Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

A Novel Technique for Measuring Cycle-Resolved Cold Start Emissions Applied to a Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0312
There is keen interest in understanding the origins of engine-out unburned hydrocarbons emitted during SI engine cold start. This is especially true for the first few firing cycles, which can contribute disproportionately to the total emissions measured over standard drive cycles such as the US Federal Test Procedure (FTP). This study reports on the development of a novel methodology for capturing and quantifying unburned hydrocarbon emissions (HC), CO, and CO2 on a cycle-by-cycle basis during an engine cold start. The method was demonstrated by applying it to a 4 cylinder 2 liter GTDI (Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection) engine for cold start conditions at an ambient temperature of 22°C. For this technique, the entirety of the engine exhaust gas was captured for a predetermined number of firing cycles.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Modeling of Wet Clutch Actuator for High-Fidelity Propulsion System Simulations

2020-04-14
2020-01-1414
Innovations in mobility are built upon a management of complex interactions between sub-systems and components. A need for CAE tools that are capable of system simulations is well recognized, as evidenced by a growing number of commercial packages. However impressive they are, the predictability of such simulations still rests on the representation of the base components. Among them, a wet clutch actuator continues to play a critical role in the next generation propulsion systems. It converts hydraulic pressure to mechanical force to control torque transmitted through a clutch pack. The actuator is typically modeled as a hydraulic piston opposed by a mechanical spring. Because the piston slides over a seal, some models have a framework to account for seal friction. However, there are few contributions to the literature that describe the effects of seals on clutch actuator behaviors.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Friction Material Contact Mechanics in Automotive Clutches

2020-04-14
2020-01-1417
A wet clutch model is required in automotive propulsion system simulations for enabling robust design and control development. It commonly assumes Coulomb friction for simplicity, even though it does not represent the physics of hydrodynamic torque transfer. In practice, the Coulomb friction coefficient is treated as a tuning parameter in simulations to match vehicle data for targeted conditions. The simulations tend to deviate from actual behaviors for different drive conditions unless the friction coefficient is adjusted repeatedly. Alternatively, a complex hydrodynamic model, coupled with a surface contact model, is utilized to enhance the fidelity of system simulations for broader conditions. The theory of elastic asperity deformation is conventionally employed to model clutch surface contact. However, recent examination of friction material shows that the elastic modulus of surface fibers significantly exceeds the contact load, implying no deformation of fibers.
Technical Paper

Engine Calibration Using Global Optimization Methods with Customization

2020-04-14
2020-01-0270
The automotive industry is subject to stringent regulations in emissions and growing customer demands for better fuel consumption and vehicle performance. Engine calibration, a process that optimizes engine performance by tuning engine controls (actuators), becomes challenging nowadays due to significant increase of complexity of modern engines. The traditional sweep-based engine calibration method is no longer sustainable. To tackle the challenge, this work considers two powerful global optimization methods: genetic algorithm (GA) and Bayesian optimization for steady-state engine calibration for single speed-load point. GA is a branch of meta-heuristic methods that has shown a great potential on solving difficult problems in automotive engineering. Bayesian optimization is an efficient global optimization method that solves problems with computationally expensive testing such as hyperparameter tuning in deep neural network (DNN), engine testing, etc.
Technical Paper

Engine and Aftertreatment Co-Optimization of Connected HEVs via Multi-Range Vehicle Speed Planning and Prediction

2020-04-14
2020-01-0590
Connected vehicles (CVs) have situational awareness that can be exploited for control and optimization of the powertrain system. While extensive studies have been carried out for energy efficiency improvement of CVs via eco-driving and planning, the implication of such technologies on the thermal responses of CVs (including those of the engine and aftertreatment systems) has not been fully investigated. One of the key challenges in leveraging connectivity for optimization-based thermal management of CVs is the relatively slow thermal dynamics, which necessitate the use of a long prediction horizon to achieve the best performance. Long-term prediction of the CV speed, unlike the short-range prediction based on vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications-based information, is difficult and error-prone.
Journal Article

Unified Power-Based Vehicle Fuel Consumption Model Covering a Range of Conditions

2020-04-14
2020-01-1278
Previously fuel consumption on a drive cycle has been shown to be proportional to traction work, with an offset for powertrain losses. This model had different transfer functions for different drive cycles, performance levels, and applied powertrain technologies. Following Soltic it is shown that if fuel usage and traction work are both expressed in terms of cycle average power, a wide range of drive cycles collapse to a single transfer function, where cycle average traction power captures the drive cycle and the vehicle size. If this transfer function is then normalized by weight, i.e. by working in cycle average power/weight (P/W), a linear model is obtained where the offset is mainly a function of rated performance and applied technology. A final normalization by rated power/weight as the primary performance metric further collapses the data to express the cycle average fuel power/rated power ratio as a function of cycle average traction power/rated power ratio.
Journal Article

An LQR Approach of Automatic Transmission Upshift Control Including Use of Off-Going Clutch within Inertia Phase

2020-04-14
2020-01-0970
This paper considers using linear quadratic regulation (LQR) for multi-input control of the Automatic Transmission (AT) upshift inertia phase. The considered control inputs include the transmission input/engine torque, oncoming clutch torque, and traditionally not used off-going clutch torque. Use of the off-going clutch has been motivated by discussed Control Trajectory Optimization (CTO) results demonstrating that employing the off-going clutch during the inertia phase along with the main, oncoming clutch can improve the upshift control performance in terms of the shift duration and/or comfort by trading off the transmission efficiency and control simplicity to some extent. The proposed LQR approach provides setting an optimal trade-off between the conflicting criteria related to driving comfort and clutches thermal energy loss.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Analysis of Clutch Thermal Energy during Automatic Shifting Coupled with Input Torque Truncation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0967
A step-ratio automatic transmission alters torque paths for gearshifting through engagement and disengagement of clutches. It enables torque sources to run efficiently while meeting driver demand. Yet, clutch thermal energy during gearshifting is one of the contributors to the overall fuel loss. In order to optimize drivetrain control strategy, including the frequency of shifts, it is important to understand the cost of shift itself. In a power-on upshift, clutch thermal energy is primarily dissipated during inertia phase. The interaction between multiple clutches, coupled with input torque truncation, makes the decomposition of overall energy loss less obvious. This paper systematically presents the mathematical analysis of clutch thermal energy during the inertia phase of a typical single-transition gearshift. In practice, a quicker shift is generally favored, partly because the amount of energy loss is considered smaller.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Traction and Anti-Lock Braking System Control Design

2020-04-14
2020-01-0997
Wheel slip control is crucial to active safety control systems such as Traction Control System (TCS) and Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) that ensure vehicle safety by maintaining the wheel slip in a stable region. For this reason, a wide variety of control methods has been implemented by both researchers and in the industry. Moreover, the use of new electro-hydraulic or electro-mechanical brakes, and in-wheel electric motors allow for a more precise wheel slip control, which should further improve the vehicle dynamics and safety. In this paper, we compare two methods for wheel slip control: a loop-shaping Youla parametrization method, and a sliding mode control method. Each controller is designed based on a simple single wheel system. The benefits and drawbacks of both methods are addressed. Finally, the performance and stability robustness of each controller is evaluated based on several metrics in a simulation using a high-fidelity vehicle model with several driving scenarios.
Journal Article

Integrated Regenerative Braking System and Anti-Lock Braking System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Battery Electric Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0846
This paper describes development of an integrated regenerative braking system and anti-lock brake system (ABS) control during an ABS event for hybrid and electric vehicles with drivelines containing a single electric motor connected to the axle shaft through an open differential. The control objectives are to recuperate the maximum amount of kinetic energy during an ABS event, and to provide no degraded anti-lock control behavior as seen in vehicles with regenerative braking disabled. The paper first presents a detailed control system analysis to reveal the inherent property of non-zero regenerative braking torque control during ABS event and explain the reason why regenerative braking torque can increase the wheel slip during ABS event with existing regenerative braking control strategies.
Technical Paper

Diagnostic Evaluation of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System on Gasoline Electric Hybrid Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0902
Diagnosing the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Valve remains one of the most challenging problems in emissions control systems diagnostics. California Air Resources Board (CARB) has started imposing specific requirements on automotive companies since 2011 that required the integration of on-board diagnostics (OBD) monitor for the detection and reporting of this type of control malfunction. In this paper, some methodologies of EGR valve system monitoring are investigated and a novel approach is proposed that shows reliable detection capability compared to the other methods. The proposed method requires certain conditions during deceleration fuel shutoff events to intrusively reactivate the EGR system and determine the obstructed valve condition. The method was evaluated on a 2.5L iVCT engine in an experimental Ford Escape Full Hybrid Electric vehicle. Vehicle results are shown and discussed.
Technical Paper

THE EFFECT OF BIODIESEL ON THE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF AUTOMOTIVE ELASTOMERIC COMPOUNDS

2020-01-13
2019-36-0327
The lack of electrical conductivity on materials, which are used in automotive fuel systems, can lead to electrostatic charges buildup in the components of such systems. This accumulation of energy can reach levels that exceed their capacity to withstand voltage surges, which considerably increases the risk of electrical discharges or sparks. Another important factor to consider is the conductivity of the commercially available fuels, such as biodiesel, which contributes to dissipate these charges to a proper grounding point in automobiles. From 2013, the diesel regulation in Brazil have changed and the levels of sulfur in the composition of diesel were reduced considerably, changing its natural characteristic of promoting electrostatic discharges, becoming more insulating.
Technical Paper

Advanced Bench Test Methodology for Generating Wet Clutch Torque Transfer Functions for Enhanced Drivability Simulations

2019-12-19
2019-01-2340
A wet clutch continues to play a critical role for step-ratio automatic transmissions and finds new utilities in hybrid and electrified propulsion systems. A torque transfer function is often employed in practice for sophisticated clutch slip controls. It provides a simple, yet practical framework to represent clutch torque as a function of actuator force. An accurate transfer function is also increasingly desired in today's vehicle design process to enable upfront assessment of clutch controls through simulations. The most common approach is based on Coulomb's linear friction model, where the coefficients are adaptively identified based on vehicle data. However, it is generally difficult to tune Coulomb's model for hydrodynamic behaviors even if the reference vehicle data are available. It also remains a challenge to produce in-vehicle clutch behaviors on a component test bench to determine realistic transfer function before prototype vehicles are built.
Technical Paper

Piston Bowl Geometry Effects on Combustion Development in a High-Speed Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0167
In this work we studied the effects of piston bowl design on combustion in a small-bore direct-injection diesel engine. Two bowl designs were compared: a conventional, omega-shaped bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Experiments were carried out in the Sandia single-cylinder optical engine facility, with a medium-load, mild-boosted operating condition featuring a pilot+main injection strategy. CFD simulations were carried out with the FRESCO platform featuring full-geometric body-fitted mesh modeling of the engine and were validated against measured in-cylinder performance as well as soot natural luminosity images. Differences in combustion development were studied using the simulation results, and sensitivities to in-cylinder flow field (swirl ratio) and injection rate parameters were also analyzed.
Technical Paper

Target Development for Transmission and Electric Motor NVH

2019-06-05
2019-01-1554
It is a common practice to conduct NVH fingerprinting and benchmarking assessments at the powertrain level, to understand source level noise and vibration. To assess the NVH influence of engine, e-motor, and transmission, sub-system testing is often conducted in addition to full powertrain testing. These powertrain or sub-system investigations provide valuable information regarding the status of “source” level excitations relative to targets and / or competitive powertrains. In the case of transmissions and e-machines, it is particularly important to understand source level tonal content and how this will be perceived at the vehicle level. However, variation in component design results in differences in order content, which complicates the process of objectively comparing multiple products. Multiple methods are presented here for characterizing tonal content of transmission and e-machines, based on assessments conducted in a component hemi-anechoic dynamometer test cell.
Journal Article

Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor Casing Treatment for Improved BPF Noise Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2019-06-05
2019-01-1484
The conventional ported shroud recirculation casing treatment elevates narrowband noise at blade pass frequency. A new ported shroud recirculating casing treatment was implemented in Ford’s 3.5L turbo gas engine as Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) counter measure to reduce whoosh (broadband flow noise) noise without elevating narrowband noise at blade pass frequency. The new ported shroud design incorporates holes between the main and secondary recirculating passage and a slight cross-sectional area reduction just upstream of the impeller. These design features reduce whoosh noise without elevating the first order and the sixth order tonal noise at blade pass frequency. The new ported shroud design decreases narrowband tonal noise sound pressure level by 3-6 dB in the low to mid flow region compared to the baseline design. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools were used to develop this casing treatment design.
Technical Paper

Testing Methods and Signal Processing Strategies for Automatic Transmission Transient Multiplexed Pressure Data

2019-06-05
2019-01-1500
Transmissions have multiple transient events that occur from gear shifting to torque converter clutch application. These transients can be difficult to capture and observe. A six speed front wheeled drive transmission was instrumented with pressure transducers to measure clutches and the torque converter. Due to size restrictions internal to the torque converter the data had to be multiplexed across three different transmitters. A method to capture a transient event through the use of multiplexed data was developed to create a data set with the transient event occurring on each channel. Once testing is completed, the data has to be split into individual channels and synced with the operational data. The data then can be used in both time and frequency domain analysis. It is important to understand that the data is not continuous and must be taken into consideration when post processing it for further results.
Journal Article

Machine Learning Algorithm for the Prediction of Idle Combustion Uniformity

2019-06-05
2019-01-1551
Combustion stability is a key contributor to engine shake at idle speed and can impact the overall perception of vehicle quality. The sub-firing harmonics of the combustion torque are used as a metric to assess idle shake and are, typically, measured at different levels of engine break mean effective pressure (BMEP). Due to the nature of the combustion phenomena at idle, it is clear that predicting the cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder combustion pressure variations, required to assess the combustion uniformity, cannot be achieved with the state of the art simulation technology. Inspired by the advancement in the field of machine learning and artificial intelligence and by the availability of a large amount of measured combustion test data, this paper explores the performance of various machine learning algorithms in predicting the idle combustion uniformity.
Technical Paper

Surge Prediction in a Single Sequential Turbocharger (SST) Compressor Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2019-06-05
2019-01-1490
The Single Sequential Turbocharger (SST) used in Ford’s 6.7L Scorpion Diesel is analyzed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to draw conclusions about the compressor stability at low mass flows. The SST compressor concept consists of a double-sided wheel which flows in parallel fed by two separate inlets (front and rear), followed by a single vane-less diffuser, and a volute. CFD simulations for the full stage are performed at low mass flow rates Both, front and rear, sides have ported shroud casing-treatment (CT) in the inlet region. An objective of the analysis is to determine which side of the SST unit compressor (front or rear on the double-sided wheel) suffers flow break down first as the mass flow is reduced, and its impact on the overall stability of the SST compressor. Another objective is to better understand the interactions between the compressor inlet flow and the flow through the casing-treatment.
Technical Paper

Design of a SiC Based Variable Voltage Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0605
Variable Voltage Converter (VVC) is adopted in Power-Split structure of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) to optimize the Electric-Drive (e-Drive) system performance. With the wider availability of Silicon Carbide (SiC) power semiconductor for automotive applications, there are new opportunities to further optimize and improve performance of VVC, e.g. lower power loss, smaller size, and lighter weight, comparing to use traditional Silicon (Si) IGBT and diode. In this paper, a SiC based VVC is designed, prototyped, and evaluated. In order to maximize the benefits of SiC power devices in VVC application, each key component is carefully designed and selected, including SiC power module, power capacitor, and power inductor. The characterization and evaluation results demonstrate the benefits of advanced SiC devices in VVC design optimization, and such benefits quantified in this paper.
X