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Technical Paper

Adhesive Bonding Performance of GA Coated 590 MPa Tensile Strength Steels

Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are becoming major enablers for vehicle light weighting in the automotive industry. Crash resistant and fracture-toughened structural adhesives have shown potential to improve vehicle stiffness, noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH), and crashworthiness. They provide weight reduction opportunity while maintaining crash performance or weight increase avoidance while meeting the increasing crash requirement. Unfortunately, the adhesive bonding of galvanneal (GA)-coated steels has generally yielded adhesive failures with the GA coating peeling from the steel substrate resulting in poor bond strength. A limited study conducted by ArcelorMittal and Dow Automotive in 2008 showed that GA-coated AHSS exhibited cohesive failure, and good bond strength and crash performance. In order to confirm the reliable performance, a project focusing on the consistency of the adhesive bond performance of GA-coated steels of 590 MPa strength level was initiated.
Technical Paper

Bonding Studies between Fracture Toughened Adhesives and Galvannealed Steels with Zinc Coating

Adhesive bonding technology is rapidly gaining acceptance as an alternative to spot welding. This technology is helping automobile manufacturers reduce vehicle weight by letting them use lighter but stronger advanced high strength steels (AHSS's). This can make cars safer and more fuel efficient at the same time. The other benefits of this technology include its flexibility, ability to join dissimilar materials, distribute stress uniformly, provide sealing characteristics and sound dampening, and provide a moisture barrier, thus minimizing the chance for corrosion. The lap shear work reported in the late 1980s and early 1990s has led to the prevalent perception that the galvannealed (GA) coating can delaminate from the steels, resulting in poor joint performance. However, the above work was carried out on steels used primarily in automobile outer body panels.
Technical Paper

Polyurethane Foam Inserts for NVH and Structural Applications

The application of two-component polyurethane (PU) foam materials for acoustical and structural performance enhancements in vehicle structures have increased significantly in the past ten years. The benefits include NVH management (through effective cavity sealing), body stiffness improvements and energy management in crash applications. These PU foams can either be pumped into body cavities in the OEM assembly plants (bulk applied) or can be pre-molded into Structural Foam Inserts (SFI) and installed in the body-shop prior to full frame assembly. The choice of application type depends on vehicle-specific requirements and assembly plant criteria. The chemistry, plant application and benefits associated with bulk PU foam has already been cited in previous work.1, 2, 3 This paper showcases BETAFOAM™ SFI technology developed by Dow Automotive that complements traditional bulk foam technology.
Technical Paper

Structural Front-End Carrier Using Long Glass Fiber Polypropylene

Modular front-end carriers to pre-assemble front-end components such as cooling systems, lights, and bumper beam have been in production in different vehicles for several years. Compression molded or overmolded steel/plastic carriers have traditionally been used. The present paper explains the design, material options, and engineering optimization of a composite front-end carrier, which utilizes long glass fiber injection moldable resins and adhesively bonded steel reinforcements. Experimental evaluation of prototypes shows the system met the functional performance requirements at minimum weight.
Technical Paper

Polyurethane Foam Systems For NVH and Improved Crashworthiness

Recently, automotive engineers have been looking at rigid polyurethane foam systems for the advantages their application brings to vehicle design and performance. The benefits range from NVH management achieved through effective body cavity sealing and improved structural dynamics, to enhanced vehicle crashworthiness. These benefits can be realized through application of polyurethane foam systems designed for energy management. These systems offer multifunctional, low cost solutions to traditional approaches and can be modeled early in the vehicle design stage. In many cases, the overall vehicle mass is reduced as reinforcements are eliminated and/or sheet metal thickness is decreased. Dow Automotive has developed a family of water blown polyurethane foams specifically for these applications. Development has focused on foam systems designed for impact optimization, allowing OEM's to optimize the body structure content.
Technical Paper

All Thermoplastic Lightweight Structural Rear-Seat-Back

An innovative seat back design for fold down split-rear seat backs has been developed for application in SUV’s, MPV’s and hatchbacks. The all-thermoplastic seat back design meets US and European government regulations such as, the FMVSS 210, 207 in the US, and ECE 17 (luggage retention) in Europe. It is also expected to meet the newly introduced FMVSS 225 (child seat belt tether load) requirement. Currently application of the blow molded seat back is limited to sedans where the seat belt anchor loads are transmitted to a steel package shelf. For applications where the seat-belt anchor loads are transmitted to the seat back, hefty steel frame and reinforcements are required which add weight and cost to the seat back. The same is true for seats that need to comply with the European luggage retention requirement.
Technical Paper

Acoustic and Structural Treatment of Body-in-White

Automotive body structures are developed to meet vehicle performance requirements primarily based on ride and handling, crashworthiness, and noise level targets. The body is made of a multitude of sheet metal stampings welded together. Other closures such as fenders, hood, doors and trunk lid are developed to match body interfaces, to contribute and participate in the overall vehicle response, and to meet the sub-system and system structural requirements. In order to improve performance and achieve weight reduction of the overall vehicle steel structure, new polymeric materials and treatment strategies are available to body structural engineers to optimize the response of the vehicle and to tune vehicle performance to meet specified functional requirements. If early integrated to the design cycle, these materials help not only improve the structural body response, but also decrease the weight of the integrated body structure.