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Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Heavy Duty Engine Fueled with Two Ternary Blends of N-Heptane/Iso-Octane and Toluene or Benzaldehyde

2016-04-05
2016-01-0998
In this work, the influences of aromatics on combustion and emission characteristics from a heavy-duty diesel engine under various loads and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) conditions are investigated. Tests were performed on a modified single-cylinder, constant-speed and direct-injection diesel engine. An engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was used in the experiments to measure the size distribution of engine-exhaust particle emissions in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm. Two ternary blends of n-heptane, iso-octane with either toluene or benzaldehyde denoted as TRF and CRF, were tested, diesel was also tested as a reference. Test results showed that TRF has the longest ignition delay, thus providing the largest premixed fraction which is beneficial to reduce soot. However, as the load increases, higher incylinder pressure and temperature make all test fuels burn easily, leading to shorter ignition delays and more diffusion combustion.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Low Load PPC Operation using RON70 Fuels

2014-04-01
2014-01-1304
The concept of Partially Premixed Combustion is known for reduced hazardous emissions and improved efficiency. Since a low-reactive fuel is required to extend the ignition delay at elevated loads, controllability and stability issues occur at the low-load end. In this investigation seven fuel blends are used, all having a Research Octane Number of around 70 and a distinct composition or boiling range. Four of them could be regarded as ‘viable refinery fuels’ since they are based on current refinery feedstocks. The latter three are based on primary reference fuels, being PRF70 and blends with ethanol and toluene respectively. Previous experiments revealed significant ignition differences, which asked for further understanding with an extended set of measurements. Experiments are conducted on a heavy duty diesel engine modified for single cylinder operation. In this investigation, emphasis is put on idling (600 rpm) and low load conditions.
Journal Article

Butanol-Diesel Blends for Partially Premixed Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-1683
Partially Premixed Combustion has shown the potential of high efficiency, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot below future emissions regulations, and acceptable acoustic noise. Low-octane-number gasoline fuels were shown to be most suitable for this concept, with the reactivity determining the possible load range. Other researchers have used several refinery streams, which might be produced by a refinery if they were required to do so without additional investment. Some of refinery streams are, however, not expected to be commercially available on the short term. For the present investigation, n-butanol (BuOH) has been selected as a blend component in diesel, and is used from 50 - 100%. The blends then have a reactivity range similar to the refinery streams, so single-cylinder engine tests for their emission and efficiency performance can also be used to determine their applicable load range.
Journal Article

Commercial Naphtha Blends for Partially Premixed Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-1681
Partially Premixed Combustion has shown the potential of low emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot with a simultaneous improvement in fuel efficiency. Several research groups have shown that a load range from idle to full load is possible, when using low-octane-number refinery streams, in the gasoline boiling range. As such refinery streams are not expected to be commercially available on the short term, the use of naphtha blends that are commercially available could provide a practical solution. The three blends used in this investigation have been tested in a single-cylinder engine for their emission and efficiency performance. Besides a presentation of the sensitivity to injection strategies, dilution levels and fuel pressure, emission performance is compared to legislated emission levels. Conventional diesel combustion benchmarks are used for reference to show possible improvements in indicated efficiency.
Technical Paper

Combustion Phasing Controllability with Dual Fuel Injection Timings

2012-09-10
2012-01-1575
Reactivity controlled compression ignition through in-cylinder blending gasoline and diesel to a desired reactivity has previously been shown to give low emission levels and a clear simultaneous efficiency advantage. To determine the possible viability of the concept for on-road application, the control space of injection parameters with respect to combustion phasing is presented. Four injection strategies have been investigated, and for each the respective combustion phasing response is presented. Combustion efficiency is shown to be greatly affected by both the injection-timing and injection-strategy. All injection strategies are shown to break with the common soot-NOx trade-off, with both smoke and NOx emissions being near or even below upcoming legislated levels. Lastly, pressure rise rates are comparable with conventional combustion regimes with the same phasing. The pressure rise rates are effectively suppressed by the high dilution rates used.
Technical Paper

Correlating Flame Location and Ignition Delay in Partially Premixed Combustion

2012-09-10
2012-01-1579
Controlling ignition delay is the key to successfully enable partially premixed combustion in diesel engines. This paper presents experimental results of partially premixed combustion in an optically accessible engine, using primary reference fuels in combination with artificial exhaust gas recirculation. By changing the fuel composition and oxygen concentration, the ignition delay is changed. To determine the position of the flame front, high-speed visualization of OH-chemiluminescence is used, enabling a cycle-resolved analysis of OH formation. A clear correlation is observed between ignition delay and flame location. The mixing of fuel and air during the ignition delay period defines the local equivalence ratio, which is estimated based on a spherical combustion volume for each spray. The corresponding emission measurements using fast-response analyzers of CO, HC and NOX confirm the decrease in local equivalence ratio as a function of ignition delay.
Technical Paper

Gasoline-Diesel Dual Fuel: Effect of Injection Timing and Fuel Balance

2011-12-15
2011-01-2437
Recently, some studies have shown high efficiencies using controlled auto-ignition by blending gasoline and diesel to a desired reactivity. This concept has been shown to give high efficiency and, because of the largely premixed charge, low emission levels. The origin of this high efficiency, however, has only partly been explained. Part of it was attributed to a lower temperature combustion, originating in lower heat losses. Another part of the gain was attributed to a faster, more Otto-like (i.e. constant volume) combustion. Since the concept was mainly demonstrated on one single test setup so far, an experimental study has been performed to reproduce these results and gain more insight into their origin. Therefore one cylinder of a heavy duty test engine has been equipped with an intake port gasoline injection system, primarily to investigate the effects of the balance between the two fuels, and the timing of the diesel injection.
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