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Journal Article

Quantifying Hands-Free Call Quality in an Automobile

Hands-free phone use is the most utilized use case for vehicles equipped with infotainment systems with external microphones that support connection to phones and implement speech recognition. Critically then, achieving hands-free phone call quality in a vehicle is problematic due to the extremely noisy nature of the vehicle environment. Noise generated by wind, mechanical and structural, tire to road, passengers, engine/exhaust, HVAC air pressure and flow are all significant contributors and sources of noise. Other factors influencing the quality of the phone call include microphone placement, cabin acoustics, seat position of the talker, noise reduction of the hands-free system, etc. This paper describes the work done to develop procedures and metrics to quantify the effects that influence the hands-free phone call quality.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Water Strategy Tools for Automotive Manufacturing

Tools are now publicly available that can potentially help a company assess the impact of its water use and risks in relation to their global operations and supply chains. In this paper we describe a comparative analysis of two publicly available tools, specifically the WWF/DEG Water Risk Filter and the WBCSD Global Water Tool that are used to measure the water impact and risk indicators for industrial facilities. By analyzing the risk assessments calculated by these tools for different scenarios that include varying facilities from different industries, one can better gauge the similarities and differences between these water strategy tools. Several scenarios were evaluated using the water tools, and the results are compared and contrasted. As will be shown, the results can vary significantly.
Technical Paper

Bench Level Automotive Electrical and Electromagnetic Compatibility Validation Test Process Improvements (Analysis of Survey Results from Test Laboratories)

In an effort to reduce the cost and time associated with bench level automotive electrical and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) validation tests, a survey was created to request advice from the test labs that perform this testing. The survey focuses particularly on the development of the test plan document and the preparation of the test setup. The survey was sent to a targeted group of individuals with experience in performing this type of testing. The invitees work at laboratories that represent the majority of labs in the world that are authorized to perform component electrical / EMC validation testing for automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). There were a significant number of responses; it is possible that representatives from all of the invited laboratories responded. The survey results provide demographic information about the test labs and their participants.
Technical Paper

A Mainstream Test Methodology for Developing a Vehicle Equipped with an Electronic Stability Control System

There have been many articles published in the last decade or so concerning the components of an electronic stability control (ESC) system, as well as numerous statistical studies that attempt to predict the effectiveness of such systems relative to crash involvement. The literature however is free from papers that discuss how engineers might develop such systems in order to achieve desired steering, handling, and stability performance. This task is complicated by the fact that stability control systems are very complex and their designs and what they can do have changed considerably over the years. These systems also differ from manufacturer to manufacturer and from vehicle to vehicle in a given maker of automobiles. In terms of ESC hardware, differences can include all the components as well as the addition or absence of roll rate sensors or active steering gears to name a few.
Technical Paper

Comparison Study Among High Power LEDs for Automotive Applications

The electroluminescence, a process where light is emitted by the recombination of electrically accelerating charges (electrons and holes) on a solid state chip, is the basis of light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) technology. Until the early 90s, LEDs were considered light sources of low efficiency. Nowadays, white high power, high efficiency LED's, based upon fluorophores are extremely promising for both vehicular / automotive and machinery usages. Associate with its high efficient light production, the long life capability of these devices keep improving their performance. In this study, three models of LEDs, from two different manufacturers were used.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Automotive Test Equipment in the Service Bay

Most people still remember the introduction of the IBM PC in 1981 and the first Microsoft Windows operating system in 1985. These were the pioneering technologies that started a revolution in automotive test equipment in the service bay. What was once a purely mechanical garage environment where information was published annually in large paper manuals has evolved into a highly technical computing environment. Today vehicle networks link onboard vehicle control systems with diagnostic systems and updated service information is published daily over the Internet. A lot has changed over the last twenty years, and manufacturers of diagnostic test equipment are learning to deal with the constantly evolving computing platforms and host operating systems. This paper traces the history of automotive diagnostic equipment at Ford Motor Company and shares some of the hard lessons learned from the early systems.
Journal Article

Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Aluminum Autobody Panels: Final Report

Over the past several years a task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee has conducted extensive on-vehicle field testing and numerous accelerated lab tests with the goal of establishing a standard accelerated test method for cosmetic corrosion evaluations of finished aluminum auto body panels. This project has been a cooperative effort with OEM, supplier, and consultant participation and was also supported in part by DOE through USAMP (AMD 309). The focus of this project has been the identification of a standardized accelerated cosmetic corrosion test that exhibits the same appearance, severity, and type of corrosion products that are exhibited on identical painted aluminum panels exposed to service relevant environments. Multi-year service relevant exposures were conducted by mounting panels on-vehicles in multiple locations in the US and Canada.
Journal Article

Occupant Preferred Back Angle Relative to Head Restraint Regulations

Having, by now, introduced several new vehicles that comply with FMVSS 202a, manufacturers are reporting an increased number of complaints from consumers who find that the head restraint is too close; negatively affecting their posture. It is speculated that one of the reasons that head restraints meeting the new requirement are problematic is that the FMVSS backset measurement is performed at a back angle that is more reclined than the back angle most drivers choose and the back angle at which the seat / vehicle was designed. The objective of this paper is to confirm this hypothesis and elaborate on implications for regulatory compliance in FMVSS 202a.
Journal Article

Development of an Improved Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Finished Aluminum Autobody Panels

A task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee continues to pursue the goal of establishing a standard test method for in-laboratory cosmetic corrosion evaluations of finished aluminum auto body panels. The program is a cooperative effort with OEM, supplier, and consultant participation and is supported in part by USAMP (AMD 309) and the U.S. Department of Energy. Numerous laboratory corrosion test environments have been used to evaluate the performance of painted aluminum closure panels, but correlations between laboratory test results and in-service performance have not been established. The primary objective of this project is to identify an accelerated laboratory test method that correlates with in-service performance. In this paper the type, extent, and chemical nature of cosmetic corrosion observed in the on-vehicle exposures are compared with those from some of the commonly used laboratory tests
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Finished Aluminum Autobody Panels

Since 2000, an Aluminum Cosmetic Corrosion task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee has existed. The task group has pursued the goal of establishing a standard test method for in-laboratory cosmetic corrosion evaluations of finished aluminum auto body panels. A cooperative program uniting OEM, supplier, and consultants has been created and has been supported in part by USAMP (AMD 309) and the U.S. Department of Energy. Prior to this committee's formation, numerous laboratory corrosion test environments have been used to evaluate the performance of painted aluminum closure panels. However, correlations between these laboratory test results and in-service performance have not been established. Thus, the primary objective of this task group's project was to identify an accelerated laboratory test method that correlates well with in-service performance.
Technical Paper

Control of Passenger Vehicle Internal Aerodynamics Through Forced Air Extraction

The increasing competitiveness in the automobile market has resulted in the incorporation by the manufacturers of certain features in newer cars that are deemed highly desirable by the customer. Among such features that require improvement is the thermal comfort of passengers' within the cabin. Thermal comfort is in increasing demand from motorists bound to cover more mileage driving cars than ever before. As a result, car makers are striving for improved climate conditions inside the car to meet passenger demand for more comfortable trips. The need to improve the climatic comfort within the vehicle is critical not only to passengers' comfort but also to their safety. However, to make progress in this area, a good understanding of the airflow behaviour within the vehicle interior is required. This paper, reports on a novel idea of control the air movement within the cabin by forcibly removing the air from strategically positioned vents.
Technical Paper

Identification of the Optimum Vehicle Class for the Application of 42v Integrated Starter Generator

Today nearly all automotive manufacturers are developing motor-generator systems for improved fuel economy by implementing idling-stop and other power train enhancements. It is said that powertrain technology has always pioneered the development of automotive electronic control throughout history. The integrated starter generator (ISG) promises to expand the scope of powertrain control further through fuel economy improvement, emissions reduction, longitudinal vehicle dynamics improvement and customer feature enhancements. At the present time the cost imposed by usage of an ISG system is very high due mainly to its need for a power optimized 42V battery and high power electronics. This paper takes a critical look at the vehicle benefits attributable to ISG and its implementation costs over various vehicle classes.
Technical Paper

An Open Versus Closed Architecture for Multimedia Systems

For many years, carmakers have developed unique system designs to gain a competitive advantage using some unique technology or an optimization of a design to cut costs or improve quality. This leads to continual increase in complexity, long development times and high development costs. A common platform, based on an "open architecture,'' provides a solution for many of the problems associated with the conventional automotive approach to electrical/electronic system designs. The PC industry is a prime example of how an open architecture can provide benefits to the consumer, manufacturers of software and hardware components, as well as complete system integrators. The PC, based on the initial IBM computer developed in the early eighties, has become a de facto standard that has survived 20 years of fast and dramatic changes in the fundamental technologies used within the platform.
Technical Paper

Statistical Analysis of Vehicle High Mileage NVH Performance

High mileage NVH performance is one of the major concerns in vehicle design for long term customer satisfaction. The current paper is concerned with performance analysis of high mileage vehicles which cover four automobile manufacturers and five vehicle families of the same weight class based on subjective evaluation data. The analysis includes the assessment of five vehicle families from the following aspects: overall and NVH performances, performance by individual attribute, degradation history of each vehicle family, performance variation within each vehicle family. Since the data are statistical in nature, statistical methods are employed, numerically and graphically, in the analysis. The performance categories which exhibit most degradation are identified. The analysis method presented in this paper is applicable to any high mileage vehicle fleet subjective data. The knowledge derived in the study can be used as a guideline in designing vehicles for high mileage NVH robustness.
Technical Paper

A Performance Comparison of Various Automatic Transmission Pumping Systems

The pumping system used in a step ratio automatic transmission can consume up to 20% of the total power required to operate a typical automotive transmission through the EPA city cycle. As such, it represents an area manufacturers have focused their efforts towards in their quest to obtain improved transmission efficiency. This paper will discuss the history of automatic transmission pumps that develop up to 300 psi along with a description of the factors used to size pumps and establish pump flow requirements. The various types of pumps used in current automatic transmissions will be described with a discussion of their characteristics including a comparison based upon observations of their performance. Specific attention will be focused on comparing the volumetric efficiency, mechanical efficiency, overall efficiency, pumping torque and discharge flow.
Technical Paper

Ford's 1996 Crown Victoria Dedicated Natural Gas Vehicle

Ford Motor Company has introduced a Crown Victoria dedicated natural gas vehicle (NGV) to meet rising demand for vehicles powered by cleaner burning fuels and to reduce dependency on foreign energy imports. The Crown Victoria NGV is a production vehicle maintaining Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) quality and warranty while complying with all applicable corporate, federal and state requirements.
Technical Paper

Post-Consumer Bumper Recycling

Automotive use of thermoplastic polymers has grown significantly within the last 10 years. At the same time that societal environmental expectations have increased and resulted in greater demand for the recycling of all materials. Efforts in recycling continue to be explored among the automotive community in planning for the recycling of the plastics being used in current products. Automotive manufacturers and their raw material suppliers are investigating technologies and processes that create the opportunity to produce viable outlets for recycled materials into both their original and other applications. The success of these efforts encouraged the investigation and development of a process to recycle post consumer bumpers as well.
Technical Paper

Steel Powders for High Performance Automotive Parts

Increased use of powder-forged connecting rods in the automotive industry prompted an investigation into the suitability of powders from different suppliers for this application. Specifications developed by North American users call for ultra clean powders to enhance machinability and fatigue life. Powders from four manufacturers were each blended with graphite and lubricant, then pressed, sintered and forged to full density. Metallographic samples were prepared and evaluated for inclusion content. In addition, the powders were mixed to the composition of connecting rods, (C - 0.5%, Cu - 2% and MnS - 0.3%), and were similarly pressed, sintered and forged. Test bars were machined from the forged discs. Uniaxial fatigue tests were performed in the tension-compression mode and strain-life curves were developed. It was determined that all powders examined were very clean and were comparable in their inclusion content.
Technical Paper

Supplier Improvement Process Plan

Ford Motor Company Powertrain Engineering instituted an innovative Work Process Plan designed to evaluate, develop, and improve it's selected long-term supplier base. This process was implemented in 1987 and continues to function improving our suppliers capabilities in the areas of Product & Manufacturing Engineering, Quality, Production Control, and Sales/Purchasing Interaction. A pilot Supply Base Development, Casting and Machining team was set -up in July, 1987 to assist the casting, machining, piston, and ring supply base. The success of this team lead to the fornation of three additional Supply Base Development teams within the following year to assist suppliers in Sealing, Assemblies, and Front End Accessory Drive (FEAD) commodities.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Electric and Pneumatic Power Tools - Part I: Mechanical Characteristics and Cost

Each supplier in the power tool industry offers unique tool features and packages. Competition and widespread individuality among manufacturers make it difficult to compare current air and new DC electric power tools. This experimental study compares air and electric hand-held tools based on laboratory testing and research of significant tool characteristics including heat buildup, tool impulse, cycle time and cost. Heat buildup in electric tools raised concerns as well as tool speed, although electric tools were in some instances only slightly slower than air tools. Electric tools, in general, do not have a lower torque-reaction impulse than air tools, but the correlation between tool-shutoff impulse and operator comfort remains unclear. Electric tools are more energy efficient than pneumatic tools, but their initial investment cost greatly outweighs the payback through reduced power usage.