Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

A Multibody Dynamics Approach to Leaf Spring Simulation for Upfront Analyses

2015-06-15
2015-01-2228
Drivelines used in modern pickup trucks commonly employ universal joints. This type of joint is responsible for second driveshaft order vibrations in the vehicle. Large displacements of the joint connecting the driveline and the rear axle have a detrimental effect on vehicle NVH. As leaf springs are critical energy absorbing elements that connect to the powertrain, they are used to restrain large axle windup angles. One of the most common types of leaf springs in use today is the multi-stage parabolic leaf spring. A simple SAE 3-link approximation is adequate for preliminary studies but it has been found to be inadequate to study axle windup. A vast body of literature exists on modeling leaf springs using nonlinear FEA and multibody simulations. However, these methods require significant amount of component level detail and measured data. As such, these techniques are not applicable for quick sensitivity studies at design conception stage.
Technical Paper

Idle Vibration Analysis and Evaluation Utilizing a Full-Vehicle NVH Simulator

2015-06-15
2015-01-2334
Realistically experiencing the sound and vibration data through actually listening to and feeling the data in a full-vehicle NVH simulator remarkably aids the understanding of the NVH phenomena and speeds up the decision-making process. In the case of idle vibration, the sound and vibration of the idle condition are perceived simultaneously, and both need to be accurately reproduced simultaneously in a simulated environment in order to be properly evaluated and understood. In this work, a case is examined in which a perceived idle quality of a vehicle is addressed. In this case, two very similar vehicles, with the same powertrain but somewhat different body structures, are compared. One has a lower subjective idle quality rating than the other, despite the vehicles being so similar.
Journal Article

Quantifying Hands-Free Call Quality in an Automobile

2015-06-15
2015-01-2335
Hands-free phone use is the most utilized use case for vehicles equipped with infotainment systems with external microphones that support connection to phones and implement speech recognition. Critically then, achieving hands-free phone call quality in a vehicle is problematic due to the extremely noisy nature of the vehicle environment. Noise generated by wind, mechanical and structural, tire to road, passengers, engine/exhaust, HVAC air pressure and flow are all significant contributors and sources of noise. Other factors influencing the quality of the phone call include microphone placement, cabin acoustics, seat position of the talker, noise reduction of the hands-free system, etc. This paper describes the work done to develop procedures and metrics to quantify the effects that influence the hands-free phone call quality.
Technical Paper

Sound Package Development for Lightweight Vehicle Design using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA)

2015-06-15
2015-01-2302
Lightweighting of vehicle panels enclosing vehicle cabin causes NVH degradation since engine, road, and wind noise acoustic sources propagate to the vehicle interior through these panels. In order to reduce this NVH degradation, there is a need to develop new NVH sound package materials and designs for use in lightweight vehicle design. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model can be an effective CAE design tool to develop NVH sound packages for use in lightweight vehicle design. Using SEA can help engineers recover the NVH deficiency created due to sheet metal lightweighting actions. Full vehicle SEA model was developed to evaluate the high frequency NVH performance of “Vehicle A” in the frequency range from 200 Hz to 10 kHz. This correlated SEA model was used for the vehicle sound package optimization studies. Full vehicle level NVH laboratory tests for engine and tire patch noise reduction were also conducted to demonstrate the performance of sound package designs on “Vehicle A”.
Journal Article

Analyzing and Predicting Heterogeneous Customer Preferences in China's Auto Market Using Choice Modeling and Network Analysis

2015-04-14
2015-01-0468
As the world's largest auto producer and consumer, China is both the most promising and complex market given the country's rapid economic growth, huge population, and many regional and segment preference differences. This research is aimed at developing data-driven demand models for customer preference analysis and prediction under a competitive market environment. Regional analysis is first used to understand the impact of geographical factors on customer preference. After a comprehensive data exploration, a customer-level mixed logit model is built to shed light on fast-growing vehicle segments in the Chinese auto market. By combining the data of vehicle purchase, consideration, and past choice, cross-shopping behaviors and brand influence are explicitly modeled in addition to the impact of customer demographics, usage behaviors, and attributes of vehicles.
Journal Article

An Iterative Application of Multi-Disciplinary Optimization for Vehicle Body Weight Reduction Based on 2015 Mustang Product Development

2015-04-14
2015-01-0470
Designing a vehicle body involves meeting numerous performance requirements related to different attributes such as NVH, Durability, Safety, and others. Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) is an efficient way to develop a design that optimizes vehicle performance while minimizing the weight. Since a body design evolves in course of the product development cycle, it is essential to repeat the MDO process several times as a design matures and more accurate data become available. This paper presents a real life application of the MDO process to reduce weight while optimizing performance over the design cycle of the 2015 Mustang. The paper discusses the timing and results of the applied Multi-Disciplinary Optimization process. The attributes considered during optimization include Safety, Durability and Body NVH. Several iterations of MDO have been performed at different milestones in the design cycle leading to a significant weight reduction of the already optimized design by over 16kg.
Journal Article

Simulation and Optimization of an Aluminum-Intensive Body-on-Frame Vehicle for Improved Fuel Economy and Enhanced Crashworthiness - Front Impacts

2015-04-14
2015-01-0573
Motivated by a combination of increasing consumer demand for fuel efficient vehicles, more stringent greenhouse gas, and anticipated future Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, automotive manufacturers are working to innovate in all areas of vehicle design to improve fuel efficiency. In addition to improving aerodynamics, enhancing internal combustion engines and transmission technologies, and developing alternative fuel vehicles, reducing vehicle weight by using lighter materials and/or higher strength materials has been identified as one of the strategies in future vehicle development. Weight reduction in vehicle components, subsystems and systems not only reduces the energy needed to overcome inertia forces but also triggers additional mass reduction elsewhere and enables mass reduction in full vehicle levels.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation on the Influence of In-Cylinder Mixture Distribution from Multiple Pilot Injections on Cold Idle Behaviour of a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2708
Cold idle operation of a modern design light duty diesel engine and the effect of multiple pilot injections on stability were investigated. The investigation was initially carried out experimentally at 1000rpm and at −20°C. Benefits of mixture preparation were initially explored by a heat release analysis. Kiva 3v was then used to model the effect of multiple pilots on in-cylinder mixture distribution. A 60° sector of mesh was used taking advantage of rotational symmetry. The combustion system and injector arrangements mimic the HPCR diesel engine used in the experimental investigation. The CFD analysis covers evolutions from intake valve closing to start of combustion. The number of injections was varied from 1 to 4, but the total fuel injected was kept constant at 17mm3/stroke. Start of main injection timing was fixed at 7.5°BTDC.
Journal Article

Influence of Test Procedure on Friction Behavior and its Repeatability in Dynamometer Brake Performance Testing

2014-09-28
2014-01-2521
The efforts of the ISO “Test Variability Task Force” have been aimed at improving the understanding and at reducing brake dynamometer test variability during performance testing. In addition, dynamometer test results have been compared and correlated to vehicle testing. Even though there is already a vast amount of anecdotal evidence confirming the fact that different procedures generate different friction coefficients on the same brake corner, the availability of supporting data to the industry has been elusive up to this point. To overcome this issue, this paper focuses on assessing friction levels, friction coefficient sensitivity, and repeatability under ECE, GB, ISO, JASO, and SAE laboratory friction evaluation tests.
Technical Paper

On Modeling the Hot Stamping of High Strength Aluminum Sheet

2014-04-01
2014-01-0983
This paper documents the finite element (FE) analysis of a hot stamping process for high strength aluminum sheet. In this process a 7075 blank, heated above its solvus temperature, was simultaneously die quenched and stamped in a room temperature die to form a B-pillar outer reinforcement. Two modeling approaches have been investigated: an isothermal mechanical model and a non-isothermal coupled thermo-mechanical model. The accuracy of each approach was assessed by comparing the predicted strain and thickness distributions to experimental measurements from a formed panel. The coupled thermo-mechanical model provided the most accurate prediction.
Technical Paper

Development of Battery Hardware-In-the-Loop System Implemented with Reduced-Order Electrochemistry Li-Ion Battery Models

2014-04-01
2014-01-1858
Aggressive battery usage profiles in electrified vehicle applications require extensive efforts in developing battery management strategy and system design determination to guarantee safe operation under every real-world driving conditions. Experiment based approaches have been widely used for battery system development, but higher costs and longer testing time restrain the number of test cases in the product development process. Battery experiments tend to be conservative to avoid inherent risks of battery failure modes under aggressive battery operation close to the capability limits. Battery Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) is an alternative way to overcome the limitations of experiment-based approaches. Battery models in the HIL should provide real-time computation capability and high (at least acceptable) prediction accuracy. Equivalent circuit model (ECM) based HILs have been used owing to their relatively good balance between computational time and prediction accuracy.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Water Strategy Tools for Automotive Manufacturing

2014-04-01
2014-01-1958
Tools are now publicly available that can potentially help a company assess the impact of its water use and risks in relation to their global operations and supply chains. In this paper we describe a comparative analysis of two publicly available tools, specifically the WWF/DEG Water Risk Filter and the WBCSD Global Water Tool that are used to measure the water impact and risk indicators for industrial facilities. By analyzing the risk assessments calculated by these tools for different scenarios that include varying facilities from different industries, one can better gauge the similarities and differences between these water strategy tools. Several scenarios were evaluated using the water tools, and the results are compared and contrasted. As will be shown, the results can vary significantly.
Technical Paper

Powersplit HEV Performance Simulation Capability

2014-04-01
2014-01-1813
A new performance simulation capability has been developed for powersplit HEVs to enable analytical assessment of new engine technologies in the context of HEV system operation and to analyze/understand important system dynamics and control interactions affecting HEV performance. This new capability allows direct simulation with closed-loop controls and the driver, is compatible with Ford standard HEV system simulation capabilities and enables simulation with multiple levels of model fidelity and feature content across the vehicle system. The combined plant Vehicle Model Architecture (VMA) in Simulink was used for the infrastructure. The simulation capability includes a Dymola model of the powersplit transaxle, a Vehicle System Control (VSC) model implemented in Simulink, a high fidelity 2L Atkinson GT-Power engine model, and a simplified representation of the engine controls in Simulink.
Technical Paper

Bench Level Automotive Electrical and Electromagnetic Compatibility Validation Test Process Improvements (Analysis of Survey Results from Test Laboratories)

2014-04-01
2014-01-0178
In an effort to reduce the cost and time associated with bench level automotive electrical and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) validation tests, a survey was created to request advice from the test labs that perform this testing. The survey focuses particularly on the development of the test plan document and the preparation of the test setup. The survey was sent to a targeted group of individuals with experience in performing this type of testing. The invitees work at laboratories that represent the majority of labs in the world that are authorized to perform component electrical / EMC validation testing for automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). There were a significant number of responses; it is possible that representatives from all of the invited laboratories responded. The survey results provide demographic information about the test labs and their participants.
Technical Paper

Clustering and Scaling of Naturalistic Forward Collision Warning Events Based on Expert Judgments

2014-04-01
2014-01-0160
The objectives of this study were a) to determine how expert judges categorized valid Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) Forward Collision Warning (FCW) events from review of naturalistic driving data; and b) to determine how consistent these categorizations were across the judges working in pairs. FCW event data were gathered from 108 drivers who drove instrumented vehicles for 6 weeks each. The data included video of the driver and road scene ahead, beside, and behind the vehicle; audio of the FCW alert onset; and engineering data such as speed and braking applications. Six automotive safety experts examined 197 ‘valid’ (i.e., conditions met design intent) FCW events and categorized each according to a taxonomy of primary contributing factors. Results indicated that of these valid FCW events, between 55% and 73% could be considered ‘nuisance alerts’ by the driver.
Technical Paper

A Mainstream Test Methodology for Developing a Vehicle Equipped with an Electronic Stability Control System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0130
There have been many articles published in the last decade or so concerning the components of an electronic stability control (ESC) system, as well as numerous statistical studies that attempt to predict the effectiveness of such systems relative to crash involvement. The literature however is free from papers that discuss how engineers might develop such systems in order to achieve desired steering, handling, and stability performance. This task is complicated by the fact that stability control systems are very complex and their designs and what they can do have changed considerably over the years. These systems also differ from manufacturer to manufacturer and from vehicle to vehicle in a given maker of automobiles. In terms of ESC hardware, differences can include all the components as well as the addition or absence of roll rate sensors or active steering gears to name a few.
Journal Article

Methods in Vehicle Mass and Road Grade Estimation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0111
Dynamic vehicle loads play critical roles for automotive controls including battery management, transmission shift scheduling, distance-to-empty predictions, and various active safety systems. Accurate real-time estimation of vehicle loads such as those due to vehicle mass and road grade can thus improve safety, efficiency, and performance. While several estimation methods have been proposed in literature, none have seen widespread adoption in current vehicle technologies despite their potential to significantly improve automotive controls. To understand and bridge the gap between research development and wider adoption of real-time load estimation, this paper assesses the accuracy and performance of four estimation methods that predict vehicle mass and/or road grade.
Journal Article

A Systems Approach to the Development and Use of FMEA in Complex Automotive Applications

2014-04-01
2014-01-0740
The effective deployment of FMEAs within complex automotive applications faces a number of challenges, including the complexity of the system being analysed, the need to develop a series of coherently linked FMEAs at different levels within the systems hierarchy and across intrinsically interlinked engineering disciplines, and the need for coherent linkage between critical design characteristics cascaded through the systems levels with their counterparts in manufacturing. The approach presented in this paper to address these challenges is based on a structured Failure Mode Avoidance (FMA) framework which promotes the development of FMEAs within an integrated Systems Engineering approach. The effectiveness of the framework is illustrated through a case study, centred on the development of a diesel exhaust aftertreatment system.
Journal Article

Modeling of an Advanced Steering Wheel and Column Assembly for Frontal and Side Impact Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0803
This paper presents the final phase of a study to develop the modeling methodology for an advanced steering assembly with a safety-enhanced steering wheel and an adaptive energy absorbing steering column. For passenger cars built before the 1960s, the steering column was designed to control vehicle direction with a simple rigid rod. In severe frontal crashes, this type of design would often be displaced rearward toward the driver due to front-end crush of the vehicle. Consequently, collapsible, detachable, and other energy absorbing steering columns emerged to address this type of kinematics. These safety-enhanced steering columns allow frontal impact energy to be absorbed by collapsing or breaking the steering columns, thus reducing the potential for rearward column movement in severe crashes. Recently, more advanced steering column designs have been developed that can adapt to different crash conditions including crash severity, occupant mass/size, seat position, and seatbelt usage.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Octane Rating and Ethanol Content on Knock, Fuel Economy, and CO2 for a Turbocharged DI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1228
Engine dynamometer testing was performed comparing fuels having different octane ratings and ethanol content in a Ford 3.5L direct injection turbocharged (EcoBoost) engine at three compression ratios (CRs). The fuels included midlevel ethanol “splash blend” and “octane-matched blend” fuels, E10-98RON (U.S. premium), and E85-108RON. For the splash blends, denatured ethanol was added to E10-91RON, which resulted in E20-96RON and E30-101 RON. For the octane-matched blends, gasoline blendstocks were formulated to maintain constant RON and MON for E10, E20, and E30. The match blend E20-91RON and E30-91RON showed no knock benefit compared to the baseline E10-91RON fuel. However, the splash blend E20-96RON and E10-98RON enabled 11.9:1 CR with similar knock performance to E10-91RON at 10:1 CR. The splash blend E30-101RON enabled 13:1 CR with better knock performance than E10-91RON at 10:1 CR. As expected, E85-108RON exhibited dramatically better knock performance than E30-101RON.
X