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Technical Paper

Measure of Forming Limit Strain on the Aluminum Sheets Passed Through Draw-Bead by Digital Image Correlation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0598
Accurate determination of the forming limit strain of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by industry. Also, the effects of draw beads (enhanced forming limit behaviors), normally reported on steel sheet metals, on aluminum sheet metal is not fully understood. This paper introduces an experimental study on draw bead effects on aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0) of the sheet metal. Two kinds of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material conditions are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests were performed to create a plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was used to record and measure the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article.
Journal Article

An Adaptive Copula-Based Approach for Model Bias Characterization

2015-04-14
2015-01-0455
A copula-based approach for model bias characterization was previously proposed [18] aiming at improving prediction accuracy compared to other model characterization approaches such as regression and Gaussian Process. This paper proposes an adaptive copula-based approach for model bias identification to enhance the available methodology. The main idea is to use cluster analysis to preprocess data, then apply the copula-based approach using information from each cluster. The final prediction accumulates predictions obtained from each cluster. Two case studies will be used to demonstrate the superiority of the adaptive copula-based approach over its predecessor.
Journal Article

Very High Cycle Fatigue of Cast Aluminum Alloys under Variable Humidity Levels

2015-04-14
2015-01-0556
Ultrasonic fatigue tests (testing frequency around 20 kHz) have been conducted on four different cast aluminum alloys each with a distinct composition, heat treatment, and microstructure. Tests were performed in dry air, laboratory air and submerged in water. For some alloys, the ultrasonic fatigue lives were dramatically affected by the environment humidity. The effects of different factors like material composition, yield strength, secondary dendrite arm spacing and porosity were investigated; it was concluded that the material strength may be the key factor influencing the environmental humidity effect in ultrasonic fatigue testing. Further investigation on the effect of chemical composition, especially copper content, is needed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Temperature Cycle on Thermomechanical Fatigue Life of a High Silicon Molybdenum Ductile Cast Iron

2015-04-14
2015-01-0557
High silicon molybdenum (HiSiMo) ductile cast iron (DCI) is commonly used for high temperature engine components, such as exhaust manifolds, which are also subjected to severe thermal cycles during vehicle operation. It is imperative to understand the thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) behavior of HiSiMo DCI to accurately predict the durability of high temperature engine components. In this paper, the effect of the minimum temperature of a TMF cycle on TMF life and failure behavior is investigated. Tensile and low cycle fatigue data are first presented for temperatures up to 800°C. Next, TMF data are presented for maximum temperatures of 800°C and minimum cycle temperatures ranging from 300 to 600°C. The data show that decreasing the minimum temperature has a detrimental effect on TMF life. The Smith-Watson-Topper parameter applied at the maximum temperature of the TMF cycle is found to correlate well with out-of-phase (OP) TMF life for all tested minimum temperatures.
Journal Article

Development of Corrosion Testing Protocols for Magnesium Alloys and Magnesium-Intensive Subassemblies

2013-04-08
2013-01-0978
Corrosion tendency is one of the major inhibitors for increased use of magnesium alloys in automotive structural applications. Moreover, systematic or standardized methods for evaluation of both general and galvanic corrosion of magnesium alloys, either as individual components or eventually as entire subassemblies, remains elusive, and receives little attention from professional and standardization bodies. This work reports outcomes from an effort underway within the U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership - ‘USAMP’ (Chrysler, Ford and GM) directed toward enabling technologies and knowledge base for the design and fabrication of magnesium-intensive subassemblies intended for automotive “front end” applications. In particular, subassemblies consisting of three different grades of magnesium (die cast, sheet and extrusion) and receiving a typical corrosion protective coating were subjected to cyclic corrosion tests as employed by each OEM in the consortium.
Journal Article

HC Traps for Gasoline and Ethanol Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-1297
In-line hydrocarbon (HC) traps are not widely used to reduce HC emissions due to their limited durability, high platinum group metal (PGM) concentrations, complicated processing, and insufficient hydrocarbon (HC) retention temperatures required for efficient conversion by the three-way catalyst component. New trapping materials and system architectures were developed utilizing an engine dynamometer test equipped with dual Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometers for tracking the adsorption and desorption of various HC species during the light-off period. Parallel laboratory reactor studies were conducted which show that the new HC trap formulations extend the traditional adsorption processes (i.e., based on physic-sorption and/or adsorption at acid sites) to chemical reaction mechanisms resulting in oligomerized, dehydro-cyclization, and partial coke formation.
Journal Article

Comparison of Compression Ignition Engine Noise Metrics in Low-Temperature Combustion Regimes

2013-04-08
2013-01-1659
Many combustion researchers use peak pressure rise rate or ringing intensity to indicate combustion noise in lieu of microphone data or using a combustion noise meter that simulates the attenuation characteristics of the engine structure. In this paper, peak pressure rise rate and ringing intensity are compared to combustion noise using a fully documented algorithm similar to the ones used by combustion noise meters. Data from multiple engines operating under several low-temperature combustion strategies were analyzed. The results suggest that neither peak pressure rise rate nor ringing intensity provides a direct correlation to engine noise over a wide range of operating conditions. Moreover, the estimation of both metrics is often accompanied by the filtering of the pressure data, which changes the absolute value of the results.
Technical Paper

Effects of Pore Distributions on Ductility of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die-Cast Magnesium

2013-04-08
2013-01-0644
In this paper, a microstructure-based three-dimensional (3D) finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of porosity in thin-walled high pressure die-cast (HPDC) magnesium alloys on their ductility. For this purpose, the cross-sections of AM60 casting samples are first examined using optical microscope and X-ray tomography to obtain the general information on the pore distribution features. The experimentally observed pore distribution features are then used to generate a series of synthetic microstructure-based 3D finite element models with different pore volume fractions and pore distribution features. Shear and ductile damage models are adopted in the finite element analyses to induce the fracture by element removal, leading to the prediction of ductility.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Nozzle Clearance Effects on a Radial Turbine: Aerodynamic Performance and Forced Response

2013-04-08
2013-01-0918
Variable nozzle turbine (VNT) technology has become a popular technology for diesel engine application. To pivot the nozzle vane and adjust the turbine operating condition, nozzle clearances are inevitable on both the hub and shroud side of turbine housing. Leakage flow formed inside the nozzle clearance leads to extra flow loss and makes the nozzle exit flow less uniform, thus further affects downstream aerodynamic performance of the rotor. As the leakage mixing with nozzle wake flow, the process is highly unsteady, which increases the fluctuation amplitude of transient load on the rotating turbine wheels. In present paper, firstly steady CFD analysis of a turbocharger turbine was performed at different nozzle openings. Then unsteady simulation of the turbine was carried out to investigate the interaction between the leakage flow through nozzle clearance and the main flow. Nozzle clearance's effect on turbine performance was investigated.
Technical Paper

Renewable Ethanol Use for Enabling High Load Clean Combustion in a Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0904
As a renewable energy source, the ethanol fuel was employed with a diesel fuel in this study to improve the cylinder charge homogeneity for high load operations, targeting on ultra-low nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke emissions. A light-duty diesel engine is configured to adapt intake port fuelling of the ethanol fuel while keeping all other original engine components intact. High load experiments are performed to investigate the combustion control and low emission enabling without sacrificing the high compression ratio (18.2:1). The intake boost, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and injection pressure are independently controlled, and thus their effects on combustion and emission characteristics of the high load operation are investigated individually. The low temperature combustion is accomplished at high engine load (16~17 bar IMEP) with regulation compatible NOx and soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Impact of Fuel Metal Impurities on the Durability of a Light-Duty Diesel Aftertreatment System

2013-04-08
2013-01-0513
Alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities found in diesel fuels are potential poisons for diesel exhaust catalysts. Using an accelerated aging procedure, a set of production exhaust systems from a 2011 Ford F250 equipped with a 6.7L diesel engine have been aged to an equivalent of 150,000 miles of thermal aging and metal exposure. These exhaust systems included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Four separate exhaust systems were aged, each with a different fuel: ULSD containing no measureable metals, B20 containing sodium, B20 containing potassium and B20 containing calcium. Metals levels were selected to simulate the maximum allowable levels in B100 according to the ASTM D6751 standard. Analysis of the aged catalysts included Federal Test Procedure emissions testing with the systems installed on a Ford F250 pickup, bench flow reactor testing of catalyst cores, and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA).
Journal Article

The Influence of Injection Strategy and Glow Plug Temperature on Cycle by Cycle Stability Under Cold Idling Conditions for a Low Compression Ratio, HPCR Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1071
Experimental studies have been undertaken on a single-cylinder HPCR diesel engine with a compression ratio of 15.5:1 to explore the effect of fuel injection strategy on cycle by cycle stability. The influence of the number, separation and quantity of pilot injections on the coefficient of variation of IMEP has been investigated at -20°C, 1000 rev/min, post-start idling conditions. Injection strategy and glow plug temperature trade-off has also been investigated at a range of soak temperatures. Up to four pilot injections have been used. For timing of the main injection near to the optimum, CoVIMEP values of 10% or better can be achieved. Closer spacing of injections improved stability and extended the range of timings to meet target stability. The best combinations of pilot number and pilot quantity varied with total fuel delivered.
Journal Article

The Effect of Piston Cooling Jets on Diesel Engine Piston Temperatures, Emissions and Fuel Consumption

2012-04-16
2012-01-1212
A Ford 2.4-liter 115PS light-duty diesel engine was modified to allow solenoid control of the oil feed to the piston cooling jets, enabling these to be switched on or off on demand. The influence of the jets on piston temperatures, engine thermal state, gaseous emissions and fuel economy has been investigated. With the jets switched off, piston temperatures were measured to be between 23 and 88°C higher. Across a range of speed-load points, switching off the jets increased engine-out emissions of NOx typically by 3%, and reduced emissions of CO by 5-10%. Changes in HC were of the same order and were reductions at most conditions. Fuel consumption increased at low-speed, high-load conditions and decreased at high-speed, low-load conditions. Applying the results to the NEDC drive cycle suggests active on/off control of the jets could reduce engine-out emissions of CO by 6%, at the expense of a 1% increase in NOx, compared to the case when the jets are on continuously.
Journal Article

Investigating the Potential to Reduce Crankshaft Main Bearing Friction During Engine Warm-up by Raising Oil Feed Temperature

2012-04-16
2012-01-1216
Reducing friction in crankshaft bearings during cold engine operation by heating the oil supply to the main gallery has been investigated through experimental investigations and computational modelling. The experimental work was undertaken on a 2.4l DI diesel engine set up with an external heat source to supply hot oil to the gallery. The aim was to raise the film temperature in the main bearings early in the warm up, producing a reduction in oil viscosity and through this, a reduction in friction losses. The effectiveness of this approach depends on the management of heat losses from the oil. Heat transfer along the oil pathway to the bearings, and within the bearings to the journals and shells, reduces the benefit of the upstream heating.
Journal Article

Correlation between Scatter in Fatigue Life and Fatigue Crack Initiation Sites in Cast Aluminum Alloys

2012-04-16
2012-01-0920
High cycle fatigue tests at a constant positive mean stress have been performed on a Al-Si-Cu cast aluminum alloy. The Random Fatigue Limit (RFL) model was employed to fit the probabilistic S-N curves based on Maximum Likelihood Estimate (MLE). Fractographic studies indicated that fatigue cracks in most specimens initiate from oxide films located at or very close to specimen surface. The RFL model was proved to be able to accurately capture the scatter in fatigue life. The cumulative density function (CDF) of fatigue life determined by RFL fit is found to be approximately equal to the complementary value of the CDF of the near-surface fatigue initiator size.
Technical Paper

A Visualization Test Setup for Investigation of Water-Deposit Interaction in a Surrogate Rectangular Cooler Exposed to Diesel Exhaust Flow

2012-04-16
2012-01-0364
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers are commonly used in diesel engines to reduce the temperature of recirculated exhaust gases in order to reduce NOx emissions. The presence of a cool surface in the hot exhaust causes particulate soot deposition as well as hydrocarbon and water condensation. Fouling experienced through deposition of particulate matter and hydrocarbons results in degraded cooler effectiveness and increased pressure drop. In this study, a visualization test setup is designed and constructed so that the effect of water condensation on the deposit formation and growth at various coolant temperatures can be studied. A water-cooled surrogate rectangular channel is employed to represent the EGR cooler. One side of the channel is made of glass for visualization purposes. A medium duty diesel engine is used to generate the exhaust stream.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Compression Ratio on Indicated Emissions and Fuel Economy Responses to Input Variables for a D.I Diesel Engine Combustion System

2012-04-16
2012-01-0697
The effect of compression ratio on sensitivity to changes in start of injection and air-fuel ratio has been investigated on a single-cylinder DI diesel engine at fixed low and medium speeds and loads. Compression ratio was set to 17.9:1 or 13.7:1 by using pistons with different bowl sizes. Injection timing and air-to-fuel ratio were swept around a nominal map point at which gross IMEP and NOx values were matched for the two compression ratios. It was found that CO, HC and ISFC were higher at low compression ratio, but the soot/NOx trade-off improved and this could be exploited to reduce the fuel economy penalty. Sensitivity to inputs is generally similar, but high compression ratio tended to have steeper response gradients. Reducing compression ratio to 13.7 gave rise to a marked degradation of performance at light load, producing high CO emissions and a fall in combustion efficiency. This could be eased by reducing rail pressure, but the advantage in smoke emission was lost.
Technical Paper

Predicted Paths of Soot Particles in the Cylinders of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0148
Soot formation and distribution inside the cylinder of a light-duty direct injection diesel engine, have been predicted using Kiva-3v CFD software. Pathlines of soot particles traced from specific in-cylinder locations and crank angle instants have been explored using the results for cylinder charge motion predicted by the Kiva-3v code. Pathlines are determined assuming soot particles are massless and follow charge motion. Coagulation and agglomeration have not been taken into account. High rates of soot formation dominate during and just after the injection. Oxidation becomes dominant after the injection has terminated and throughout the power stroke. Computed soot pathlines show that soot particles formed just below the fuel spray axis during the early injection period are more likely to travel to the cylinder wall boundary layer. Soot particles above the fuel spray have lesser tendency to be conveyed to the cylinder wall.
Technical Paper

A New Floating-Liner Test Rig Design to Investigate Factors Influencing Piston-Liner Friction

2012-04-16
2012-01-1328
The largest contribution to engine rubbing friction is made by the piston and piston rings running in the cylinder liner. The magnitude and characteristics of the friction behaviour and the influence on these of factors such as surface roughness, piston design and lubricant properties are of keen interest. Investigating presents experimental challenges, including potential problems of uncontrolled build-to-build variability when component changes are made. These are addressed in the design of a new motored piston and floating liner rig. The design constrains transverse movement of a single liner using cantilevered mounts at the top and bottom. The mounts and two high stiffness strain gauged load cells constrain vertical movement. The outputs of the load cells are processed to extract the force contribution associated with friction. The liner, piston and crankshaft parts were taken from a EuroV-compliant, HPCR diesel engine with a swept capacity of 550cc per cylinder.
Journal Article

Optimized AHSS Structures for Vehicle Side Impact

2012-04-16
2012-01-0044
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been widely accepted as a material of choice in the automotive industry to balance overall vehicle weight and stringent vehicle crash test performance targets. Combined with efficient use of geometry and load paths through shape and topology optimization, AHSS has enabled vehicle manufacturers to obtain the highest possible ratings in safety evaluations by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). In this study, vehicle CAE side impact models were used to evaluate three side impact crash test conditions (IIHS side impact, NHTSA LINCAP and FMVSS 214 side pole) and the IIHS roof strength test condition and to identify several key components affecting the side impact test performance. HyperStudy® optimization software and LS-DYNA® nonlinear finite element software were utilized for shape and gauge optimization.
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