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Technical Paper

Limitations of Sector Mesh Geometry and Initial Conditions to Model Flow and Mixture Formation in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0204
Sector mesh modeling is the dominant computational approach for combustion system design optimization. The aim of this work is to quantify the errors descending from the sector mesh approach through three geometric modeling approaches to an optical diesel engine. A full engine geometry mesh is created, including valves and intake and exhaust ports and runners, and a full-cycle flow simulation is performed until fired TDC. Next, an axisymmetric sector cylinder mesh is initialized with homogeneous bulk in-cylinder initial conditions initialized from the full-cycle simulation. Finally, a 360-degree azimuthal mesh of the cylinder is initialized with flow and thermodynamics fields at IVC mapped from the full engine geometry using a conservative interpolation approach. A study of the in-cylinder flow features until TDC showed that the geometric features on the cylinder head (valve tilt and protrusion into the combustion chamber, valve recesses) have a large impact on flow complexity.
Technical Paper

A Multibody Dynamics Approach to Leaf Spring Simulation for Upfront Analyses

2015-06-15
2015-01-2228
Drivelines used in modern pickup trucks commonly employ universal joints. This type of joint is responsible for second driveshaft order vibrations in the vehicle. Large displacements of the joint connecting the driveline and the rear axle have a detrimental effect on vehicle NVH. As leaf springs are critical energy absorbing elements that connect to the powertrain, they are used to restrain large axle windup angles. One of the most common types of leaf springs in use today is the multi-stage parabolic leaf spring. A simple SAE 3-link approximation is adequate for preliminary studies but it has been found to be inadequate to study axle windup. A vast body of literature exists on modeling leaf springs using nonlinear FEA and multibody simulations. However, these methods require significant amount of component level detail and measured data. As such, these techniques are not applicable for quick sensitivity studies at design conception stage.
Technical Paper

Sound Package Design for Lightweight Vehicles

2015-06-15
2015-01-2343
OEMs are racing to develop lightweight vehicles as government regulations now mandate automakers to nearly double the average fuel economy of new cars and trucks by 2025. Lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber composites are being used as structural members in vehicle body and suspension components. The reduction in weight in structural panels increases noise transmission into the passenger compartment. This poses a great challenge in vehicle sound package development since simply increasing weight in sound package components to reduce interior noise is no longer an option [1]. This paper discusses weight saving approaches to reduce noise level at the sources, noise transmission paths, and transmitted noise into the passenger compartment. Lightweight sound package materials are introduced to treat and reduce airborne noise transmission into multi-material lightweight body structure.
Journal Article

NVH Development of the Ford 2.7L 4V-V6 Turbocharged Engine

2015-06-15
2015-01-2288
A new turbocharged 60° 2.7L 4V-V6 gasoline engine has been developed by Ford Motor Company for both pickup trucks and car applications. This engine was code named “Nano” due to its compact size; it features a 4-valves DOHC valvetrain, a CGI cylinder block, an Aluminum ladder, an integrated exhaust manifold and twin turbochargers. The goal of this engine is to deliver 120HP/L, ULEV70 emission, fuel efficiency improvements and leadership level NVH. This paper describes the upfront design and optimization process used for the NVH development of this engine. It showcases the use of analytical tools used to define the critical design features and discusses the NVH performance relative to competitive benchmarks.
Journal Article

Model-Based Parameter Identification of Healthy and Aged Li-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicle Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-0252
Electric vehicles are receiving considerable attention because they offer a more efficient and sustainable transportation alternative compared to conventional fossil-fuel powered vehicles. Since the battery pack represents the primary energy storage component in an electric vehicle powertrain, it requires accurate monitoring and control. In order to effectively estimate the battery pack critical parameters such as the battery state of charge (SOC), state of health (SOH), and remaining capacity, a high-fidelity battery model is needed as part of a robust SOC estimation strategy. As the battery degrades, model parameters significantly change, and this model needs to account for all operating conditions throughout the battery's lifespan. For effective battery management system design, it is critical that the physical model adapts to parameter changes due to aging.
Journal Article

Simulation of Organic Rankine Cycle Power Generation with Exhaust Heat Recovery from a 15 liter Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0339
The performance of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) that recovers heat from the exhaust of a heavy-duty diesel engine was simulated. The work was an extension of a prior study that simulated the performance of an experimental ORC system developed and tested at Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL). The experimental data were used to set model parameters and validate the results of that simulation. For the current study the model was adapted to consider a 15 liter turbocharged engine versus the original 1.9 liter light-duty automotive turbodiesel studied by ORNL. Exhaust flow rate and temperature data for the heavy-duty engine were obtained from Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) for a range of steady-state engine speeds and loads without EGR. Because of the considerably higher exhaust gas flow rates of the heavy-duty engine, relative to the engine tested by ORNL, a different heat exchanger type was considered in order to keep exhaust pressure drop within practical bounds.
Journal Article

Turbocharger Turbine Inlet Isentropic Pressure Observer Model

2015-04-14
2015-01-1617
Exhaust pressures (P3) are hard parameters to measure and can be readily estimated, the cost of the sensors and the temperature in the exhaust system makes the implementation of an exhaust pressure sensor in a vehicle control system a costly endeavor. The contention with measured P3 is the accuracy required for proper engine and vehicle control can sometimes exceed the accuracy specification of market available sensors and existing models. A turbine inlet exhaust pressure observer model based on isentropic expansion and heat transfer across a turbocharger turbine was developed and investigated in this paper. The model uses 4 main components; an open loop P3 orifice flow model, a model of isentropic expansion across the turbine, a turbine and pipe heat transfer models and an integrator with the deviation in the downstream turbine outlet parameter.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation on the Influence of In-Cylinder Mixture Distribution from Multiple Pilot Injections on Cold Idle Behaviour of a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2708
Cold idle operation of a modern design light duty diesel engine and the effect of multiple pilot injections on stability were investigated. The investigation was initially carried out experimentally at 1000rpm and at −20°C. Benefits of mixture preparation were initially explored by a heat release analysis. Kiva 3v was then used to model the effect of multiple pilots on in-cylinder mixture distribution. A 60° sector of mesh was used taking advantage of rotational symmetry. The combustion system and injector arrangements mimic the HPCR diesel engine used in the experimental investigation. The CFD analysis covers evolutions from intake valve closing to start of combustion. The number of injections was varied from 1 to 4, but the total fuel injected was kept constant at 17mm3/stroke. Start of main injection timing was fixed at 7.5°BTDC.
Journal Article

Effects of Oxygenated Fuels on Combustion and Soot Formation/Oxidation Processes

2014-10-13
2014-01-2657
The Leaner Lifted-Flame Combustion (LLFC) strategy offers a possible alternative to low temperature combustion or other globally lean, premixed operation strategies to reduce soot directly in the flame, while maintaining mixing-controlled combustion. Adjustments to fuel properties, especially fuel oxygenation, have been reported to have potentially beneficial effects for LLFC applications. Six fuels were selected or blended based on cetane number, oxygen content, molecular structure, and the presence of an aromatic hydrocarbon. The experiments compared different fuel blends made of n-hexadecane, n-dodecane, methyl decanoate, tri-propylene glycol monomethyl ether (TPGME), as well as m-xylene. Several optical diagnostics have been used simultaneously to monitor the ignition, combustion and soot formation/oxidation processes from spray flames in a constant-volume combustion vessel.
Technical Paper

Clean Combustion in a Diesel Engine Using Direct Injection of Neat n-Butanol

2014-04-01
2014-01-1298
The study investigated the characteristics of the combustion, the emissions and the thermal efficiency of a direct injection diesel engine fuelled with neat n-butanol. Engine tests were conducted on a single cylinder four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The engine ran at 6.5 bar IMEP and 1500 rpm engine speed. The intake pressure was boosted to 1.0 bar (gauge), and the injection pressure was controlled at 60 or 90 MPa. The injection timing and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate were adjusted to investigate the engine performance. The effect of the engine load on the engine performance was also investigated. The test results showed that the n-butanol fuel had significantly longer ignition delay than that of diesel fuel. n-Butanol generally led to a rapid heat release pattern in a short period, which resulted in an excessively high pressure rise rate. The pressure rise rate could be moderated by retarding the injection timing and lowering the injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Climate Control Power Consumption in DTE Estimation for Electric Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-0713
Distance to empty (DTE) estimation is an important factor to electric vehicle (EV) applications due to its limited driving range. The DTE calculation is based on available energy of the battery and power usage by the powertrain components (e.g. electric motor) and climate control components (e.g. PTC heater and electric AC compressor). The conventional way of estimating the DTE is to treat the power consumed by the climate control system the same as the power by the powertrain for either instantaneous or rolling average estimation. The analysis in this study shows that the power consumption by the climate control system should be estimated based on the current ambient conditions and driver's input instead of using the recorded data from the past driving cycles. The climate control should also be considered separately from the powertrain in power usage rolling average calculation, which results in improvements in DTE estimation especially for extreme hot and cold conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Battery Hardware-In-the-Loop System Implemented with Reduced-Order Electrochemistry Li-Ion Battery Models

2014-04-01
2014-01-1858
Aggressive battery usage profiles in electrified vehicle applications require extensive efforts in developing battery management strategy and system design determination to guarantee safe operation under every real-world driving conditions. Experiment based approaches have been widely used for battery system development, but higher costs and longer testing time restrain the number of test cases in the product development process. Battery experiments tend to be conservative to avoid inherent risks of battery failure modes under aggressive battery operation close to the capability limits. Battery Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) is an alternative way to overcome the limitations of experiment-based approaches. Battery models in the HIL should provide real-time computation capability and high (at least acceptable) prediction accuracy. Equivalent circuit model (ECM) based HILs have been used owing to their relatively good balance between computational time and prediction accuracy.
Technical Paper

Powersplit HEV Performance Simulation Capability

2014-04-01
2014-01-1813
A new performance simulation capability has been developed for powersplit HEVs to enable analytical assessment of new engine technologies in the context of HEV system operation and to analyze/understand important system dynamics and control interactions affecting HEV performance. This new capability allows direct simulation with closed-loop controls and the driver, is compatible with Ford standard HEV system simulation capabilities and enables simulation with multiple levels of model fidelity and feature content across the vehicle system. The combined plant Vehicle Model Architecture (VMA) in Simulink was used for the infrastructure. The simulation capability includes a Dymola model of the powersplit transaxle, a Vehicle System Control (VSC) model implemented in Simulink, a high fidelity 2L Atkinson GT-Power engine model, and a simplified representation of the engine controls in Simulink.
Technical Paper

A Mainstream Test Methodology for Developing a Vehicle Equipped with an Electronic Stability Control System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0130
There have been many articles published in the last decade or so concerning the components of an electronic stability control (ESC) system, as well as numerous statistical studies that attempt to predict the effectiveness of such systems relative to crash involvement. The literature however is free from papers that discuss how engineers might develop such systems in order to achieve desired steering, handling, and stability performance. This task is complicated by the fact that stability control systems are very complex and their designs and what they can do have changed considerably over the years. These systems also differ from manufacturer to manufacturer and from vehicle to vehicle in a given maker of automobiles. In terms of ESC hardware, differences can include all the components as well as the addition or absence of roll rate sensors or active steering gears to name a few.
Journal Article

Power Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles based on Pareto Optimal Maps

2014-04-01
2014-01-1820
Pareto optimal map concept has been applied to the optimization of the vehicle system control (VSC) strategy for a power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system. The methodology relies on an inner-loop optimization process to define Pareto maps of the best engine and electric motor/generator operating points given wheel power demand, vehicle speed, and battery power. Selected levels of model fidelity, from simple to very detailed, can be used to generate the Pareto maps. Optimal control is achieved by applying Pontryagin's minimum principle which is based on minimization of the Hamiltonian comprised of the rate of fuel consumption and a co-state variable multiplied by the rate of change of battery SOC. The approach delivers optimal control for lowest fuel consumption over a drive cycle while accounting for all critical vehicle operating constraints, e.g. battery charge balance and power limits, and engine speed and torque limits.
Journal Article

Transient Build-up and Effectiveness of Diesel Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1092
Modern diesel engines employ a multitude of strategies for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission abatement, with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) being one of the most effective technique. The need for a precise control on the intake charge dilution (as a result of EGR) is paramount since small fluctuations in the intake charge dilution at high EGR rates may cause larger than acceptable spikes in NOx/soot emissions or deterioration in the combustion efficiency, especially at low to mid-engine loads. The control problem becomes more pronounced during transient engine operation; currently the trend is to momentarily close the EGR valve during tip-in or tip-out events. Therefore, there is a need to understand the transient EGR behaviour and its impact on the intake charge development especially under unstable combustion regimes such as low temperature combustion.
Journal Article

Validation and Sensitivity Studies for SAE J2601, the Light Duty Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Standard

2014-04-01
2014-01-1990
The worldwide automotive industry is currently preparing for a market introduction of hydrogen-fueled powertrains. These powertrains in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) offer many advantages: high efficiency, zero tailpipe emissions, reduced greenhouse gas footprint, and use of domestic and renewable energy sources. To realize these benefits, hydrogen vehicles must be competitive with conventional vehicles with regards to fueling time and vehicle range. A key to maximizing the vehicle's driving range is to ensure that the fueling process achieves a complete fill to the rated Compressed Hydrogen Storage System (CHSS) capacity. An optimal process will safely transfer the maximum amount of hydrogen to the vehicle in the shortest amount of time, while staying within the prescribed pressure, temperature, and density limits. The SAE J2601 light duty vehicle fueling standard has been developed to meet these performance objectives under all practical conditions.
Technical Paper

Correlation Test: Guaporé Mountain Test vs Proving Ground

2013-05-15
2013-36-0038
Downhill tests are widely used as a method of evaluation, development and validation of braking efficiency, friction pair durability, braking balance, as well as fade characteristics and recovery of friction material properties. This test procedure is used for both: passenger vehicles and light & heavy commercial vehicles. The energy levels in the brake system are higher on commercial vehicles and the thermal characteristics much more critical. Added to the fact that such tests are conducted on public highways, it has an intrinsic security risk for both the vehicle tested and all others around. Until a few years ago, it was still feasible to conduct tests downhill on different routes keeping a high security level. Given an increasing traffic on highways, where the test is currently carried out, a need to create a similar downhill procedure (called Guaporé Mountain Test) within a Proving Ground under controlled conditions has been noticed.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Determining the Process of Riveting Brake Linings for Heavy Commercial Vehicles

2013-05-15
2013-36-0029
During the development of a new friction material, besides the interface between lining/drum is also fundamental take in account all aspects involving the attachment of the linings on the brake shoes. This paper presents an optimization approach to the development and manufacturing parameters of brake linings, applied on medium and heavy duty commercial vehicles, aiming to assure the correct specification of the riveted joint clamp forces. These evaluations were conducted based on the quality tools documents and the theoretical aspects of the product usage as well as the modeling of key elements of the referred mechanism throughout various known applications. A calculation methodology was developed based on brake geometry, its generated forces and braking reactions required for each vehicle family.
Technical Paper

How to Make Your Fleet More Sustainable and Save Money: The Ford Fleet Purchase Planner

2013-04-08
2013-01-0506
Ford's portfolio approach to sustainable mobility offers a large range of fuel-efficient engines and alternative-fuel vehicles - including EcoBoost®, hybrid, plug-in hybrid, flexible fuel, battery-electric, B20 biodiesel and compressed natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (CNG/LPG) vehicles. The Ford Fleet Purchase Planner has been developed to assist fleet customers in comparing these alternatives and understanding which vehicles offer the optimal mix to achieve CO₂ emission reductions while balancing corporate financial goals. Vehicle fleets for large corporations can have thousands of vehicles that are replaced on a timescale of months to years. We present the three main components of the Fleet Purchase Planner (patent pending) that provide fleet customers the lowest cost solution to achieving their sustainability goals: the Vehicle Emissions & Fuel Cost Calculator, the Fleet CO₂ Emissions Footprint Status Calculator, and the Purchase Recommender.
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