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Technical Paper

Measured and Predicted Soot Particle Emissions from Natural Gas Engines

Due to the new challenge of meeting number-based regulations for particulate matter (PM), a numerical and experimental study has been conducted to better understand particulate formation in engines fuelled with compressed natural gas. The study has been conducted on a Heavy-Duty, Euro VI, 4-cylinder, spark ignited engine, with multipoint sequential phased injection and stoichiometric combustion. For the experimental measurements two different instruments were used: a condensation particle counter (CPC) and a fast-response particle size spectrometer (DMS) the latter able also to provide a particle size distribution of the measured particles in the range from 5 to 1000 nm. Experimental measurements in both stationary and transient conditions were carried out. The data using the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) were useful to detect which operating conditions lead to high numbers of particles. Then a further transient test was used for a more detailed and deeper analysis.
Technical Paper

Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) Combustion with Modeling-Generated Piston Bowl Geometry in a Diesel Engine

Sustainable PCI combustion was achieved in a light-duty diesel engine through the installation of a 120° spray angle nozzle and modeling-generated piston bowl geometry developed for compatibility with early start-of-injection timings. Experimental studies were conducted to determine favorable settings for boost pressure, SOI timing, and EGR rate at 2000 rev/min, 5 bar BMEP. An optimal SOI timing was discovered at 43° BTDC where soot and NOx emissions were reduced 89% and 86%, respectively. A 10% increase in fuel consumption was attributed to increased HC and CO emissions as well as non-optimal combustion phasing. Combustion noise was sufficiently attenuated through the use of high EGR rates. The maximum attainable load for PCI combustion was limited by the engine's peak cylinder pressure and cylinder pressure rise rate constraints.