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Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis between American and European Requirements for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Focusing on Commercial Vehicles

2019-09-15
2019-01-2141
Analysis of road accidents has shown that an important portion of fatal crashes involving Commercial Vehicles are caused by rollovers. ESC systems in Commercial Vehicles can reduce rollovers, severe understeer or oversteer conditions and minimize occurrences of jackknifing events. Several studies have estimated that this positive effect of ESC on road safety is substantial. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is expected to prevent by far the most fatalities and injuries: about 3,000 fatalities (-14%), and about 50,000 injuries (-6%) per year. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control Systems is mandatory for all vehicles (since Nov. 1st, 2011 for new types of vehicle and Nov. 1st, 2014 for all new vehicles), including Commercial Vehicles, Buses, Trucks and Trailers.
Technical Paper

Brake Pedal Feeling Comfort Analysis for Trucks with Pneumatic Brake System

2019-09-15
2019-01-2140
The brake pedal is the brake system component that the driver fundamentally has contact and through its action wait the response of the whole system. Each OEM defines during vehicle conceptualization the behavior of brake pedal that characterizes the pedal feel that in general reflects not only the characteristic from that vehicle but also from the entire brand. Technically, the term known as Pedal Feel means the relation between the force applied on the pedal, the pedal travel and the deceleration achieved by the vehicle. Such relation curves are also analyzed in conjunction with objective analysis sheets where the vehicle brake behavior is analyzed in test track considering different deceleration conditions, force and pedal travel. On technical literature, it is possible to find some data and studies considering the hydraulic brakes behavior.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Gate Driver with Variable Turn On and Turn Off Speeds

2019-04-02
2019-01-0608
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) are widely used for the vehicle traction inverter. Switching characteristics of these devices contribute to the inverter total loss and inverter efficiency is affected by the energy loss during each switching event. Traditional gate driver circuits are usually designed to meet the worst-case scenario and result is high switching loss of the IGBTs. Gate driver turn on and turn off resistances are selected accordingly for the worst-case scenario and their purpose is to protect the device from overshoot voltage that can cause the avalanche breakdown of the device. The gate charge and discharge circuit is usually composed of one or two resistors and the loss during turn-on and turn-off time is not optimized for all of the vehicle-operating conditions. Since microprocessor (μP) monitors the dc-bus voltage, output current and torque command, it can also determine if the device switching speed needs to be changed under different operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Closures weatherstrips with variable cross sections

2018-09-03
2018-36-0152
Closures systems performance is a trade-off between NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) and DCE (Door Closing Efforts) requirements. Dynamic sealing performance and sheet metal rigidity are the key contributors for a stable system. The seals actuate like a spring on the system. Higher seal load is good for NVH performance, adding more dumping to the system, but it will negatively affect DCE, as it will demand additional energy to close the system. Nominal seal load must be defined to achieve a balance between these attributes. This study is about dynamic sealing profiles with variable seal load, which provides tunable solutions to address the trade-off between NVH and DCE on the side doors or rear closures. Dynamic sealing weatherstrips are made of sponge EPDM extruded profiles with a specified load, defined by its CLD (Compression Load Deflection), which is given by the cross section design.
Technical Paper

One piece hot formed AB ring reinforcement

2018-09-03
2018-36-0022
The usage of Boron steel in the South American automotive industry has been increasing in recent years. Considering its high hardening properties, sheet metal parts can only be manufactured using a hot forming process, as compared to a conventional cold forming process; however, the hot stamping process offers the advantage to stamp a part in a single die vs. multiple dies using a regular cold stamping process. The main objective is to present the advantages of constructing the whole AB ring reinforcement out of Boron steel and made out of a single die, and no welding among the A pillar reinforcement, B Pillar reinforcement and rocker panel. This type of design has helped to achieve crash safety performance goals, enhance the structural characteristics of joints, improve dimensional control, reduce the number of welds, manage BIW overall weight and improve torsion rigidity.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Friction Modifiers and DI Package on Friction Reduction Potential of Next Generation Engine Oils: Part I Fresh Oils

2018-04-03
2018-01-0933
Friction reduction in lubricated components through engine oil formulations has been investigated in the present work. Three different DI packages in combination with one friction modifier were blended in SAE 5 W-20 and SAE 0 W-16 viscosity grades. The friction performance of these oils was compared with GF-5 SAE 5 W-20 oil. A motored cranktrain assembly has been used to evaluate these, in which friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) as a function of engine speeds at different lubricant temperatures is measured. Results show that the choice of DI package plays a significant role in friction reduction. Results obtained from the mini-traction machine (MTM2) provide detailed information on traction coefficient in boundary, mixed and elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication regimes. It has been shown that the results from the cranktrain rig are fairly consistent with those found in MTM2 tests for all the lubricants tested.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Influence of Pressure Wheel Design on Heat Dissipation for a Laser Robotic End of Arm Tooling

2018-04-03
2018-01-1235
The initiative of this paper is focused on improving the heat dissipation from the pressure wheel of a laser welding assembly in order to achieve a longer period of use. The work examines the effects of different geometrical designs on the thermal performance of pressure wheel assembly during a period of cooling time. Three disc designs were manufactured for testing: Design 1 – a plain wheel, Design 2 – a pierced wheel, and Design 3 – a wheel with ventilating vanes. All of the wheels were made of carbon steel. The transient thermal reaction were compared. The experimental results indicate that the ventilated wheel cools down faster with the convection in the ventilated channels, while the solid plain wheel continues to possess higher temperatures. A comparison among the three different designs indicates that the Design 3 has the best cooling performance.
Journal Article

Decoupling Vehicle Work from Powertrain Properties in Vehicle Fuel Consumption

2018-04-03
2018-01-0322
The fuel consumption of a vehicle is shown to be linearly proportional to (1) total vehicle work required to drive the cycle due to mass and acceleration, tire friction, and aerodynamic drag and (2) the powertrain (PT) mechanical losses, which are approximately proportional to the engine displaced volume per unit distance travelled (displacement time gearing). The fuel usage increases linearly with work and displacement over a wide range of applications, and the rate of increase is inversely proportional to the marginal efficiency of the engine. The theoretical basis for these predictions is reviewed. Examples from current applications are discussed, where a single PT is used across several vehicles. A full vehicle cycle simulation model also predicts a linear relationship between fuel consumption, vehicle work, and displacement time gearing and agrees well with the application data.
Technical Paper

The Causal Relationship between Wheel Rim Gouging Forces on Roadway Surfaces and Rollover Crashes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0556
There has been a general consensus in the scientific literature that a rim gouging, not scraping, into a roadway surface generates very high forces which can cause a vehicle to overturn in some situations. However, a paper published in 2004 attempts to minimize the forces created during wheel rim gouging and the effect on vehicle rollover. This paper relied largely on heavily filtered lateral acceleration data and discounted additional test runs by the authors and NHTSA that did not support the supposed conclusions. This paper will discuss the effect of rim gouging using accepted scientific methods, including full vehicle testing where vehicle accelerations were measured during actual rim gouging events and static testing of side forces exerted by wheels mounted on a moving test fixture. The data analyzed in this paper clearly shows that forces created by rim gouges on pavement can be thousands of Newtons and can contribute to vehicle rollover.
Technical Paper

Technical Analysis of Severe Cornering Induced Tire Wear on Vehicle Limit Handling through Repeatable On-Track Vehicle Testing

2018-04-03
2018-01-0558
In repeated physical testing of vehicles at or near their handling limit, tire shoulder wear occurs that is not typical of normal customer use. It has been observed for decades that this type of severe cornering induced tire wear can have a significant effect on the force and moment characteristics of tires. In this study, the severe cornering wear effect was studied by testing vehicles in a highly controlled manner using a robot steering controller. This testing shows how vehicle response to the exact same steering input changes significantly as the number of runs on the same tires accumulates. In fact, vehicles were found to not lift tires from the ground in initial runs then tip-up hard onto outriggers in later runs as the tires are abraded. Additionally, for one vehicle configuration an additional run was made with tires that had accumulated 16,000 km (10,000 miles) of normal customer usage.
Technical Paper

System-Level Investigation of Traction Inverter High-Temperature Operation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0464
In this paper, the high-temperature capability of the traction inverter was investigated by applying coolant with temperature much higher than the typical allowed value until the system fails. The purpose of this study is to identify the weakest link of the traction inverter system in terms of temperature. This study was divided into two stages. In the first stage, a series of nondestructive tests were carried out to investigate temperature rise (ΔT) of the key component above coolant temperature as a function of the outside controllable parameters-i.e., dc link voltage, phase current, and switching frequency. The key components include power modules, gate driver board, gate driver power supply, current sensors and dc link capacitor. Their temperatures were monitored by thermocouples or on-die temperature sensors.
Technical Paper

A Packaging Layout to Mitigate Crosstalk for SiC Devices

2018-04-03
2018-01-0462
SiC devices have inherent fast switching capabilities due to their superior material properties, and are considered potential candidates to replace Si devices for traction inverters in electrified vehicles in future. However, due to the comparatively low gate threshold voltage, SiC devices may encounter oscillatory false triggering especially during fast switching. This paper analyzed the causes of false triggering, and also studied the impact of a critical parasitic parameter - common source inductance. It is shown that crosstalk is the main cause for the false triggering in the case and some positive common source inductance help to mitigate the crosstalk issue. A packaging layout method is proposed to create the positive common source inductance through layout of control terminals / busbars, and/or the use of control terminal bonded wires at different height.
Technical Paper

New FR Lower Spring Pad Design to Avoid Squeak Noise During Suspension Travel

2017-11-07
2017-36-0238
During a B-Car durability validation route, it was observed a squeak noise coming from front suspension structure. In the teardown, it was verified metal to metal contact between coil spring and damper spring plate and squeeze-out of spring pad. To reproduce the vehicle failure, it was developed in laboratory a fixture and test to reflect a B-Car McPherson suspension motion, to reproduce the failure and validate a proposal. After root cause understanding, the challenge was to design a new spring pad to avoid squeeze-out keeping the coil spring lower pigtail unchanged. It was tested some prototype parts also in vehicle to approve the design proposal.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Determination and Optimization of Bolted Joints

2017-11-07
2017-36-0294
In order to optimize the development of bolted joints used to components attachments in the Sidemember of commercial vehicles, the joints development has become relevant to better definition of the fasteners size, eliminating overweight and avoiding under or super-sized. This paper presents a development sequential approach of bolted joints applied on commercial vehicles ensuring the correct specifications usage of the fasteners and the joint to keep their clamp force. The evaluations were conducted based on theoretical and practical aspects applied on products and in the definition of all elements contained in a joint. The calculation methodology was developed based on standardized bolts and forces generated through the reactions of the components required for each vehicle family.
Technical Paper

Development of a Commercial Truck Parabolic Leaf Spring Using CAE Simulation with Correlated Experimental Stress Analysis Results

2017-11-07
2017-36-0126
The development costs that new design requires are subject to everyday discussions and saving opportunities are mandatory. Using CAE to predict design changes can avoid excessive costs with prototypes parts, considering the high reliability those current mathematical models can provide. This paper presents the methodology used during the development of a parabolic leaf spring for the rear suspension of a commercial truck, considering mainly the parabolic profiles and stress distribution on the leaves, calculated using CAE software (ANSYS) and experimental tests to measure the actual stress on each leaf, certifying the correlation between computational calculations and real stress on the parts during bench and vehicle evaluations.
Technical Paper

Application of CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) Superelement Technique for NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) Attributes on a Trimmed-Body Vehicle Structure in Order to Assist Supplier Commodity Development Based Also on NVH Requirements

2017-11-07
2017-36-0081
The business environment is ever changing, several innovations have allowed companies to transcend borderlines and become global entities. While the opportunities are numerous so are the challenges. In this fiercely competitive global marketplace, success requires companies to pay closer attention to supplier relations. The relationship between an automotive industry and its suppliers is an example of it, so the application of CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) superelement technique may improve, in terms of NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness), the vehicle development efficiency, without compromising confidentiality directives. Most of NVH requirements must be tracked through Transfer Functions (TFs) analyses at response points located on the Trimmed-Body Finite Element Model (FEM), as for example: Point Mobility, Vibration Transfer Function (VTF) and Acoustic Transfer Function (ATF).
Technical Paper

Brake System Regulations and Standards Review and Comparison Focused on Europe, NA and SA Markets

2017-09-17
2017-01-2534
Considering that the most part of commercial vehicles are equipped with air brakes it is very important assure specific technical requirements for air brake system and its components. In addition, the effects of brake system failure are more critical for commercial vehicles which require more attention on their requirements details. Historically, the development of air brakes technology started on North America and Europe and consequently two strong and distinct resolutions were structured: FMVSS 121 and ECE R.13, respectively. For passenger cars were developed the ECER.13H to harmonize North American and European resolutions. However, for commercial vehicles regional applications, culture and implementation time must be considered. These commercial vehicles peculiarities must be understood and their specific requirements harmonized to attend the global marketing growth.
Technical Paper

Methodology of Automatic Slack Brake Adjuster Definition Considering Foundation Brake System Characteristics

2017-05-24
2017-36-0004
S-cam brakes concept are largely used by commercial vehicles around the world due to its low cost, easy maintenance and robustness. An important component of s-cam brakes is the slack adjuster, that is responsible for amplify brake chamber forces and assure correct lining and drum clearance. Therefore usually slack adjuster mechanism characteristics are defined only by empiric method considering trial and error tentative. This paper aims to demonstrate a methodology created to develop new air s-cam brakes slack adjuster definition taken in consideration its interface with other brake components. During this study was identified design specification for each component and its influence on adjustment process. It was verified the intrinsic characteristics of slack adjuster mechanism and developed a calculation tool to predict its actuation on the brake. The interface of slack adjuster with other foundation brake components and drum compliance were also studied.
Technical Paper

Geometrical Optimization of an Automotive Halfshaft

2017-03-28
2017-01-1125
Halfshafts are very important components from vehicle powertrain. They are the element responsible to transmit torque and rotation from transmission to wheels. Its most basic design consists of a solid bar with joints at each extreme. Depending of bar length, the natural frequency of first bending mode might have a modal alignment with engine second order, resulting in undesired noise on vehicle interior. Many design alternatives are available to overpass this particular situation, like adding dampers, use tube shafts or use link-shafts, however, all of them are cost affected. This study proposes an investigation to obtain an optimal profile for a solid shaft, pursuing the lowest possible frequency for the first bending mode by changing its diameter at specific regions. The study is divided in four main stages: initially, a modal analysis of a halfshaft is done at vehicle to determinate its natural frequency when assembled on vehicle.
Technical Paper

Ting Noise Generation in Automotive Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-1121
Automobile customers are looking for higher performance and quieter comfortable rides. The driveline of a vehicle can be a substantial source of NVH issues. This paper provides an understanding of a driveline noise issue which can affect any variant of driveline architecture (FWD, AWD, RWD and 4X4). This metallic noise is mostly present during the take-off and appropriately termed as ting noise. This noise was not prevalent in the past. For higher fuel economy, OEMs started integrating several components for lighter subsystems. This in effect made the system more sensitive to the excitation. At present the issue is addressed by adding a ting washer in the interface of the wheel hub bearings and the halfshafts. This paper explains the physics behind the excitation and defines the parameters that influence the excitation. The halfshaft and the wheel hub are assembled with a specified hub nut torque.
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