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Technical Paper

Seeing Through the Weather: Enhanced/Synthetic Vision Systems for Commercial Transports

1992-10-01
921973
Commercial air carriers have long desired an aircraft system which would permit airport operations in very poor visibility conditions. Enhanced/synthetic vision systems, incorporating forward looking sensors and head-up displays, offer this ability. This paper discusses the potential benefits of enhanced/synthetic vision systems as well as their various levels of integration and associated capabilities possible. Work at Douglas Aircraft on enhanced/synthetic vision systems is also noted.
Technical Paper

The Touch-Sensitive Control/Display Unit: A Promising Computer Interface

1983-10-03
831532
Installation of a touch-sensitive control/display unit (touch-CDU) could improve the operational reliablility of future aircraft cockpits, providing that basic human factors issues are addressed early in the development phase of this device. The touch-CDU could be implemented with electronic displays to help: (1) reduce peak workload levels, (2) improve situational awareness, (3) improve the mental set of command and control over the process of flight, (4) reduce the number of controls outside of the optimum eye-hand envelope, (5) reduce crew error due to data-entry, (6) encourage cockpit designers to employ a systems approach. Although the technology exists to implement touch-CDUs in aircraft, several problem areas need to be studied: (1) the effects of turbulence, (2) glare and reflections, (3) cockpit location and orientation to the operator, (4) electronic display formats compatible with touch-entry activities.
Technical Paper

Primary Flight Display: A Step Beyond EADI's

1983-10-03
831533
Recent advances in commercial flight deck technology have changed flight displays from electromechanical instruments to computer driven, high brightness, multicolor cathode ray tubes (CRT's). The electronic attitude director indicator (EADl) has evolved into a primary flight display (PFD) which integrates attitude, flight director, air data, and flight mode annunciation into one display. The advantages and disadvantages of the PFD concept are discussed. The development of the PFD is discussed and the progress at Douglas Aircraft Company is presented to illustrate some of the problems and issues associated with PFD development. Future requirements for the PFD are discussed including compatibility with the head-up display, a microwave landing system flight director, time critical alerts, and flight guidance information.
Technical Paper

Advanced Commercial Cockpit Concepts

1982-02-01
821387
This paper analyzes recent trends in commercial aircraft flight deck technology and their impact on cockpit design and testing. The capabilities of the new technology are enumerated along with the risks inherent in its widespread application. The objectives and philosophy of flight deck design which are considered essential to maximize the value of the new technology are presented, and a flight deck development approach designed to effectively apply these objectives and philosophical guidelines is outlined. Implementation of this development process is illustrated by recent advanced flight deck programs at Douglas Aircraft Company, in which design goals, concepts and guidelines are discussed as they apply to specific cockpit functions and, particularly, to the Integration of these functions into an organized, effective work station.
Technical Paper

Air Freighters Designed for Shippers' Needs

1974-02-01
740789
Distribution of products by air will increase in importance as the economic transition develops. The air freight industry will gradually evolve from today's preponderance of narrow-body freighters through the current generation of wide-body lower hold and all-freighter aircraft. At a point in time when the major dollar portion of world trade will be shipped by air, the system will be dependent on very advanced technology, uncompromised all-freighters. These freighters will operate on an air freight network dedicated to service, economic development, and to raising living standards throughout the world.
Technical Paper

The Crystal Ball Focuses on the Next Generation of Transport Aircraft

1971-02-01
710750
Commercial aircraft market requirements are reviewed and all-cargo, STOL, SST, and CTOL aircraft types currently being studied are discussed. It is concluded that after the derivative versions of the present generation of wide-body transports have been introduced into service, the next all new commercial transport will probably be an advanced technology CTOL. This transport must be quieter than present aircraft. An assessment is made of what technological advances are most likely to be incorporated in this aircraft. Supercritical airfoil technology represents the most promising of the several expected technological advances. It can be applied to either economically increase cruise speeds or to significantly reduce operating costs. There are, in addition, a number of interesting possibilities in structures, propulsion and systems design. The characteristics of medium range aircraft, having cruise Mach numbers of 0.85, 0.92, 0.95, and 0.98, are presented.
Technical Paper

Douglas Design for Powerplant Reliability and Maintainability

1969-02-01
690391
Reduction of aircraft maintenance costs has been a challenge to aircraft operators for many years. It is well known that powerplant maintenance costs are a significant percentage of these total costs. Douglas Aircraft Co. is using new methods, checks, and controls during the early design phases to guarantee that established goals for the DC-10 will be achieved. Programs have been developed that will result in high system reliability and ensure optimum maintainability. This paper describes the implementation of these programs for powerplants and associated systems.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Contamination on Corrosion of Aircraft Fuel Systems

1962-01-01
620357
Turbine fuel contaminants such as surface active agents, saline water, and iron rust provide an ideal environment for extensive growth of microorganisms in fuel, resulting in a serious corrosion problem to aircraft fuel systems. Contamination sources, means of entry into the aircraft, and effects on the fuel system are discussed. Recently developed detection methods and an improved quality control procedure which alleviate the problem are described.
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