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Technical Paper

Limitations of Sector Mesh Geometry and Initial Conditions to Model Flow and Mixture Formation in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0204
Sector mesh modeling is the dominant computational approach for combustion system design optimization. The aim of this work is to quantify the errors descending from the sector mesh approach through three geometric modeling approaches to an optical diesel engine. A full engine geometry mesh is created, including valves and intake and exhaust ports and runners, and a full-cycle flow simulation is performed until fired TDC. Next, an axisymmetric sector cylinder mesh is initialized with homogeneous bulk in-cylinder initial conditions initialized from the full-cycle simulation. Finally, a 360-degree azimuthal mesh of the cylinder is initialized with flow and thermodynamics fields at IVC mapped from the full engine geometry using a conservative interpolation approach. A study of the in-cylinder flow features until TDC showed that the geometric features on the cylinder head (valve tilt and protrusion into the combustion chamber, valve recesses) have a large impact on flow complexity.
Technical Paper

Composite Lightweight Automotive Suspension System (CLASS)

2019-04-02
2019-01-1122
The Composite Lightweight Automotive Suspension System is a composite rear suspension knuckle/tieblade consisting of UD prepreg (epoxy resin), SMC (vinylester resin) carbon fibre and a steel insert to reduce the weight of the component by 35% and reduce Co2. The compression moulding manufacturing process and CAE optimisation are unique and ground-breaking for this product and are designed to allow high volume manufacture of approx. 30,000 vehicles per year. The manufacturing techniques employed allow for multi-material construction within a five minute cycle time to make the process viable for volume manufacture. The complexities of the design lie in the areas of manufacturing, CAE prediction and highly specialised design methods. It is a well-known fact that the performance of a composite part is primarily determined by the way it is manufactured.
Journal Article

Experimental Study of Edge Stretching Limits of DP980IBF Steel in Multistage Forming Process

2015-04-14
2015-01-0525
Automotive structural parts made out of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) are often produced in a multistage forming process using progressive dies or transfer dies. During each forming stage the steel is subjected to work hardening, which affects the formability of the steel in the subsequent forming operation. Edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching operations are forming modes that are typically employed in the last stage of the multistage forming processes. In this study, the multistage forming process was simulated by pre-straining a DP980 steel in a biaxial strain path with various strain levels followed by edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching. The biaxial prestrains were obtained using the Marciniak stretch test and edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching were accomplished by the hole expansion test using a flat punch and a conical punch, respectively.
Journal Article

Turbocharger Turbine Inlet Isentropic Pressure Observer Model

2015-04-14
2015-01-1617
Exhaust pressures (P3) are hard parameters to measure and can be readily estimated, the cost of the sensors and the temperature in the exhaust system makes the implementation of an exhaust pressure sensor in a vehicle control system a costly endeavor. The contention with measured P3 is the accuracy required for proper engine and vehicle control can sometimes exceed the accuracy specification of market available sensors and existing models. A turbine inlet exhaust pressure observer model based on isentropic expansion and heat transfer across a turbocharger turbine was developed and investigated in this paper. The model uses 4 main components; an open loop P3 orifice flow model, a model of isentropic expansion across the turbine, a turbine and pipe heat transfer models and an integrator with the deviation in the downstream turbine outlet parameter.
Journal Article

Simulation of Organic Rankine Cycle Power Generation with Exhaust Heat Recovery from a 15 liter Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0339
The performance of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) that recovers heat from the exhaust of a heavy-duty diesel engine was simulated. The work was an extension of a prior study that simulated the performance of an experimental ORC system developed and tested at Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL). The experimental data were used to set model parameters and validate the results of that simulation. For the current study the model was adapted to consider a 15 liter turbocharged engine versus the original 1.9 liter light-duty automotive turbodiesel studied by ORNL. Exhaust flow rate and temperature data for the heavy-duty engine were obtained from Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) for a range of steady-state engine speeds and loads without EGR. Because of the considerably higher exhaust gas flow rates of the heavy-duty engine, relative to the engine tested by ORNL, a different heat exchanger type was considered in order to keep exhaust pressure drop within practical bounds.
Journal Article

Lightweight Potential of Ultra High Strength Steel Tubular Body Structures

2015-04-14
2015-01-0570
Hot-formed steels, also called “Boron steels” or Ultra-High Strength Steels-UHSS, offer a great weight saving potential versus conventional cold-formed high strength steels used for crash relevant structural parts. Boron steels allow complex shaped parts due to the hot-forming process. In the hot forming process first the sheet metal with initial yield strength of around σy=400 MPa is blanked and then heated in an oven up to ∼950° Celsius. In the next step the “hot” sheet metal is stamped and at the same time rapidly cooled down and quench hardened in the stamping die. During this process the yield and ultimate tensile strength increase up to approximately σy>1100 MPa and UTS∼1500 MPa in the final stamped part. The enormous strength and the very good dimensional tolerances with nearly no springback result in the use of more and more hot-formed parts in the body, especially for crash relevant parts like structural reinforcements.
Journal Article

Effects of Oxygenated Fuels on Combustion and Soot Formation/Oxidation Processes

2014-10-13
2014-01-2657
The Leaner Lifted-Flame Combustion (LLFC) strategy offers a possible alternative to low temperature combustion or other globally lean, premixed operation strategies to reduce soot directly in the flame, while maintaining mixing-controlled combustion. Adjustments to fuel properties, especially fuel oxygenation, have been reported to have potentially beneficial effects for LLFC applications. Six fuels were selected or blended based on cetane number, oxygen content, molecular structure, and the presence of an aromatic hydrocarbon. The experiments compared different fuel blends made of n-hexadecane, n-dodecane, methyl decanoate, tri-propylene glycol monomethyl ether (TPGME), as well as m-xylene. Several optical diagnostics have been used simultaneously to monitor the ignition, combustion and soot formation/oxidation processes from spray flames in a constant-volume combustion vessel.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation on the Influence of In-Cylinder Mixture Distribution from Multiple Pilot Injections on Cold Idle Behaviour of a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2708
Cold idle operation of a modern design light duty diesel engine and the effect of multiple pilot injections on stability were investigated. The investigation was initially carried out experimentally at 1000rpm and at −20°C. Benefits of mixture preparation were initially explored by a heat release analysis. Kiva 3v was then used to model the effect of multiple pilots on in-cylinder mixture distribution. A 60° sector of mesh was used taking advantage of rotational symmetry. The combustion system and injector arrangements mimic the HPCR diesel engine used in the experimental investigation. The CFD analysis covers evolutions from intake valve closing to start of combustion. The number of injections was varied from 1 to 4, but the total fuel injected was kept constant at 17mm3/stroke. Start of main injection timing was fixed at 7.5°BTDC.
Technical Paper

Clean Combustion in a Diesel Engine Using Direct Injection of Neat n-Butanol

2014-04-01
2014-01-1298
The study investigated the characteristics of the combustion, the emissions and the thermal efficiency of a direct injection diesel engine fuelled with neat n-butanol. Engine tests were conducted on a single cylinder four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The engine ran at 6.5 bar IMEP and 1500 rpm engine speed. The intake pressure was boosted to 1.0 bar (gauge), and the injection pressure was controlled at 60 or 90 MPa. The injection timing and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate were adjusted to investigate the engine performance. The effect of the engine load on the engine performance was also investigated. The test results showed that the n-butanol fuel had significantly longer ignition delay than that of diesel fuel. n-Butanol generally led to a rapid heat release pattern in a short period, which resulted in an excessively high pressure rise rate. The pressure rise rate could be moderated by retarding the injection timing and lowering the injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Frontal Impact Responsesof Generic Steel Front Bumper Crush Can Assemblies

2014-04-01
2014-01-0550
The present investigation details an experimental procedure for frontal impact responses of a generic steel front bumper crush can (FBCC) assembly subjected to a rigid full and 40% offset impact. There is a paucity of studies focusing on component level tests with FBCCs, and of those, speeds carried out are of slower velocities. Predominant studies in literature pertain to full vehicle testing. Component level studies have importance as vehicles aim to decrease weight. As materials, such as carbon fiber or aluminum, are applied to vehicle structures, computer aided models are required to evaluate performance. A novel component level test procedure is valuable to aid in CAE correlation. All the tests were conducted using a sled-on-sled testing method. Several high-speed cameras, an IR (Infrared) thermal camera, and a number of accelerometers were utilized to study impact performance of the FBCC samples.
Journal Article

Transient Build-up and Effectiveness of Diesel Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1092
Modern diesel engines employ a multitude of strategies for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission abatement, with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) being one of the most effective technique. The need for a precise control on the intake charge dilution (as a result of EGR) is paramount since small fluctuations in the intake charge dilution at high EGR rates may cause larger than acceptable spikes in NOx/soot emissions or deterioration in the combustion efficiency, especially at low to mid-engine loads. The control problem becomes more pronounced during transient engine operation; currently the trend is to momentarily close the EGR valve during tip-in or tip-out events. Therefore, there is a need to understand the transient EGR behaviour and its impact on the intake charge development especially under unstable combustion regimes such as low temperature combustion.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of the Quench Rate of AA7075

2014-04-01
2014-01-0984
The aluminum alloy 7075-T6 has the potential to be used for structural automotive body components as an alternative to boron steel. Although this alloy shows poor formability at room temperature, it has been demonstrated that hot stamping is a feasible sheet metal process that can be used to overcome the forming issues. Hot stamping is an elevated temperature forming operation in which a hot blank is formed and quenched within a stamping die. Attaining a high quench rate is a critical step of the hot stamping process and corresponds to maximum strength and corrosion resistance. This work looks at measuring the quench rate of AA7075-T6 by way of three different approaches: water, a water-cooled plate, and a bead die. The water-cooled plate and the bead die are laboratory-scale experimental setups designed to replicate the hot stamping/die quenching process.
Technical Paper

Friction Stir Spot Welding of a High Ductility Aluminum Alloy

2014-04-01
2014-01-0793
High ductility cast aluminum alloys are seeing more use in vehicles as a greater effort is made to replace components made from heavier steel and iron alloys with lighter weight alloys such as aluminum. High ductility cast aluminum has significant advantages by allowing for complex shape and considerable consolidation of parts in body structures. However, joining can be a challenge because one popular method for aluminum joining, self-piercing riveting (SPR), requires a ductility of greater than 10%, forcing the common high ductility Al alloys to undergo a T6 heat treatment which adds cost and potential distortion issues to Al component. In this study, friction stir spot welding was investigated as a potential joining technique for this material in the as-cast condition. Samples of as-cast Aural-2™ alloy were joined to Aural-2™, 5754, and 6061 alloys, to determine the manufacturing feasibility, weld strength, and fatigue strength using this joining technique.
Journal Article

Finite Element Modeling of Dissimilar Metal Self-piercing Riveting Process

2014-04-01
2014-01-1982
In present paper, the process of joining aluminum alloy 6111T4 and steel HSLA340 sheets by self-piercing riveting (SPR) is studied. The rivet material properties were obtained by inverse modeling approach. Element erosion technique was adopted in the LS-DYNA/explicit analysis for the separation of upper sheet before the rivet penetrates into lower sheet. Maximum shear strain criterion was implemented for material failure after comparing several classic fracture criteria. LS-DYNA/implicit was used for springback analysis following the explicit riveting simulation. Large compressive residual stress was observed near frequent fatigue crack initiation sites, both around vicinity of middle inner wall of rivet shank and upper 6111T4 sheet.
Journal Article

Fatigue Behavior of Stainless Steel Sheet Specimens at Extremely High Temperatures

2014-04-01
2014-01-0975
Active regeneration systems for cleaning diesel exhaust can operate at extremely high temperatures up to 1000°C. The extremely high temperatures create a unique challenge for the design of regeneration structural components near their melting temperatures. In this paper, the preparation of the sheet specimens and the test set-up based on induction heating for sheet specimens are first presented. Tensile test data at room temperature, 500, 700, 900 and 1100°C are then presented. The yield strength and tensile strength were observed to decrease with decreasing strain rate in tests conducted at 900 and 1100°C but no strain rate dependence was observed in the elastic properties for tests conducted below 900°C. The stress-life relations for under cyclic loading at 700 and 1100°C with and without hold time are then investigated. The fatigue test data show that the hold time at the maximum stress strongly affects the stress-life relation at high temperatures.
Journal Article

Determining Soot Distribution in the Vehicle Exhaust Downstream of a Faulty Diesel Particulate Filter

2013-04-08
2013-01-1562
New emissions certification requirements for medium duty vehicles (MDV) meeting chassis dynamometer regulations in the 8,500 lb to 14,000 lb weight classes as well as heavy duty (HD) engine dynamometer certified applications in both the under 14,000 lb and over 14,000 lb weight classes employing large diameter exhaust pipes (up to 4″) have created new exhaust stream sampling concerns. Current On-Board-Diagnostic (OBD) dyno certified particulate matter (PM) requirements were/are 7x the standard for 2010-2012 applications with a planned phase in down to 3x the standard by 2017. Chassis certified applications undergo a similar reduction down to 1.75x the standard for 2017 model year (MY) applications. Failure detection of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) at these low detection limits facilitates the need for a particulate matter sensor.
Technical Paper

Optimization of New Plastic Bracket NVH Characteristics using CAE

2012-10-02
2012-36-0195
NVH requirements are critical in new driveline developments. Failure modes due to resonances must be carefully analyzed and potential root causes must have adequate countermeasures. One of the most common root causes is the modal alignment. This work shows the steps to design and optimize a new plastic bracket for an automotive half shaft bearing. This bracket replaces a very stiff bracket, made of cast iron. The initial design of plastic bracket was not stiff enough to bring natural frequency of the system above engine second order excitation at maximum speed. The complete power pack was modeled and NVH CAE analysis was performed. The CAE outputs included Driving Point Response, Frequency Response Function and Modal analysis. The boundary conditions were discussed deep in detail to make sure the models represented actual system.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Developing and Validating Air Brake Tubes for Commercial Vehicles

2012-10-02
2012-36-0272
The pneumatic air brake system for heavy commercial trucks is composed by a large number of components, aiming its proper work and compliance with rigorous criteria of vehicular safety. One of those components, present along the whole vehicle, is the air brake tube, ducts which feed valves and reservoirs with compressed air, carrying signals for acting or releasing the brake system. In 2011, due to a lack of butadiene in a global scale, the manufacturing of these tubes was compromised; as this is an important raw material present on the polymer used so far, PA12. This article introduces the methodology of selecting, developing and validating in vehicle an alternative polymer for this application. For this purpose, acceptance criteria have been established through global material specifications, as well as bench tests and vehicular validation requirements.
Technical Paper

Weldability Prediction of AHSS Stackups Using Artificial Neural Network Models

2012-04-16
2012-01-0529
Typical automotive body structures use resistance spot welding for most joining purposes. New materials, such as Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are increasingly used in the construction of automotive body structures to meet increasingly higher structural performance requirements while maintaining or reducing weight of the vehicle. One of the challenges for implementation of new AHSS materials is weldability assessment. Weld engineers and vehicle program teams spend significant efforts and resources in testing weldability of new sheet metal stack-ups. In this paper, we present a methodology to determine the weldability of sheet metal stack-ups using an Artificial Neural Network-based tool that learns from historical data. The paper concludes by reviewing weldability results predicted by using this tool and comparing with actual test results.
Technical Paper

EGR Cooler Performance Monitor - Heuristic Approaches Using Temperature Measurement

2011-04-12
2011-01-0707
This paper investigates model free approaches to monitor the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) for a diesel engine equipped with EGR cooler and EGR cooler bypass valve. A conventional way of monitoring the EGR cooler is a model based approach which involves modeling the EGR cooler effectiveness and compares the modeled (estimated) EGR cooler effectiveness (or EGR cooler downstream temperature) and the measured EGR cooler effectiveness (or EGR cooler downstream temperature). The model based approach has the advantage of being portable across many different cooler configurations, but it requires modeling/calibration efforts and necessary temperature measurements. The EGR cooler downstream temperature serves several roles. It can be used together with the fresh air temperature to calculate the charge air temperature. It also can be utilized to monitor the performance of the EGR cooler as mentioned above.
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