inductance carries breaking current (9xnominal current) just before turnoff and induces large voltage transient across the semiconductor devices. Therefore, the stored inductive energy needs to be dissipated in order to prevent semiconductor switches from over-voltage/thermal breakdown. Three different transient voltage suppression (TVS) devices to reduce voltage stress across switches are included in the paper for detail study. The comprehensive comparison of the TVS devices is presented. In addition, the thermal impact of the TVS devices on the semiconductor switches is also analyzed.
Technical Paper

Octane Response of a Highly Boosted Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine at Different Compression Ratios

2018-04-03
2018-01-0269
Stringent regulations on fuel economy have driven major innovative changes in the internal combustion engine design. (E.g. CAFE fuel economy standards of 54.5 mpg by 2025 in the U.S) Vehicle manufacturers have implemented engine infrastructure changes such as downsizing, direct injection, higher compression ratios and turbo-charging/super-charging to achieve higher engine efficiencies. Fuel properties therefore, have to align with these engine changes in order to fully exploit the possible benefits. Fuel octane number is a key metric that enables high fuel efficiency in an engine. Greater resistance to auto-ignition (knock) of the fuel/air mixture allows engines to be operated at a higher compression ratio for a given quantity of intake charge without severely retarding the spark timing resulting in a greater torque per mass of fuel burnt. This attribute makes a high octane fuel a favorable hydrocarbon choice for modern high efficiency engines that aim for higher fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Factors Affecting Test Precision in Latest Vehicle Technologies

2018-04-03
2018-01-0640
Demonstrating the cost/benefits of technologies in the automotive sector is becoming very challenging because the benefits from technologies are sometimes of similar magnitude to testing precision. This paper aims to understand vehicle-borne imprecision and the effect of this on the quality of chassis dynamometer (CD) testing. Fuel consumption and NOx emissions precision is analyzed for two diesel vehicles with particulate filter and SCR systems. The two vehicles were tested on a high precision CD facility over the NEDC (New European Drive Cycle) and WLTC (World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle) cycles. The CD base precision of testing was characterized between 0.6-3% depending on the cycle phase. A novel application of multi-variate statistical analysis was used to identify the factors that affected testing precision, allowing isolation of small differences that were not obvious when conducting cycle-averaged or cycle-phase-averaged analysis.
Technical Paper

Morphological Characterisation of Diesel Soot in Oil and the Associated Extraction Dependence

2018-04-03
2018-01-0935
The size and morphology of soot particles and agglomerates extracted from lubricating oil drawn from the sump of a diesel engine have been investigated and compared using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA). Samples were prepared for electron microscopy imaging by both centrifugation and solvent extraction to investigate the impact of these procedures on the morphological characteristics, such as skeleton length and width and circularity, of the obtained soot. It was shown that centrifugation increases the extent of agglomeration within the sample, with 15% of the agglomerates above 200 nm compared to only 11% in the solvent extracted soot. It was also observed that the width of centrifugation extracted soot was typically 10 nm to 20 nm larger than that of solvent extracted soot, suggesting that centrifugation forces the individual agglomerate chains together.
Technical Paper

Development and Optimisation of an Adaptive Safety Monitor

2018-04-03
2018-01-0867
Fuel economy and emission challenges are pushing automotive OEMs to develop alternative hybrid-electric, and full-electric powertrains. This increases variation in potential powertrain architectures, exacerbating the already complex control software used to coordinate various propulsion devices within the vehicle. Safety of this control software must be ensured through high-integrity software monitoring functions that detect faults and ensure safe mitigating action is taken. With the complexity of the control software, this monitoring functionality has itself become complex, requiring extensive modification for each new powertrain architecture. Significant effort is required to develop, calibrate, and verify to ensure safety (as defined by ISO 26262). But this must also be robust against false fault-detection, thereby maximising vehicle availability to the customer.
Journal Article

The Application of New Approaches to the Analysis of Deposits from the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester (JFTOT)

2017-10-08
2017-01-2293
Studies of diesel system deposits continue to be the subject of interest and publications worldwide. The introduction of high pressure common rail systems resulting in high fuel temperatures in the system with the concomitant use of fuels of varying solubilizing ability (e.g. ULSD and FAME blends) have seen deposits formed at the tip of the injector and on various internal injector components. Though deposit control additives (DCAs) have been successfully deployed to mitigate the deposit formation, work is still required to understand the nature and composition of these deposits. The study of both tip and internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) has seen the development of a number of bench techniques in an attempt to mimic field injector deposits in the laboratory. One of the most used of these is the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester or JFTOT (ASTM D3241).
Technical Paper

Evaluating Performance of Uncoated GPF in Real World Driving Using Experimental Results and CFD modelling

2017-09-04
2017-24-0128
Environmental authorities such as EPA, VCA have enforced stringent emissions legislation governing air pollutants released into the atmosphere. Of particular interest is the challenge introduced by the limit on particulate number (PN) counting (#/km) and real driving emissions (RDE) testing; with new emissions legislation being shortly introduced for the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are considered the most immediate solution. While engine calibration and testing over the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) allow for the limits to be met, real driving emission and cold start constitute a real challenge. The present work focuses on an experimental durability study on road under real world driving conditions. Two sets of experiments were carried out. The first study analyzed a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) (2.4 liter, diameter 5.2” round) installed in the underfloor (UF) position and driven up to 200k km.
Technical Paper

Influence of Coolant Temperature and Flow Rate, and Air Flow on Knock Performance of a Downsized, Highly Boosted, Direct-Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0664
The causes of engine knock are well understood but it is important to be able to relate these causes to the effects of controllable engine parameters. This study attempts to quantify the effects of a portion of the available engine parameters on the knock behavior of a 60% downsized, DISI engine running at approximately 23 bar BMEP. The engines response to three levels of coolant flow rate, coolant temperature and exhaust back pressure were investigated independently. Within the tested ranges, very little change in the knock limited spark advance (KLSA) was observed. The effects of valve timing on scavenge flow and blow through (the flow of fresh air straight into the exhaust system during the valve overlap period) were investigated at two conditions; at fixed inlet/exhaust manifold pressures, and at fixed engine torque. For both conditions, a matrix of 8 intake/exhaust cam combinations was tested, resulting in a wide range of valve overlap conditions (from 37 to -53°CA).
Journal Article

The Effects of Cylinder Deactivation on the Thermal Behaviour and Performance of a Three Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2160
A physics based, lumped thermal capacity model of a 1litre, 3 cylinder, turbocharged, directly injected spark ignition engine has been developed to investigate the effects of cylinder deactivation on the thermal behaviour and fuel economy of small capacity, 3 cylinder engines. When one is deactivated, the output of the two firing cylinders is increased by 50%. The largest temperature differences resulting from this are between exhaust ports and between the upper parts of liners of the deactivated cylinder and the adjacent firing cylinder. These differences increase with load. The deactivated cylinder liner cools to near-coolant temperature. Temperatures in the lower engine structure show little response to deactivation. Temperature response times following deactivation or reactivation events are similar. Motoring work for the deactivated cylinder is a minor loss; the net benefit of deactivation diminishes with increasing load.
Journal Article

Analysis of a Diesel Passenger Car Behavior On-Road and over Certification Duty Cycles

2016-10-17
2016-01-2328
Precise, repeatable and representative testing is a key tool for developing and demonstrating automotive fuel and lubricant products. This paper reports on the first findings of a project that aims to determine the requirements for highly repeatable test methods to measure very small differences in fuel economy and powertrain performance. This will be underpinned by identifying and quantifying the variations inherent to this specific test vehicle, both on-road and on Chassis Dynamometer (CD), that create a barrier to improved testing methods. In this initial work, a comparison was made between on-road driving, the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) and World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) cycles to understand the behavior of various vehicle systems along with the discrepancies that can arise owing to the particular conditions of the standard test cycles.
Journal Article

Control Design for PMM-Based Generator Fed by Active Front-End Rectifier in More-Electric Aircraft

2016-09-20
2016-01-1987
The future aircraft electrical power system is expected to be more efficient, safer, simpler in servicing and easier in maintenance. As a result, many existing hydraulic and pneumatic power driven systems are being replaced by their electrical counterparts. This trend is known as a move towards the More-Electric Aircraft (MEA). As a result, a large number of new electrical loads have been introduced in order to power many primary functions including actuation, de-icing, cabin air-conditioning, and engine start. Therefore electric power generation systems have a key role in supporting this technological trend. Advances in modern power electronics allow the concept of starter/generator (S/G) which enables electrical engine start and power generation using the same electrical machine. This results in substantial improvements in power density and reduced overall weight.
X