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Technical Paper

Adaptive Sampling in the Design Space Exploration of the Automotive Front End Cooling Flow

2020-04-14
2020-01-0149
One of the key inputs 1-D transient simulation takes is a detailed front end cooling flow map. These maps that are generated using a full vehicle Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (3D CFD) model require expensive computational resources and time. This paper describes how an adaptive sampling of the design space allowed the reduction of computational efforts while keeping desired accuracy of the analysis. The idea of the method was to find a pattern of Design of Experiments (DOE) sampling points for 3D CFD simulations that would allow a creation of an approximation model accurate enough to predict output parameter values in the entire design space of interest. Three procedures were implemented to get the optimal sampling pattern.
Technical Paper

IC Engine Internal Cooling System Modelling Using 1D-CFD Methodology

2020-04-14
2020-01-1168
Internal combustion engine gets heated up due to continuous combustion of fuel. To keep engine working efficiently and prevent components damage due to very high temperature, the engine needs to be cooled down. Based on power output requirement and provision for cooling system, every engine has it’s unique cooling system. Liquid based cooling systems are majorly implemented in automobile. It’s important to keep in mind that during design phase that, cooling the engine will lower the power to fuel consumption ratio. Therefore, during lower ambient conditions, the cooling system should be able to uniformly increase the temperature of the engine components, engine oil and transmission oil. This is achieved by circulating the coolant through cooling jacket, engine oil heater and transmission oil heater, which will be heated by the combustion heat.
Technical Paper

Virtual Method for Electronic Stop-Start Simulation & VDV Prediction Using Modified Discrete Signal Processing for Short Time Signals

2020-04-14
2020-01-1270
Electronic Stop-Start (ESS) system automatically stops and restarts the engine to save energy, improve fuel economy and reduce emissions when the vehicle is stationary during traffic lights, traffic jams etc. The stop and start events cause unwanted vibrations at the seat track which induce discomfort to the driver and passengers in the vehicle. These events are very short duration events, usually taking less than a second. Time domain analysis can help in simulating this event but it is difficult to see modal interactions and root cause issues. Modal transient analysis also poses a limitation on defining frequency dependent stiffness and damping for multiple mounts. This leads to inaccuracy in capturing mount behavior at different frequencies. Most efficient way to simulate this event would be by frequency response analysis using modal superposition method.
Technical Paper

Novel CAE CV Joint Modeling Method for Driveline Half-Shaft at Idle Condition

2020-04-14
2020-01-1265
Idle shake is an important NVH attribute. Vehicles with good NVH characteristics are designed to perform excellent in IDLE and SHAKE conditions. Typically, tactile vibrations at idle are measured at the driver seat and steering wheel. Vibrations caused by engine excitation at idle are passed through several paths to the body structure. The dominant paths being the engine mounts and the half-shafts, either one of them or both can be a major factor influencing the perceived idle vibration in a vehicle. In the past, modeling the half-shafts accurately has been a challenge and often time has been ignored because of modeling complexity. This has led to idle CAE predictions not correlating with test data. The aim of this paper is to describe a finite element modeling method of half-shaft to predict idle vibrations levels.
Technical Paper

CAE Cooling Module Noise and Vibration Prediction Methodology and Challenges

2020-04-14
2020-01-1262
In the NVH domain, the cooling module is an important subsystem in ground vehicles. Recently, with the development of small high output turbocharged internal combustion (IC) engines, cooling module noise and vibration has become more challenging. Furthermore, with plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), in some cases the cooling fan could be operational while the IC engine is not running. This poses a significant challenge for cabin noise enhancement. Small turbocharged IC engines typically require higher cooling capacity resulting in larger fan size designs with higher speed. Accurate prediction of the unbalance loads generated by cooling fan and loads transferred to the body are critical for the Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance of the vehicle. If the NVH risk of cooling module operation is not well quantified and addressed early in the program, attempts to find solutions in post launch stage could be very expensive and not as effective.
Technical Paper

Utilization of Bench Testing in Vehicle Thermal System Development for Extreme Cold Ambient Condition

2020-04-14
2020-01-1390
Automotive thermal systems are becoming complicated each year. The powertrain efficiency improvement initiatives are driving transmission and engine oil heaters into coolant network design alternatives. The initiatives of electrified and autonomous vehicles are making coolant networks even more complex. The coolant networks these days have many heat exchangers, electric water pumps and valves, apart from typical radiators, thermostat and heater core. Some of these heat exchangers, including cabin heaters deal with very small amount of coolant flow rates at different ambient conditions. This paper describes how viscosity can be a major reason for simulation inaccuracy, and how to deal with it for each component in the coolant network. Both experimental and computational aspects have been considered in this paper with wide range of ambient temperatures.
Technical Paper

Rear Axle Heat Exchanger - Utilization of Engine Coolant for Reduced CO2 Emissions and Fuel Consumption

2020-04-14
2020-01-1411
This paper describes the design, development, and operation of a rear axle dual-shell heat exchanger on the RAM 1500 Light Duty truck. This system has been proven to increase fuel economy and reduce exhaust emissions, particularly CO2, on the EPA Cold City schedule. The energy conversion strategy was first explored using math modeling. A PUGH analysis associated with concept selection is included. To refine the hardware and develop a control strategy prior to testing, a portable flow cart was developed to assess system performance and to correlate the multi-node heat transfer model. Bench testing focused on the durability and functional aspects of integrating the dual-shell axle cover with the axle and coolant delivery system through a comprehensive design and validation plan. Vehicle testing included various fuel economy and emissions related driving schedules to quantify the benefits
Technical Paper

Thermal Modeling of DC/AC Inverter for Electrified Powertrain Systems

2020-04-14
2020-01-1384
A DC-to-AC main Power Inverter Module (PIM) is one of the key components in electrified powertrain systems. Accurate thermal modeling and temperature prediction of a PIM is critical to the design, analysis, and control of a cooling system within an electrified vehicle. PIM heat generation is a function of the electric loading applied to the chips and the limited heat dissipation within what is typically compact packaging of the Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) module inside the PIM. This work presents a thermal modeling approach for a 3-phase DC/AC PIM that is part of an automotive electrified powertrain system. Heat generation of the IGBT/diode pairs under electric load is modeled by a set of formulae capturing both the static and dynamic losses of the chips in the IGBT module. A thermal model of the IGBT module with a simplified liquid cooling system generates temperature estimates for the PIM.
Technical Paper

An Iterative Histogram-Based Optimization of Calibration Tables in a Powertrain Controller

2020-04-14
2020-01-0266
To comply with the stringent fuel consumption requirements, many automobile manufacturers have launched vehicle electrification programs which are representing a paradigm shift in vehicle design. Looking specifically at powertrain calibration, optimization approaches were developed to help the decision-making process in the powertrain control. Due to computational power limitations the most common approach is still the use of powertrain calibration tables in a rule-based controller. This is true despite the fact that the most common manual tuning can be quite long and exhausting, and with the optimal consumption behavior rarely being achieved. The present work proposes a simulation tool that has the objective to automate the process of tuning a calibration table in a powertrain model. To achieve that, it is first necessary to define the optimal reference performance.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Understanding Planetary Gear Train Efficiency and Powerflow

2020-04-14
2020-01-0432
Understanding planetary gear efficiency is more involved than understanding efficiency of external gears because of the recirculating power that is inherent in planetary gear operation. There have been several publications going back several decades on this topic. However, many of these publications are mathematical in their approach and tend to be overlooked by practicing engineers. This paper brings a new, more visual and more intuitive approach to the problem. It uses lever diagrams, which have been a standard tool in the transmission engineer’s arsenal for almost four decades, to visualize the power flow and develop analytical expressions for the efficiency of simple and compound planetary gears. It then extends the approach to more complex gear trains.
Technical Paper

An Intuitive Derivation of the Dual-Clutch Model for Clutch Shift Dynamics

2020-04-14
2020-01-0433
There are several commercial off-the-shelf software available to study transmission and driveline dynamics. Many of these software require a faithful representation of the transmission topology in order to carry out the analyses. These modeling techniques utilize several redundant degrees of freedom which may not be necessary for studying low frequency (< ~30 Hz) dynamics and may be computationally inefficient. The dual-clutch model has been proposed as a generic 2-DOF model that overcomes some of these drawbacks. In this paper, the dual-clutch model is initially derived from first principles, starting with the equations of motion for a planetary automatic transmission. The model coefficients - the inertia matrix and the matrix of clutch coefficients - are then derived using a more intuitive approach based on energy considerations.
Technical Paper

Air Induction Impact on Turbocharger Noise and Thermodynamic Performance

2020-04-14
2020-01-0426
The trend to simultaneously improve fuel economy and engine performance has led to industry growth of turbocharged engines and as a result, the need to address their undesirable airborne noise attributes. This presents some unique engineering challenges as higher customer expectations for Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH), and other vehicle-level attributes increase over time. Turbocharged engines possess higher frequency noise content compared to naturally aspirated engines. Therefore, as an outcome, whoosh noise in the Air Induction System (AIS) during tip in conditions is an undesirable attribute that requires high frequency attenuation enablers. The traditional method for attenuation of this type of noise has been to use resonators which adds cost, weight and requires packaging space that is often at a premium in the under-hood environment.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis for Six-Phase Motor Configurations

2020-04-14
2020-01-0465
In this paper, a comparison between different six-phase machine topologies is conducted considering their technical performance for automotive applications. Asymmetrical and symmetrical configurations, as well as neutral point connection, are considered as candidate topologies and modelled using vector space decomposition (VSD) and double stator or double dq transformations. In both cases, a generalized model to include an arbitrary phase shift between the windings is presented as well as the effect of the neutral connection on the inverter model. For the selection, the steady-state and post-fault performance are considered in terms of control flexibility, fault-tolerant capability, and dc-link voltage utilization. For the latest, the different topologies are evaluated operating in both linear and overmodulation regions based on space vector modulation (SVM).
Technical Paper

Dynamic Modeling of an Interior Permanent Magnet Machine with Space-Vector-Modulation-Based Voltage Source Inverter

2020-04-14
2020-01-0469
This paper presents a dynamic model for an interior permanent magnet (IPM) machine with a space-vector-modulation-based voltage source inverter. The dynamic model considers spatial harmonics, cross-coupling and magnetic saturation. In order to include the nonlinear electromagnetic characteristics of the IPM machine, the dynamic model is built based on the current-flux look-up tables obtained from finite element analysis (FEA). The model is co-simulated with the drive system, which considers the effects of the modulation technique and the switching frequency. The dynamic performance of a 60/8 IPM machine is analyzed using the dynamic model at different operating conditions and then validated with the torque waveforms obtained from FEA. The results show that dynamic performance can be analyzed accurately and more quickly using the dynamic model presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Testing Wet Clutch Systems for Anti-Shudder Performance

2020-04-14
2020-01-0560
The wet clutch system (WCS) is a complex combination of friction plates, separator plates and fluid (lubricant). The basic function of the WCS is to transfer torque under various operating conditions such as slipping, shifting, start/launch and/or torque converter clutch (TCC) operation. Under these conditions the slope of the coefficient of friction (μ or COF) versus slip speed (μ-v) curve must be positive to prevent shudder of the WCS, a highly undesirable condition in the lubricated friction system. An extended durability duty cycle test procedure is required to evaluate the WCS during which the μ-v curve is monitored for a negative slope, a condition indicating the potential for shudder. The friction plates, separator plates, and lubricant must be tested together and remain together during the test to be properly evaluated as a WCS.
Technical Paper

Multiple 3D-DIC Systems for Measuring the Displacements and Strains of an Engine Exhaust Manifold

2020-04-14
2020-01-0540
In this study, a unique multi-camera three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) system was designed and applied to an engine dynamometer cell to measure the displacement and strain of the exhaust manifold while an engine was running in a durability test. In the engine dynamometer cell, the ambient temperature varies from 25°C to 80°C~100°C cyclically and the exhaust manifold experiences high temperatures up to 900°C with high frequency vibrations. In order to obtain reliable data under such conditions, two 3D-DIC systems were designed and set up in the engine dynamometer. One is a high-speed 3D-DIC system, consisting of cameras with a sampling rate of 1250 frames per second. It was used to measure the local displacement of the bolted joint in the exhaust manifold. The high-speed measurement system is able to record the behavior of the bolt during the thermal cycles.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of Direct-Oil-Cooled Electric Motor for Effective Thermal Management

2020-04-14
2020-01-1387
Electric motor performance is primarily limited by the amount of heat that can be effectively dissipated. Recent developments in electric motor thermal management have been employing direct oil spray/splash based cooling for improved performance. Simulation of two phase (air and oil) flow and associated heat transfer for such applications has been computationally challenging, hence not fully explored in the literature. This paper describes a numerical study in which two phase flow and heat transfer within a direct-oil-cooled electric motor are analyzed using CFD software. A detailed temperature field of all the motor components under different operating conditions is generated using a conjugate heat transfer approach. Numerical results are compared with the temperature measurements at discrete locations in motor.
Journal Article

Elastomeric Component Fatigue Analysis: Rubber Fatigue Prediction and Correlation Comparing Crack Initiation and Crack Growth Methodologies

2020-04-14
2020-01-0193
Many elastomeric components in automotive industry applications are subjected to dynamic service loads. Fatigue must be a consideration in the design of these components. The two approaches in rubber fatigue analysis discussed in this study are the conventional crack initiation approach, based on continuum mechanics parameters versus life, and the crack growth approach, based on fracture mechanics parameters. These methodologies are demonstrated for a passenger vehicle engine mount here. Temperature effects are not considered since testing was performed at ambient room temperature and with a low frequency, typically less than 5 Hz. The promising methodology for fatigue life prediction, discussed in this paper, is a critical plane approach based on crack energy density. Rainflow cycle counting method and Miner’s damage rule are used for load cycle characterization and damage accumulation respectively. A fracture mechanics approach is implemented based on specimen crack growth data.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Impact of Lubricant and Fuel Composition on LSPI and Emissions in a Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0610
Downsized turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engines with high specific power and torque can enable reduced fuel consumption in passenger vehicles while maintaining or even improving on the performance of larger naturally aspirated engines. However, high specific torque levels, especially at low speeds, can lead to abnormal combustion phenomena such as knock or Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI). LSPI, in particular, can limit further downsizing due to resulting and potentially damaging mega-knock events. Herein, we characterize the impacts of lubricant and fuel composition on LSPI frequency in a TGDI engine while specifically exploring the correlation between fuel composition, particulate emissions, and LSPI events. Our research shows that: (1) oil composition has a strong impact on LSPI frequency and that LSPI frequency can be reduced through a carefully focused approach to lubricant formulation.
Technical Paper

Impact of Active-Grille Shutter Position on Vehicle Air-Conditioning System Performance and Energy Consumption in Real World Conditions

2020-04-14
2020-01-0947
Active grille shutter (AGS) in a vehicle provides aerodynamic benefit at high vehicle speed by closing the front-end grille opening. At the same time this causes lesser air flow through the cooling module which includes the condenser. This results in higher refrigerant pressure at the compressor outlet. Higher head pressure causes the compressor to work more, thereby possibly negating the aerodynamic benefits towards vehicle power consumption. This paper uses a numerical method to quantify the compressor power consumed in different scenarios and assesses the impact of AGS closure on total vehicle energy consumption. The goal is to analyze the trade-off between the aerodynamic performance and the compressor power consumption at high vehicle speeds and mid-ambient conditions. These so called real world conditions represent highway driving at mid-ambient temperatures where the air-conditioning (AC) load is not heavy.
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