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Technical Paper

The Autoignition Behavior of Surrogate Diesel Fuel Mixtures and the Chemical Effects of 2-Ethylhexyl Nitrate (2-EHN) Cetane Improver

The oxidation of surrogate diesel fuels composed of mixtures of three pure hydrocarbons with and without their cetane numbers chemically enhanced using 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (2-EHN) is studied in a variable pressure flow reactor over a temperature range 500 - 900 K, at 12.5 atmospheres and a fixed reaction time of 1.8 sec. Changes in both low temperature, intermediate temperature, and hot ignition chemical kinetic behavior are noted with changes in the fuel cetane number. Differences appear in the product distribution and in heat release generated in the low and intermediate temperature regimes as cetane number is increased. A chemically enhanced cetane fuel shows nearly identical oxidation characteristics to those obtained using pure fuel blends to produce the enhanced cetane value. The decomposition chemistry of 2-EHN was also studied. Pyrolysis data of 10% 2-EHN in n-heptane and toluene are reported.
Technical Paper

The Physical and Chemical Effect of Manganese Oxides on Automobile Catalytic Converters

Manganese oxide deposits which are exclusively in the form of Mn3O4, a benign form of manganese, are introduced in the exhaust stream from use of MMT, an octane-enhancing, emission-reducing fuel additive. The physical and chemical effect of these deposits on catalytic converters has generated some controversy in the literature. In this paper, we will focus on the effects that manganese oxide deposits have on catalytic converters. The physical effect of these deposits on the morphology of the converters was investigated by B.E.T surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray fluorescence (XRF). The chemical effect was investigated with tests using both slave-engine dynamometers and a pulse-flame combustor to probe for differences in catalyst performance. Data from an extensive vehicle fleet which was tested according to a program designed in consultation with the EPA and the automobile industry will be presented.
Technical Paper

Combustion-Chamber Deposition and Knock

THIS paper discusses a number of factors involved in the problem of octane-number requirement increase due to combustion-chamber deposits. A laboratory single-cylinder engine test procedure, which evaluates the effects of various fuel and oil factors, is presented with data showing its correlation with passenger-car operation under light-duty, city-driving conditions. The influence of engine operating conditions during accumulation of deposits and the importance of engine conditions selected to evaluate the magnitude of the requirement increase are illustrated. It is indicated that organic materials formed from both fuel and oil are of major importance in deposit formation. Data are presented which show that tel added to pure hydrocarbons of different chemical types may have different effects. It is shown that the carbon/hydrogen ratio of leaded pure hydrocarbons influences the amount and composition of the deposit formed.