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Technical Paper

A Phenomenological Unburned Hydrocarbon Model for Diesel Engines

2020-09-15
2020-01-2006
Intensified emission regulations as well as consumption demands lead to an increasing significance of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions for diesel engines. On the one hand, the quantity of hydrocarbon (HC) raw emissions is important for emission predictions as well as for the exhaust after treatment. On the other hand, HC emissions are also important for predicting combustion efficiency and thus fuel consumption, since a part of unreleased chemical energy of the fuel is still bound in the HC molecules. Due to these reasons, a simulation model for predicting HC raw emissions was developed for diesel engines based on a phenomenological two-zone model. The HC model takes three main sources of HC emissions of diesel engines into account: Firstly, it contains a sub-model that describes the fuel dribble out of the injector after the end of injection. Secondly, HC emissions from cold peripheral zones near cylinder walls are determined in another sub-model.
Technical Paper

Driver Classification of Shifting Strategies Using Machine Learning Algorithms

2020-09-15
2020-01-2241
The adequate dimensioning of drive train components such as gearbox, clutch and driveshaft presents a major technical task. The one of manual transmissions represents a special significance due to the customer’s ability of inducing high force, torque and thermic energy into the powertrain through direct mechanical interconnection of gearstick, clutch pedal and gearbox. Out of this, the question about how to capture behavior and strain of the components during real operation, as well as their objective evaluation evolves. Furthermore, the gained insights must be considered for designing and development. As a basis for the examination, measuring data from imposing driving tests are adduced. Therefore, a trial study has been conducted, using a representative circular course in the metropolitan area of Stuttgart, showing the average German car traffic. The more than 40 chosen drivers constitute the average driver in Germany with respect to age, gender and annual mileage.
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Spray-Atomization of Various Fuels for an Outwardly Opening Piezo Injector for the Application to a Pilot Injection Passenger Car Gas Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2117
Pilot injection gas engines are commonly used as large stationary engines. Often, the combustion is implemented as a dual-fuel strategy, which allows both mixed and diesel-only operation, based on a diesel engine architecture. The current research project focuses on the application of pilot injection in an engine based on gasoline components of the passenger car segment, which are more cost-effective than diesel components. The investigated strategy does not aim for a diesel-only combustion, hence only small liquid quantities are used for the main purpose of providing a strong, reliable ignition source for the natural gas charge. This approach is mainly driven to provide a reliable alternative to the high spark ignition energies required for high cylinder charge densities. When using such small liquid quantities, a standard common-rail diesel nozzle will apparently not be ideal regarding some general specifications.
Technical Paper

The Virtual Engine Development for Enhancing the Compression Ratio of DISI-Engines Combining Water Injection, Turbulence Increase and Miller Strategy

2020-06-30
2020-37-0010
The increase in efficiency is the focus of current engine development by adopting different technologies. One limiting factor for the rise of SI-engine efficiency is the onset of knock, which can be mitigated by improving the combustion process. HCCI/SACI represent sophisticated combustion techniques that investigate the employment of pre-chamber with lean combustion, but the effective use of them in a wide range of the engine map, by fulfilling at the same time the need of fast load control are still limiting their adoption for series engine. For these reasons, the technologies for improving the characteristics of a standard combustion process are still largely investigated. Among these, water injection, in combination with the Miller cycle, offers the possibility to increase the knock resistance, which in turn enables the rise of the engine geometric compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Potential Analysis and Virtual Development of SI Engines Operated with Synthetic Fuel DMC+

2020-04-14
2020-01-0342
On the way to emission-free mobility, future fuels must be CO2 neutral. To achieve this, synthetic fuels are being developed. In order to better assess the effects of the new fuels on the engine process, simulation models are being developed that reproduce the chemical and physical properties of these fuels. In this paper, the fuel DMC+ is examined. DMC+ (a mixture of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and methyl formate (MeFo) mainly, characterized by the lack of C-C Bonds and high oxygen content) offers advantages with regard to evaporation heat, demand of oxygen and knock resistance. Furthermore, its combustion is almost particle free. With the aid of modern 0D/1D simulation methods, an assessment of the potential of DMC+ can be made. It is shown that the simulative conversion of a state-of-the-art gasoline engine to DMC+ fuel offers advantages in terms of efficiency in many operating points even if the engine design is not altered.
Technical Paper

Virtual Development of Injector Spray Targeting by Coupling 3D-CFD Simulations with Optical Investigations

2020-04-14
2020-01-1157
Further improvements of internal combustion engines to reduce fuel consumption and to face future legislation constraints are strictly related to the study of mixture formation. The reason for that is the desire to supply the engine with homogeneous charge, towards the direction of a global stoichiometric blend in the combustion chamber. Fuel evaporation and thus mixture quality mostly depend on injector atomization features and charge motion within the cylinder. 3D-CFD simulations offer great potential to study not only injector atomization quality but also the evaporation behavior. Nevertheless coupling optical measurements and simulations for injector analysis is an open discussion because of the large number of influencing parameters and interactions affecting the fuel injection’s reproducibility. For this purpose, detailed numerical investigations are used to describe the injection phenomena.
Technical Paper

Discretization and Heat Transfer Calculation of Engine Water Jackets in 1D-Simulation

2020-04-14
2020-01-1349
The industry is working intensively on the precision of thermal management. By using complex thermal management strategies, it is possible to make engine heat distribution more accurate and dynamic, thereby increasing efficiency. Significant efforts are made to improve the cooling efficiency of the engine water jacket by using 3D CFD. As well, 1D simulation plays a significant role in the design and analysis of the cooling system, especially for considering transient behaviour of the engine. In this work, a practice-oriented universal method for creating a 1D water jacket model is presented. The focus is on the discretization strategy of 3D geometry and the calculation of heat transfer using Nusselt correlations. The basis and reference are 3D CFD simulations of the water jacket. Guidelines for the water jacket discretization are proposed. The heat transfer calculation in the 1D-templates is based on Nusselt-correlations (Nu = Nu(Re, Pr)), which are derived from 3D CFD simulations.
Technical Paper

A Phenomenological Homogenization Model Considering Direct Fuel Injection and EGR for SI Engines

2020-04-14
2020-01-0576
As a consequence of reduced fuel consumption, direct injection gasoline engines have already prevailed against port fuel injection. However, in-cylinder fuel homogenization strongly depends on charge motion and injection strategies and can be challenging due to the reduced available time for mixture formation. An insufficient homogenization has generally a negative impact on the combustion and therefore also on efficiency and emissions. In order to reach the targets of the intensified CO2 emission reduction, further increase in efficiency of SI engines is essential. In this connection, 0D/1D simulation is a fundamental tool due to its application area in an early stage of development and its relatively low computational costs. Certainly, inhomogeneities are still not considered in quasi dimensional combustion models because the prediction of mixture formation is not included in the state of the art 0D/1D simulation.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Influence of Charge Air Temperature Reduction on Engine Efficiency, CCV and NOx-Emissions of a Large Gas Engine Using a SI Burn Rate Model

2020-04-14
2020-01-0575
In order to meet increasingly stringent exhaust emission regulations, new engine concepts need to be developed. Lean combustion systems for stationary running large gas engines can reduce raw NOx-emissions to a very low level and enable the compliance with the exhaust emission standards without using a cost-intensive SCR-aftertreatment system. Experimental investigations in the past have already confirmed that a strong reduction of the charge air temperature even below ambient conditions by using an absorption chiller can significantly reduce NOx emissions. However, test bench operation of large gas engines is costly and time-consuming. To increase the efficiency of the engine development process, the possibility to use 0D/1D engine simulation prior to test bench studies of new concepts is investigated using the example of low temperature charge air cooling. In this context, a reliable prediction of engine efficiency and NOx-emissions is important.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-Dimensional SI Burn Rate Model for Predicting the Effects of Changing Fuel, Air-Fuel-Ratio, EGR and Water Injection

2020-04-14
2020-01-0574
As a result of the R&D focus being shifted from internal combustion engines to electrified powertrains, resources for the development of internal combustion engines are restricted more and more. With that, the importance of highly efficient engine development tools is increased. In this context, 0D/1D engine simulation offers the advantage of low computational effort and fast engine model set-up. To ensure a high predictive ability of the engine simulation, a reliable burn rate model is needed. Considering the increasing interest in alternative fuels, the aspect of predicting the fuel influence on combustion is of special importance. To reach these targets, the change of engine combustion characteristics with changing fuels and changing air-fuel-ratios were investigated systematically in a first step. For this purpose, engine test bed data were compared with expected fuel-dependent flame wrinkling trends based on Markstein/Lewis number theory.
Technical Paper

The Application of E-Fuel Oxymethylene Ether OME1 in a Virtual Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine for Ultra-Low Emissions

2020-04-14
2020-01-0349
For long haul transport, diesel engine due to its low fuel consumption and low operating costs will remain dominant over a long term. In order to achieve CO2 neutrality, the use of electricity-based, synthetic fuels (e-fuels) provides a solution. Especially the group of oxymethylene ethers (OME) is given much attention because of its soot-free combustion. However, the new fuel properties and the changed combustion characteristics place new demands on engine design. Meanwhile, the use of new fuels also creates new degrees of freedom to operate diesel engines. In this work, the application of dimethoxymethane (OME1) is investigated by means of 1D simulation at three operating points in a truck diesel engine. The subsystems of fuel injection, air path and exhaust gas are sequentially adjusted for the purpose of low emissions, especially for low nitrogen oxides (NOx).
Technical Paper

Virtual Investigation of Real Fuels by Means of 3D-CFD Engine Simulations

2019-09-09
2019-24-0090
The reduction of both harmful emissions (CO, HC, NOx, etc.) and gases responsible for greenhouse effects (especially CO2) are mandatory aspects to be considered in the development process of any kind of propulsion concept. Focusing on ICEs, the main development topics are today not only the reduction of harmful emissions, increase of thermodynamic efficiency, etc. but also the decarbonization of fuels which offers the highest potential for the reduction of CO2 emissions. Accordingly, the development of future ICEs will be closely linked to the development of CO2 neutral fuels (e.g. biofuels and e-fuels) as they will be part of a common development process. This implies an increase in development complexity, which needs the support of engine simulations. In this work, the virtual modeling of real fuel behavior is addressed to improve current simulation capabilities in studying how a specific composition can affect the engine performance.
Technical Paper

Valve Flow Coefficients under Engine Operation Conditions: Piston Influence and Flow Pulsation

2019-09-09
2019-24-0003
Engine valve flow coefficients are used to describe the flow throughput performance of engine valve/port designs, and to model gas exchange in 0D/1D engine simulation. Valve flow coefficients are normally determined at a stationary flow test bench, separately for intake and exhaust side, in the absence of the piston. However, engine operation differs from this setup; i. a. the piston might interact with valve flow around scavenging top dead center, and instead of steady boundary conditions, valve flow is nearly always subjected to pressure pulsations, due to pressure wave reflections within the gas exchange ports. In this work the influences of piston position and flow pulsation on valve flow coefficients are investigated for different SI engine geometries by means of 3D CFD and measurements at an enhanced flow test bench.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Test System for Holistic Vehicle Dynamics Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0449
In the automotive industry, there is a continued need to improve the development process and handle the increasing complexity of the overall vehicle system. One major step in this process is a comprehensive and complementary approach to both simulation and testing. Knowledge of the overall dynamic vehicle behavior is becoming increasingly important for the development of new control concepts such as integrated vehicle dynamics control aiming to improve handling quality and ride comfort. However, with current well-established test systems, only separated and isolated aspects of vehicle dynamics can be evaluated. To address these challenges and further merge the link between simulation and testing, the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK), University of Stuttgart is introducing a new Handling Roadway (HRW) Test System in cooperation with The Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) and MTS Systems Corporation.
Technical Paper

Investigation of an Innovative Combustion Process for High-Performance Engines and Its Impact on Emissions

2019-01-15
2019-01-0039
Over the past years, the question as to what may be the powertrain of the future has become ever more apparent. Aiming to improve upon a given technology, the internal combustion engine still offers a number of development paths in order to maintain its position in public and private mobility. In this study, an innovative combustion process is investigated with the goal to further approximate the ideal Otto cycle. Thus far, similar approaches such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) shared the same objective yet were unable to be operated under high load conditions. Highly increased control efforts and excessive mechanical stress on the components are but a few examples of the drawbacks associated with HCCI. The approach employed in this work is the so-called Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) in combination with a pre-chamber spark plug, enabling short combustion durations even at high dilution levels.
Technical Paper

Valve Flow Coefficients under Engine Operation Conditions: Pressure Ratios, Pressure and Temperature Levels

2019-01-15
2019-01-0041
Engine valve flow coefficients are not only used to characterize the performance of valve/port designs, but also for modelling gas exchange in 0D/1D engine simulation. Flow coefficients are usually estimated with small pressure ratios and at ambient air conditions. In contrast, the ranges for pressure ratio, pressure and temperature level during engine operation are much more extensive. In this work the influences of these three parameters on SI engine poppet valve flow coefficients are investigated using 3D CFD and measurements for validation. While former investigations already showed some pressure ratio dependencies by measurement, here the use of 3D CFD allows a more comprehensive analysis and a deeper understanding of the relevant effects. At first, typical ranges for the three mentioned parameters during engine operation are presented.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Study of Optimal Integration of a Rankine Cycle Based Waste Heat Recovery System into the Cooling System of a Long-Haul Heavy Duty Truck

2018-09-10
2018-01-1779
As a promising solution to improve fuel efficiency of a long-haul heavy duty truck with diesel engine, organic Rankine cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery system (WHR) by utilizing the exhaust gas from internal combustion engine has continuously drawn attention from automobile industry in recent years. The most attractive concept of ORC-based WHR system is the conversion of the thermal energy of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and exhaust gas from Tailpipe (EGT) to kinetic energy which is provided to the engine crankshaft. Due to a shift of the operating point of the engine by applying WHR system, the efficiency of the overall system increases and the fuel consumption reduces respectively. However, the integration of WHR system in truck is challenging by using engine cooling system as heat sink for Rankine cycle. The coolant mass flow rate influences strongly on the exhaust gas bypass which ensures a defined subcooling after condenser to avoid cavitation of pump.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Flame Propagation Description in Quasi-Dimensional Spark Ignition Engine Modeling

2018-09-10
2018-01-1655
The engine development process has been enhanced significantly by virtual engineering methods during the last decades. In terms of in-cylinder flow field, charge flow and combustion modelling, 3D-CFD (three dimensional) simulations enable detailed analysis and extended investigations in order to gain additional knowledge about design parameters. However, the computational time of the 3D-CFD is an obvious drawback that prevents a reasonable application for extensive analysis with varying speed, load and transient conditions. State-of-the-art 0D (zero dimensional) approaches close the gap between the demand of high computational efficiency and a satisfying accordance with experimental data. Recent improvements of phenomenological combustion approaches for gasoline spark ignition engines deal with the consideration of detailed flow parameters, the accuracy of the laminar flame speed calculation and the prediction of the knock limit.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Engine-Related Restrictions for the Global Efficiency by Using a Rankine Cycle-Based Waste Heat Recovery System on Heavy Duty Truck by Means of 1D-Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1451
As a promising concept to improve fuel efficiency of a long-haul heavy duty truck with diesel engine, organic Rankine cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery system (WHR) by utilizing the exhaust gas from internal combustion engine has continuously drawn attention from industry in recent years. The greatest achievable global efficiency may be, however, restricted by the engine. On one hand, engine operating conditions have direct impact on the temperature and the mass flow of exhaust gas, which is the waste heat source, on the other hand, the engine cooling system limits the heat rejection from the condenser of the WHR system. This paper aims to evaluate the impacts of the varied engine applications considering the effects of the WHR system on the global efficiency and engine emissions.
Technical Paper

A Two-Stage Knock Model for the Development of Future SI Engine Concepts

2018-04-03
2018-01-0855
At specific operating conditions, the auto-ignition in the unburnt mixture that precedes the occurrence of knock in conventional SI engines happens in two stages. In a previous publication, the authors demonstrated that the low-temperature heat release significantly influences the auto-ignition behavior of the mixture, thus severely impairing the prediction capabilities of the Livengood-Wu integral that the majority of the commonly used 0D/1D knock models are based on. Consequently, a new two-stage auto-ignition prediction approach for modeling the progress of the chemical reactions was introduced. It was demonstrated that the proposed auto-ignition model predicts the occurrence of two-stage ignition and accurately considers the significant influence of low-temperature heat release on the mixture’s auto-ignition behavior at various operating conditions.
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