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Journal Article

Integration of Engine Start/Stop Systems with Emphasis on NVH and Launch Behavior

2013-05-13
2013-01-1899
Automatic engine start/stop systems are becoming more prevalent and increasing market share of these systems is predicted due to demands on improving fuel efficiency of vehicles. Integration of an engine start/stop system into a “conventional” drivetrain with internal combustion engine and 12V board system is a relatively cost effective measure to reduce fuel consumption. Comfort and NVH aspects will continue to play an important role for customer acceptance of these systems. Possible delay during vehicle launch due to the engine re-start is not only a safety relevant issue but a hesitating launch feel characteristic will result in reduced customer acceptance of these systems. The engine stop and re-start behavior should be imperceptible to the driver from both a tactile and acoustic standpoint. The lack of masking effects of the engine during the engine stop phases can cause other “unwanted” noise to become noticeable or more prominent.
Technical Paper

Developing Drivetrain Robustness for Small Engine Testing

2013-04-08
2013-01-0400
The increased demand in fuel economy and the reduction of CO₂ emissions results in continued efforts to downsize engines. The downsizing efforts result in engines with lower displacement as well as lower number of cylinders. In addition to cylinder and displacement downsizing the development community embarks on continued efforts toward down-speeding. The combination of the aforementioned factors results in engines which can have high levels of torsional vibrations. Such behavior can have detrimental effects on the drivetrain particularly during the development phase of these. Driveshafts, couplings, and dynamometers are exposed to these torsional forces and depending on their frequency costly damages in these components can occur. To account for these effects, FEV employs a multi-body-system modeling approach through which base engine information is used to determine optimized drivetrain setups. All mechanical elements in the setup are analyzed based on their torsional behavior.
Journal Article

7-XDCT: Compact and Cost-Efficient Dual Clutch Transmission for Small and Mid-Size Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1271
The automotive industry continues to develop new powertrain technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle level fuel consumption. The ongoing trends of “downsizing” and “down speeding” have led to the development of turbocharged engines with low displacement and high torque density. In order to meet the launch response requirements with these engines as well as fuel economy needs, transmissions with large ratio spreads will need to be developed. Due to the lack of torque amplification from the torque converter, the next generation of dual clutch transmissions (DCT) will need to have larger launch ratios and ratio spreads than currently available in production today. This paper discusses the development of a new family of DCT (called “xDCT”) for use in front wheel drive vehicles, aimed at meeting some of these challenges. The xDCT family features two innovative concepts, the idea of “gear generation” and “supported shifts”.
Technical Paper

A Low NVH Range-Extender Application with a Small V-2 Engine - Based on a New Vibration Compensation System

2012-10-23
2012-32-0081
The interest in electric propulsion of vehicles has increased in recent years and is being discussed extensively by experts as well as the public. Up to now the driving range and the utilization of pure electric vehicles are still limited in comparison to conventional vehicles due to the limited capacity and the long charging times of today's batteries. This is a challenge to customer acceptance of a pure electric vehicle, even for a city car application. A Range Extender concept could achieve the desired customer acceptance, but should not impact the “electric driving” experience, and should not cause further significant increases in the manufacturing and purchasing cost. The V2 engine concept presented in this paper is particularly suited to a low cost, modular vehicle concept. Advantages regarding packaging can be realized with the use of two generators in combination with the V2 engine.
Technical Paper

Transient Drive Cycle Modeling of Supercharged Powertrains for Medium and Heavy Duty On-Highway Diesel Applications

2012-09-24
2012-01-1962
The problem with traditional drive cycle fuel economy analysis is that kinematic (backward looking) models do not account for transient differences in charge air handling systems. Therefore, dynamic (forward looking) 1D performance simulation models were created to predict drive cycle fuel economy which encompass all the transient elements of fully detailed engine and vehicle models. The transient-capable technology of primary interest was mechanical supercharging which has the benefit of improved boost response and "time to torque." The benefits of a supercharger clutch have also been evaluated. The current US class 6-8 commercial vehicle market exclusively uses turbocharged diesel engines. Three vehicles and baseline powertrains were selected based on a high-level review of vehicle sales and the used truck marketplace. Fuel economy over drive cycles was the principal output of the simulation work. All powertrains are based on EPA 2010 emission regulations.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Solutions for Range Extenders - From Concept Considerations to Practical Experiences

2011-06-09
2011-37-0019
For a broad acceptance of electric vehicles, the trade-off between all electric range and battery cost respectively weight represents the most important challenge. The all electric range obtained under real world conditions most often deviates significantly from the nominal value which is measured under idealized conditions. Under extreme conditions - slow traffic and demanding requirements for cabin heating or cooling - the electrical range might become less a question of spatial distance but even more of total operation time. Whereas with conventional powertrain, high flexibility of the total driving range can be obtained without sacrificing cost, with a pure battery vehicle this results in extreme high cost and weight of the energy storage. Therefore the difference between the typical daily driving range (e.g. in Germany 80-90% is below 50 km) and the minimum total range requested by most customers for acceptance of battery vehicles (200- 250 km), becomes essential.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Cylinder Airflow & Residual Gas Estimation Tool Applied to a Vehicle Demonstrator

2010-04-12
2010-01-0169
In a gasoline engine, the cycle-by-cycle fresh trapped charge, and corresponding unswept residual gas fraction (RGF) are critical parameters of interest for maintaining the desired air-fuel ratio (AFR). Accurate fueling is a key precursor to improved engine fuel economy, and reduced engine out emissions. Asymmetric flow paths to cylinders in certain engines can cause differences in the gas exchange process, which in turn cause imbalances in trapped fresh charge and RGF. Variable cam timing (VCT) can make the gas exchange process even more complex. Due to the reasons stated above, simplified models can result in significant estimation errors for fresh trapped charge and RGF if they are not gas dynamics-based or detailed enough to handle features such as variable valve timing, duration, or lift. In this paper, a new air flow and RGF measurement tool is introduced.
Journal Article

Biodiesel Effects on U.S. Light-Duty Tier 2 Engine and Emission Control Systems - Part 2

2009-04-20
2009-01-0281
Raising interest in Diesel powered passenger cars in the United States in combination with the government mandated policy to reduce dependency of foreign oil, leads to the desire of operating Diesel vehicles with Biodiesel fuel blends. There is only limited information related to the impact of Biodiesel fuels on the performance of advanced emission control systems. In this project the implementation of a NOx storage and a SCR emission control system and the development for optimal performance are evaluated. The main focus remains on the discussion of the differences between the fuels which is done for the development as well as useful life aged components. From emission control standpoint only marginal effects could be observed as a result of the Biodiesel operation. The NOx storage catalyst results showed lower tailpipe emissions which were attributed to the lower exhaust temperature profile during the test cycle. The SCR catalyst tailpipe results were fuel neutral.
Journal Article

Effects of Biodiesel Operation on Light-Duty Tier 2 Engine and Emission Control Systems

2008-04-14
2008-01-0080
Due to raising interest in diesel powered passenger cars in the U.S. in combination with a desire to reduce dependency on imported petroleum, there has been increased attention to the operation of diesel vehicles on fuels blended with biodiesel. One of several factors to be considered when operating a vehicle on biodiesel blends is understanding the impact and performance of the fuel on the emission control system. This paper documents the impact of the biodiesel blends on engine-out emissions as well as the overall system performance in terms of emission control system calibration and the overall system efficiency. The testing platform is a light-duty HSDI diesel engine with a Euro 4 base calibration in a 1700 kg sedan vehicle. It employs 2nd generation common-rail injection system with peak pressure of 1600 bar as well as cooled high-pressure EGR. The study includes 3 different fuels (U.S.
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