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Technical Paper

Cepstrum Analysis of a Rate Tube Injection Measurement Device

With a push to continuously develop traditional engine technology efficiencies and meet stringent emissions requirements, there is a need to improve the precision of injection rate measurement used to characterise the performance of the fuel injectors. New challenges in precisely characterising injection rate present themselves to the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), with the additional requirements to measure multiple injection strategies, increased injection pressure and rate features. One commonly used method of measurement is the rate tube injection analyser; it measures the pressure wave caused by the injection within a column of stationary fluid. In a rate tube, one of the significant sources of signal distortion is a result of the injected fluid pressure waves reflected back from the tube termination.
Technical Paper

Near Nozzle Field Conditions in Diesel Fuel Injector Testing

The measurement of the rate of fuel injection using a constant volume, fluid filled chamber and measuring the pressure change as a function of time due to the injected fluid (the so called “Zeuch” method) is an industry standard due to its simple theoretical underpinnings. Such a measurement device is useful to determine key timing and quantity parameters for injection system improvements to meet the evolving requirements of emissions, power and economy. This study aims to further the understanding of the nature of cavitation which could occur in the near nozzle region under these specific conditions of liquid into liquid injection using high pressure diesel injectors for heavy duty engines. The motivation for this work is to better understand the temporal signature of the pressure signals that arise in a typical injection cycle.
Technical Paper

Correlations of Non-Vaporizing Spray Penetration for 3000 Bar Diesel Spray Injection

Increasing fuel injection pressure has enabled reduction of diesel emissions while retaining the advantage of the high thermal efficiency of diesel engines. With production diesel injectors operating in the range from 300 to 2400 bar, there is interest in injection pressures of 3000 bar and higher for further emissions reduction and fuel efficiency improvements. Fundamental understanding of diesel spray characteristics including very early injection and non-vaporizing spray penetration is essential to improve model development and facilitate the integration of advanced injection systems with elevated injection pressure into future diesel engines. Studies were conducted in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel under non-vaporizing conditions. Two advanced high pressure multi-hole injectors were used with different hole diameters, number of holes, and flow rates, with only one plume of each injector being imaged to enable high frame rate imaging.
Journal Article

Internal Fuel Injector Deposits

The need for improved emissions and fuel economy are placing increasingly severe performance requirements on compression ignition engines. These are satisfied in part by advanced fuel injection equipment that provide multiple injections and increased injection pressures along with higher operating temperature. Fuel composition is also changing, with increased use of non-traditional feedstocks combined with a range of additive chemistries to restore or enhance fuel quality. Within this environment, a number of worldwide automotive companies have noted a trend towards increased Internal Injector Deposits (IID). Little quantitative information to understand the root cause is available, largely due to difficulty in reproducing the issue under controlled conditions. The present study details the results of an accelerated test methodology, which is used to evaluate the interrelated effects of fuel composition and operating environment.
Journal Article

Investigations on Deposit Formation in the Holes of Diesel Injector Nozzles

Current developments in fuels and emissions regulations are resulting in an increasingly severe operating environment for diesel fuel injection systems. The formation of deposits within the holes or on the outside of the injector nozzle can affect the overall system performance. The rate of deposit formation is affected by a number of parameters, including operating conditions and fuel composition. For the work reported here an accelerated test procedure was developed to evaluate the relative importance of some of these parameters in a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. The resulting methodology produced measurable deposits in a custom-made injector nozzle on a single-cylinder engine. The results indicate that fuels containing 30%v/v and 100% Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) that does not meet EN 14214 produced more deposit than an EN590 petroleum diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Fischer-Tropsch Fuel Performance in Advanced Diesel Common Rail FIE

An increasing range of conventional and unconventional feed stocks will be used to produce fuel of varying chemical and physical properties for use in compression ignition engines. Fischer-Tropsh (F-T) technology can be used to produce fuels of consistent quality from a wide range of feed stocks. The present study evaluates the performance of F-T fuel in advanced common rail fuel injection systems. Laboratory scale tests are combined with proprietary engine and electrically driven common rail pump hydraulic rig tests to predict long-term performance. The results obtained indicate that the performance of F-T fuel is at least comparable to conventional hydrocarbon fuels and superior in a number of areas. In particular, the lubricity of F-T fuel was improved by addition of lubricity additives or FAME, with minimal wear under a wide range of operating conditions and temperatures.
Technical Paper

Temperature Effect on Performance of a Commercial Fuel Filter for Biodiesel Blends with ULSD

Biodiesel offers a potentially viable alternative fuel source for diesel automotive applications. However, biodiesel may present problems at colder temperatures due to the crystallization of fatty acid methyl esters and precipitation of other components, such as unreacted triglycerides and sterol glycosides in biodiesel. At lower temperatures, the fuel gels until it solidifies in the fuel lines, clogging the fuel filter, and shutting down the engine. A laboratory-based continuous loop fuel system was utilized to determine the flow properties at low temperatures of biodiesel in B100, B20, and B10 blends for soybean and choice white grease (pig fat) biodiesel fuel. The continuous loop fuel delivery system was designed to be similar to those that can be found in engines and vehicles currently in use, and provided a mechanical pump or an electric pump as a means to simulate systems found in the different types of vehicles.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Operating Range of Partially Premixed Combustion in a Multi Cylinder Heavy Duty Engine with Extensive EGR

Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept by which it is possible to get low smoke and NOx emissions simultaneously. PPC requires high EGR levels and injection timings sufficiently early or late to extend the ignition delay so that air and fuel mix extensively prior to combustion. This paper investigates the operating region of single injection diesel PPC in a multi cylinder heavy duty engine resembling a standard build production engine. Limits in emissions and fuel consumption are defined and the highest load that fulfills these requirements is determined. Experiments are carried out at different engine speeds and a comparison of open and closed loop combustion control are made as well as evaluation of an extended EGR-cooling system designed to reduce the EGR temperature. In this study the PPC operating range proved to be limited.
Technical Paper

Deposit Formation in the Holes of Diesel Injector Nozzles: A Critical Review

Current developments in fuels and emissions regulations are resulting in increasingly severe operating environment for the injection system. Formation of deposits within the holes of the injector nozzle or on the outside of the injector tip may have an adverse effect on overall system performance. This paper provides a critical review of the current understanding of the main factors affecting deposit formation. Two main types of engine test cycles, which attempt to simulate field conditions, are described in the literature. The first type involves cycling between high and low load. The second involves steady state operation at constant speed either at medium or high load. A number of influences on the creation of deposits are identified. This includes fouling through thermal condensation and cracking reactions at nozzle temperatures of around 300°C. Also the design of the injector holes is an influence, because it can influence cavitation.
Technical Paper

Effect of Diesel and Water Co-injection with Real-Time Control on Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions

A system for injection of diesel fuel and water with real-time control, or real-time water injection (RTWI), was developed and applied to a heavy-duty diesel engine. The RTWI system featured electronic unit pumps that delivered metered volumes of water to electronic unit injectors (EUI) modified to incorporate the water addition passages. The water and diesel mixed in the injector tip such that the initial portion of the injection contained mostly diesel fuel, while the balance of the injection was a water and diesel mixture. With this hardware, real-time cycle-by-cycle control of water mass was used to mitigate soot formation during diesel combustion. Using RTWI alone, NOx emissions were reduced by 42%. Using high-pressure-loop exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and conventional diesel combustion with RTWI, the NOx was reduced by 82%.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Injection Strategies on Emissions Reduction and Power Output of Future Diesel Engines

Future light, medium and heavy duty diesel engines will need to satisfy the more stringent emission levels (US 2014, Euro 6, etc.) without compromising their current performance and fuel economy, while still maintaining a competitive cost. In order to achieve this, the Fuel Injection Equipment (FIE) together with the pressure charging, cooling system, exhaust after treatment and other engine sub-systems will each play a key role. The FIE has to offer a range of flexible injection characteristics, e.g. a multiple injection train with or without separation, modulated injection pressures and rates for every injection, higher specific power output from the same injector envelope, and close control of very small fuel injection quantities. The aim of this paper is to present Delphi's developments in fuel injection strategies for light and medium duty diesel engines that will comply with future emission legislation, whilst providing higher power density and uncompromised fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Development of Premixed Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion in a HSDI Diesel Engine

The pursuit of new combustion concepts or modes is ongoing to meet future emissions regulations and to eliminate or at least to minimize the burden of aftertreatment systems. In this research, Premixed Low Temperature Diesel Combustion (PLTDC) was developed using a single-cylinder engine to achieve low NOx and soot emissions while maintaining fuel efficiency. Operating conditions considered were 1500 rpm, 3 bar and 6 bar IMEP. The effects of injection timing, injection pressure, swirl ratio, EGR rate, and multiple injection strategies on the combustion process have been investigated. The results show that low NOx and soot emissions can be obtained at both operating conditions without sacrificing the fuel efficiency. Low NOx and soot emissions are achieved through minimization of peak temperatures during the combustion process and homogenization of in-cylinder air-fuel mixture.
Technical Paper

Genetic Algorithm for Dynamic Calibration of Engine's Actuators

Modern diesel engines are equipped with an increasing number of actuators set to improve human comfort and fuel consumptions while respecting the restricted emissions regulations. In spite of the great progress made in the electronic and data-processing domains, the physical-based emissions models remain time consuming and too complicated to be used in a dynamic calibrating process. Therefore, until these days, the calibration of the engine's cartographies is done manually by experimental experts on dynamic test bed, but the results are not often the best compromise in the consumption-emissions formula due to the increasing number of actuators and to the nonlinear and complex relations between the different variables involved in the combustion process. Recently, neural networks are successfully used to model dynamic multiple inputs - multiple outputs processes by learning from examples and without any additional or detailed information about the process itself.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Predictive Capability of Diesel Nozzle Cavitation Models

The predictive capability of Lagrangian and Eulerian multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics models accounting for the onset and development of cavitation inside Diesel nozzle holes is assessed against experimental data. These include cavitation images available from a real-size six-hole mini-sac nozzle incorporating a transparent window as well as high-speed/CCD images and LDV measurements of the liquid velocity inside an identical large-scale fully transparent nozzle replica. Results are available for different cavitation numbers, which correspond to different cavitation regimes forming inside the injection hole. Discharge coefficient measurements for various real-size nozzles operating under realistic injection pressures are also compared and match well with models' predictions.
Technical Paper

Advanced Two-Actuator EUI and Emission Reduction for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

A very flexible choice of fuel injection characteristics can be obtained with an advanced electronic unit injector that has been developed with two electronically controlled valves. Single-cylinder engine tests have demonstrated the potential of this advanced EUI system for a heavy-duty diesel engine. Substantial increases in injection pressure can be programmed electronically at individual engine speed/load conditions, compared with a baseline EUI system, to provide much faster rates of air/fuel mixing. Simulated US and European emissions cycle results, with the optimised two-actuator EUI and EGR, show substantially improved soot particulate versus NOx results and lower BSFC compared with a baseline EUI result. A high-pressure post injection has the potential to give further soot reduction.
Technical Paper

Application of Loop Shaping H-infinity Control to Diesel Engine Anti-Oscillation Strategy

The control of fuel delivery to minimize drivetrain oscillations is a major benefit to vehicle refinement and driveability. This paper describes the application of robust H-infinity loop-shaping control to the speed-fuel control loop. A one-degree-of-freedom controller structure (feedback only) is examined and applied to a small passenger car. Using careful implementation, the control algorithm is of low order and efficient requiring only limited microprocessor resources. The robust controller gives excellent performance when operated synchronously to engine rotation, where the dynamics become speed-dependent. Alternatively it can be operated satisfactorily at a fixed sample rate, asynchronous to engine rotation. The design is found to be eminently suitable for production.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Injection Control for Optimum Driveability

Performance and refinement are key factors which influence the market acceptance of passenger cars, and consequently in the area of diesel fuel injection control there is increasing pressure for improved driveability. “Driveline shunt” is one important and problematic aspect of driveability, which is also known as “judder”, “chuggle” or “cab-nod”. It has been defined as an objectionable vehicle oscillation which takes place following a rapid throttle input or increase in engine load. This phenomenon is caused by driveline vibrations which can occur as a consequence of variations in engine torque demand. Mathematical modelling and experimentation techniques have been used to establish the behaviour of a fuel injection system, engine and vehicle driveline. Vehicle tests have been conducted in order to relate objective metrics and subjective opinion.
Technical Paper

The Flow Patterns and Sprays of Variable Orifice Nozzle Geometries for Diesel Injection

The introduction of the LDCR common rail injection system has opened up new possibilities in controlling the details of the injection rate and the spray characteristics. In particular, there is potential to optimize engine performance across the speed and load range, if a nozzle can be developed which has the facility to vary the final orifice area over the operating range of the engine. There are a number of different geometries which may achieve the required effects. Two possible methods are to throttle either the entrance or the exit of the nozzle holes to a greater or lesser extent, according to the engine running condition. The paper describes an investigation of the spray characteristics of entry and exit throttled orifices, and how they are affected by pressure levels and degrees of opening. In previous studies, large scale transparent models have accurately reproduced the different spray characteristics observed with actual nozzles.
Technical Paper

More Torque, Less Emissions and Less Noise

For many years, compression ignition combustion has been studied by a combination of generic studies on fuel spray formation and analysis of results from single and multicylinder engines. The results and insight have been applied to design and develop advanced fuel injection equipment for high-speed direct injection engines. Experimental fuel injection equipments, including early common rail designs, have been matched to combustion chambers in single cylinder research engines to tackle the conflicting requirements of efficiency and minimum nitric oxide formation, combustion noise and soot. A clear strategy evolved from the work with experimental equipment that is being applied to multicylinder engines. If sufficient oxygen is available in the gas charge trapped in each cylinder, the LDCR common rail injection system will provide the fuel required to develop high torque at low engine speeds.