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Journal Article

Ramped Versus Square Injection Rate Experiments in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0300
CO2 regulations on heavy-duty transport are introduced in essentially all markets within the next decade, in most cases in several phases of increasing stringency. To cope with these mandates, developers of engines and related equipment are aiming to break new ground in the fields of combustion, fuel and hardware technologies. In this work, a novel diesel fuel injector, Delphi’s DFI7, is utilized to experimentally investigate and compare the performance of ramped injection rates versus traditional square fueling profiles. The aim is specifically to shift the efficiency and NOx tradeoff to a more favorable position. The design of experiments methodology is used in the tests, along with statistical techniques to analyze the data. Results show that ramped and square rates - after optimization of fueling parameters - produce comparable gross indicated efficiencies.
Technical Paper

Effects of Butanol Isomers on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Heavy-Duty Engine in RCCI Mode

2020-04-14
2020-01-0307
Butanol is an attractive alternative fuel by virtue of its renewable source and low sooting tendency. In this paper, three butanol isomers (n-butanol, isobutanol, and tert-butanol) were induced via port injection respectively and n-heptane was directly injected into the cylinder to investigate reactivity controlled compression ignition in a heavy-duty diesel engine. This work evaluates the potential of applying butanol as low reactivity fuel and the effects of reactivity gradient on combustion and emission characteristics. The experiments were performed from low load to medium-high load. Due to the different reactivities among the butanol isomers, the exhaust gas recirculation rate and the direct injection strategy were varied for a specific butanol isomer and testing load. Particularly, isobutanol/n-heptane can be operated with single direct injection and no exhaust gas recirculation up to medium load due to the high octane rating.
Technical Paper

CO2 Neutral Heavy-Duty Engine Concept with RCCI Combustion Using Seaweed-based Fuels

2020-04-14
2020-01-0808
This paper focusses on the application of bioalcohols (ethanol and butanol) derived from seaweed in Heavy-Duty (HD) Compression Ignition (CI) combustion engines. Seaweed-based fuels do not claim land and are not in competition with the food chain. Currently, the application of high octane bioalcohols is limited to Spark Ignition (SI) engines. The Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion concept allows the use of these low carbon fuels in CI engines which have higher efficiencies associated with them than SI engines. This contributes to the reduction of tailpipe CO2 emissions as required by (future) legislation and reducing fuel consumption, i.e. Total-Cost-of-Ownership (TCO). Furthermore, it opens the HD transport market for these low carbon bioalcohol fuels from a novel sustainable biomass source. In this paper, both the production of seaweed-based fuels and the application of these fuels in CI engines is discussed.
Technical Paper

Identifying the Driving Processes of Diesel Spray Injection through Mixture Fraction and Velocity Field Measurements at ECN Spray A

2020-04-14
2020-01-0831
Diesel spray mixture formation is investigated at target conditions using multiple diagnostics and laboratories. High-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used to measure the velocity field inside and outside the jet simultaneously with a new frame straddling synchronization scheme. The PIV measurements are carried out in the Engine Combustion Network Spray A target conditions, enabling direct comparisons with mixture fraction measurements previously performed in the same conditions, and forming a unique database at diesel conditions. A 1D spray model, based upon mass and momentum exchange between axial control volumes and near-Gaussian velocity and mixture fraction profiles is evaluated against the data.
Journal Article

Computational Modeling of Diesel Spray Combustion with Multiple Injections

2020-04-14
2020-01-1155
Multiple injection strategies are commonly used in conventional Diesel engines due to the flexibility for optimizing heat-release timing with a consequent improvement in fuel economy and engine-out emissions. This is also desirable in low-temperature combustion (LTC) engines since it offers the potential to reduce unburned hydrocarbon and CO emissions. To better utilize these benefits and find optimal calibrations of split injection strategies, it is imperative that the fundamental processes of multiple injection combustion are understood and computational fluid dynamics models accurately describe the flow dynamics and combustion characteristics between different injection events. To this end, this work is dedicated to the identification of suitable methodologies to predict the multiple injection combustion process.
Technical Paper

Optimal Aftertreatment Pre-Heat Strategy for Minimum Tailpipe NOx Around Green Zones

2020-04-14
2020-01-0361
Green zones are challenging problems for the thermal management systems of hybrid vehicles. This is because within the green zone the engine is turned off, and the only way to keep the aftertreatment system warm is lost. This means that there is a risk of leaving the green zone with a cold and ineffective aftertreatment system, resulting in high emissions. A thermal management strategy that heats the aftertreatment system prior to turning off the engine, in an optimal way, to reduce the NOx emissions when the engine is restarted, is developed. The strategy is also used to evaluate under what conditions pre-heating is a suitable strategy, by evaluating the performance in simulations using a model of a heavy-duty diesel powertrain and scenario designed for this purpose.
Technical Paper

A Proposed Diesel Powertrain to Meet Future Emission Standards and Achieve High Engine Efficiency

2019-09-09
2019-24-0191
Nowadays, powertrain development activity is performed on the base of fulfilling the stricter emission standards under real driving conditions (RDE). However, the pressure on automotive industry to reduce CO2 emissions in high efficient diesel applications results in lower exhaust gas temperatures. Therefore, it is highly needed to develop advanced vehicle thermal management methods to both fulfil the targets of emission standards and high thermal efficiency, without increasing dramatically the powertrain cost. The aim of this work is to experimentally demonstrate that by utilizing advanced engine and ATS control methods and revising the engine hardware and subsystems can lead to significant improvement on the fuel efficiency and emissions of the conventional diesel powertrain. The revised engine includes an improved combustion system, completely revised turbocharging and air handling system whilst being heavily reworked with respect to FMEP reduction.
Technical Paper

Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Organic Particulate Matter from Exhaust After-Treatment System of Euro 6 Diesel Engine Operating at Full Load

2019-09-09
2019-24-0053
The current legislation does not take into account the limitation of sub 23 nm particles from engine. Nevertheless, the Common Rail Diesel engine emits a large number of nanoparticle, solid and volatiles, that are very dangerous for human health. In this contest, the challenge of the “dieper EU project” is to apply advanced technologies for exhaust after-treatment to existing diesel engines and to optimize the characteristics of a new generation of engines with regards to emissions, fuel consumption and drivability. Aim of the present paper is to provide useful information for the development of the after-treatment system that will have to fulfill Euro6 further steps. In order to characterize the chemical and physical nature of Particulate Matter emitted from Euro 6b Medium Duty diesel engine, the pollutants were collected and analyzed: from engine-out, downstream of the particulate filter (DPF), and at the exit of a selective catalytic reactor (SCR).
Technical Paper

Validation of Diesel Combustion Models with Turbulence Chemistry Interaction and Detailed Kinetics

2019-09-09
2019-24-0088
Detailed and fast combustion models are necessary to support design of Diesel engines with low emission and fuel consumption. Over the years, the importance of turbulence chemistry interaction to correctly describe the diffusion flame structure was demonstrated by a detailed assessment with optical data from constant-volume vessel experiments. The main objective of this work is to carry out an extensive validation of two different combustion models which are suitable for the simulation of Diesel engine combustion. The first one is the Representative Interactive Flamelet model (RIF) employing direct chemistry integration. A single flamelet formulation is generally used to reduce the computational time but this aspect limits the capability to reproduce the flame stabilization process. To overcome such limitation, a second model called tabulated flamelet progress variable (TFPV) is tested in this work.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Studies in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Fueled with an N-Butanol and N-Heptane Blend

2019-04-02
2019-01-0575
N-butanol, as a biomass-based renewable fuel, has many superior fuel properties. It has a higher energy content and cetane number than its alcohol competitors, methanol and ethanol. Previous studies have proved that n-butanol has the capability to achieve lower emissions without sacrifice on thermal efficiency when blended with diesel. However, most studies on n-butanol are limited to low blending ratios, which restricts the improvement of emissions. In this paper, 80% by volume of n-butanol was blended with 20% by volume of n-heptane (namely BH80). The influences of various engine parameters (combustion phasing, EGR ratio, injection timing and intake pressure, respectively) on its combustion and emission characteristics are tested at different loads. The results showed that when BH80 uses more than 40% EGR, the emitted soot and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions are below the EURO VI legislation.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Late Stage Conventional Diesel Combustion - Effect of Additives

2018-09-10
2018-01-1787
The accepted model of conventional diesel combustion [1] assumes a rich premixed flame slightly downstream of the maximum liquid penetration. The soot generated by this rich premixed flame is burnt out by a subsequent diffusion flame at the head of the jet. Even in situations in which the centre of combustion (CA50) is phased optimally to maximize efficiency, slow late stage combustion can still have a significant detrimental impact on thermal efficiency. Data is presented on potential late-stage combustion improvers in a EURO VI compliant HD engine at a range of speed and load points. The operating conditions (e.g. injection timings, EGR levels) were based on a EURO VI calibration which targets 3 g/kWh of engine-out NOx. Rates of heat release were determined from the pressure sensor data. To investigate late stage combustion, focus was made on the position in the cycle at which 90% of the fuel had combusted (CA90). An EN590 compliant fuel was tested.
Technical Paper

Effects of Different Injection Strategies and EGR on Partially Premixed Combustion

2018-09-10
2018-01-1798
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition concepts are promising to reduce NOx and soot simultaneously and keeping a high thermal efficiency. Partially premixed combustion is a single fuel variant of this new combustion concepts applying a fuel with a low cetane number to achieve the necessary long ignition delay. In this study, multiple injection strategies are studied in the partially premixed combustion approach to reach stable combustion and ultra-low NOx and soot emission at 15.5 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure. Three different injection strategies (single injection, pilot-main injection, main-post injection) are experimentally investigated on a heavy duty compression ignition engine. A fuel blend (70 vol% n-butanol and 30 vol% n-heptane) was tested. The effects of different pilot and post-injection timing, as well as Exhaust-gas Recirculation rate on different injection strategies investigated.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Spray Combustion Processes: Experiments and Numerical Simulations

2018-09-10
2018-01-1689
A contemporary approach for improving and developing the understanding of heavy-duty Diesel engine combustion processes is to use a concerted effort between experiments at well-characterized boundary conditions and detailed, high-fidelity models. In this paper, combustion processes of n-dodecane fuel sprays under heavy-duty Diesel engine conditions are investigated using this approach. Reacting fuel sprays are studied in a constant-volume pre-burn vessel at an ambient temperature of 900 K with three reference cases having specific combinations of injection pressure, ambient density and ambient oxygen concentration (80, 150 & 160 MPa - 22.8 & 40 kg/m3-15 & 20.5% O2). In addition to a free jet, two different walls were placed inside the combustion vessel to study flame-wall interaction.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Operating Conditions on Post-Injection Efficacy; a Study Using Design-of-Experiments

2018-04-03
2018-01-0229
Post-injection strategies prove to be a valuable option for reducing soot emission, but experimental results often differ from publication to publication. These discrepancies are likely caused by the selected operating conditions and engine hardware in separate studies. Efforts to optimize not only engine-out soot, but simultaneously fuel economy and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) complicate the understanding of post-injection effects even more. Still, the large amount of published work on the topic is gradually forming a consensus. In the current work, a Design-of-Experiments (DoE) procedure and regression analysis are used to investigate the influence of various operating conditions on post-injection scheduling and efficacy. The study targets emission reductions of soot and NOx, as well as fuel economy improvements. Experiments are conducted on a heavy-duty compression ignition engine at three load-speed combinations.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Comparison between a Conventional Euro VI Diesel Engine and an Optimized PCCI Version and Effect of EGR Cooler Fouling on PCCI Combustion

2018-04-03
2018-01-0221
Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) is an advanced combustion mode that has the aim of simultaneously reducing particulate matter and nitrogen oxide exhaust emissions, compared with conventional diesel combustion, thanks to a partially premixed charge and low temperature combustion. In this work, PCCI combustion has been implemented by means of an early single-injection strategy and large amounts of recirculated exhaust gas. Starting from a commercial Euro VI on-road engine, the engine hardware has been modified to optimize PCCI operations. This has involved adopting a smaller turbo group, a new combustion chamber and injectors, and a dedicated high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation system. The results, in terms of engine performance and exhaust emissions, under steady-state operation conditions, are presented in this work, where the original Euro VI calibration of the conventional engine has been compared with the PCCI calibration of the optimized hardware engine.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Transition from HCCI to CI via PPC with Low Octane Gasoline Fuels Using Optical Diagnostics and Soot Particle Analysis

2017-10-08
2017-01-2403
In-cylinder visualization, combustion stratification, and engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions were investigated in an optical engine fueled with Haltermann straight-run naphtha fuel and corresponding surrogate fuel. The combustion mode was transited from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to conventional compression ignition (CI) via partially premixed combustion (PPC). Single injection strategy with the change of start of injection (SOI) from early to late injections was employed. The high-speed color camera was used to capture the in-cylinder combustion images. The combustion stratification was analyzed based on the natural luminosity of the combustion images. The regulated emission of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) were measured to evaluate the combustion efficiency together with the in-cylinder rate of heat release.
Technical Paper

Spray Combustion Analysis of Humins

2017-09-04
2017-24-0119
Second generation biomass is an attractive renewable feedstock for transport fuels. Its sulfur content is generally negligible and the carbon cycle is reduced from millions to tens of years. One hitherto non-valorized feedstock are so-called humins, a residual product formed in the conversion of sugars to platform chemicals, such as hydroxymethylfurfural and methoxymethylfurfural, intermediates in the production of FDCA, a building block used to produce the polyethylene furanoate (PEF) bottle by Avantium. The focus of this study is to investigate the spray combustion behavior of humins as a renewable alternative for heavy fuel oil (HFO) under large two-stroke engine-like conditions in an optically accessible constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Zero Dimensional Models for EGR Mass-Rate and EGR Unbalance Estimation in Diesel Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0070
A precise estimation of the recirculated exhaust gas rate and oxygen concentration as well as a predictive evaluation of the possible EGR unbalance among cylinders are of paramount importance, especially if non-conventional combustion modes, which require high EGR flow-rates, are implemented. In the present paper, starting from the equation related to convergent nozzles, the EGR mass flow-rate is modeled considering the pressure and the temperature upstream of the EGR control valve, as well as the pressure downstream of it. The restricted flow-area at the valve-seat passage and the discharge coefficient are carefully assessed as functions of the valve lift. Other models were fitted using parameters describing the engine working conditions as inputs, following a semi-physical and a purely statistical approach. The resulting models are then applied to estimate EGR rates to both conventional and non-conventional combustion conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of Combustion Models for Diesel Engines Based on Tabulated Kinetics in a Wide Range of Operating Conditions

2017-09-04
2017-24-0029
Computational fluid dynamics represents a useful tool to support the design and development of Heavy Duty Engines, making possible to test the effects of injection strategies and combustion chamber design for a wide range of operating conditions. Predictive models are required to ensure accurate estimations of heat release and the main pollutant emissions within a limited amount of time. For this reason, both detailed chemistry and turbulence chemistry interaction need to be included. In this work, the authors intend to apply combustion models based on tabulated kinetics for the prediction of Diesel combustion in Heavy Duty Engines. Four different approaches were considered: well-mixed model, presumed PDF, representative interactive flamelets and flamelet progress variable. Tabulated kinetics was also used for the estimation of NOx emissions.
Journal Article

Model-Based Control of BMEP and NOx Emissions in a Euro VI 3.0L Diesel Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0057
A model-based approach to control BMEP (Brake Mean Effective Pressure) and NOx emissions has been developed and assessed on a FPT F1C 3.0L Euro VI diesel engine for heavy-duty applications. The controller is based on a zero-dimensional real-time combustion model, which is capable of simulating the HRR (heat release rate), in-cylinder pressure, BMEP and NOx engine-out levels. The real-time combustion model has been realized by integrating and improving previously developed simulation tools. A new discretization scheme has been developed for the model equations, in order to reduce the accuracy loss when the computational step is increased. This has allowed the required computational time to be reduced to a great extent.
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