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Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis between American and European Requirements for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Focusing on Commercial Vehicles

2019-09-15
2019-01-2141
Analysis of road accident has showed that an important portion of fatal crashes involving commercial vehicles is caused by rollovers. ESC systems in commercial vehicles can reduce rollovers, severe understeer or oversteer conditions and minimize occurences of jackknifing conditions. Several studies have estimated that this positive effect of ESC on road safety is substantial. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is expected to prevent by far the most fatalities and injuries: about 3,000 fatalities (-14%), and about 50,000 injuries (-6%) per year. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control Systems is mandatory for all vehicles (since Nov 1st, 2011 for new types of vehicle and Nov 1st 2014 for all new vehicles), including commercial vehicles, trucks and trailers.
Technical Paper

Duct Shape Optimization Using Multi-Objective and Geometrically Constrained Adjoint Solver

2019-04-02
2019-01-0823
In the recent years, adjoint optimization has gained popularity in the automotive industry with its growing applications. Since its inclusion in the mainstream commercial CFD solvers and its continuously added capabilities over the years, its productive usage became readily available to many engineers who were previously limited to interfacing the customized adjoint source code with CFD solvers. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate using an adjoint solver a method to optimize duct shape that meets multiple design objectives simultaneously. To overcome one of the biggest challenges in the duct design, i.e. the severe packaging constraints, the method here uses geometrically constrained adjoint to ensure that the optimum shape always fits into the user-defined packaging space. In this work, adjoint solver and surface sensitivity calculations are used to develop the optimization method.
Technical Paper

CVT Ratio Scheduling Optimization with Consideration of Engine and Transmission Efficiency

2019-04-02
2019-01-0773
This paper proposes a transmission ratio scheduling and control methodology for a vehicle with a Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) and a downsized gasoline engine. The methodology is designed to deliver the optimal vehicle fuel economy within drivability and performance constraints. Traditionally, the Optimum Operating Line (OOL) generated from an engine brake specific fuel consumption map is considered to be the best option for ratio scheduling, as it defines the points at which engine efficiency is maximized. But the OOL does not consider transmission efficiency, which may be a source of significant losses. To develop a CVT ratio schedule that offers the best fuel economy for the complete powertrain, an empirical approach was used to minimize fuel consumption by considering engine efficiency, CVT efficiency, and requested vehicle power. A backward-looking model was used to simulate a standard driving cycle (FTP-75) and develop a new powertrain-optimal operating line (P-OOL).
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of a Transmission E-Pump for Application in Hybrid Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0349
The Electric Pump (E-Pump) is a critical component in the hybrid transmission system. The E-Pump provides flow to maintain a stable line pressure when the engine is in an off state. The main applications of the E-Pump are Park Pawl engagement and disengagement, engine start-stop operation and shadow shifting. A Systems Engineering Approach was followed to develop a medium fidelity plant model for the E-Pump. The developed model was initially tested and validated in the Model in-the loop (MIL) environment. After initial validation, the model was integrated into the overall vehicle model which was then tested on the Software in-the loop (SIL) and Hardware in-the loop (HIL) environments. The model was validated across different platforms and several operating conditions. The basic applications of the E-Pump such as park pawl actuation, engine starting and shadow shifting were validated.
Technical Paper

A NVH CAE approach performed on a vehicle closures pumping issue

2018-09-03
2018-36-0287
The use of finite element modeling (FEM) tools is part of the most of the current product development projects of the automotive industry companies, replacing an important part of the physical tests with lower costs, higher speed and with increasing accuracy by each day. In addition to this, computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools can be either used after the product is released, at any moment of the product life, in many different situation as a new feature release, to validate a more cost-efficient design proposal or to help on solving some manufacturing problem or even a vehicular field issue. Different from the phase where the product is still under development, when standard virtual test procedures are performed in order to validate the vehicle project, in this case, where engineers expertise plays a very important role, before to proceed with any standard test it is fundamental to understand the physics of the phenomena that is causing the unexpected behavior.
Technical Paper

Policies to Maximize Fuel Economy of Plug-In Hybrids in a Rental Fleet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0670
Plug-in hybrid (PHEV) technology offers the ability to achieve zero tailpipe emissions coupled with convenient refueling. Fleet adoption of PHEVs, often motivated by organizational and regulatory sustainability targets, may not always align with optimal use cases. In a car rental application, barriers to improving fuel economy over a conventional hybrid include: diminished benefits of additional battery capacity on long-distance trips, sparse electric charging infrastructure at the fleet location, lack of renter understanding of electric charging options, and a principle-agent problem where the driver accrues fewer benefits than costs for actions that improve fuel economy, like charging and eco-driving. This study uses high-resolution driving data collected from twelve Ford Fusion Energi sedans owned by University of California, Davis (UC Davis), where the vehicles are rented out for university-related activities.
Technical Paper

Innovative Automatic Meshing Method for ComplexMesh Patterns for Integrated CAD / CAE Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-0479
With strict government requirements for automobile fuel economy and global climate warming concerns, powertrain design becomes ever more challenging and complicated. New technologies come out daily, and each component, small or large, is scrutinized for weight, cost, performance, etc. To meet these ever demanding requirements, Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) becomes very critical in the product development process. It not only saves tremendous developing time and cost, but also helps discover new and innovative ideas very quickly. Digital product development process is an industrial norm nowadays. Parts are modeled in 3D in a Computer Aided Design (CAD) system, and then they are passed to and modeled in a Finite Elements Analysis (FEA) software package for analysis. If the analysis results do not meet the requirements, engineers either modify the FEA models or 3D CAD geometry for re-analysis.
Technical Paper

A Packaging Layout to Mitigate Crosstalk for SiC Devices

2018-04-03
2018-01-0462
SiC devices have inherent fast switching capabilities due to their superior material properties, and are considered potential candidates to replace Si devices for traction inverters in electrified vehicles in future. However, due to the comparatively low gate threshold voltage, SiC devices may encounter oscillatory false triggering especially during fast switching. This paper analyzed the causes of false triggering, and also studied the impact of a critical parasitic parameter - common source inductance. It is shown that crosstalk is the main cause for the false triggering in the case and some positive common source inductance help to mitigate the crosstalk issue. A packaging layout method is proposed to create the positive common source inductance through layout of control terminals / busbars, and/or the use of control terminal bonded wires at different height.
Technical Paper

Validating Prototype Connected Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications in Real- World Settings

2018-04-03
2018-01-0025
This paper summarizes the validation of prototype vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety applications based on Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) in the United States under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). After consideration of a number of V2I safety applications, Red Light Violation Warning (RLVW), Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure Warning (RSZW/LC) were developed, validated and demonstrated using seven different vehicles (six passenger vehicles and one Class 8 truck) leveraging DSRC-based messages from a Road Side Unit (RSU). The developed V2I safety applications were validated for more than 20 distinct scenarios and over 100 test runs using both light- and heavy-duty vehicles over a period of seven months. Subsequently, additional on-road testing of CSW on public roads and RSZW/LC in live work zones were conducted in Southeast Michigan.
Technical Paper

Development of Wireless Message for Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0027
This paper summarizes the development of a wireless message from infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) for safety applications based on Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). During the development of the Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure (RSZW/LC) safety applications [1], the Basic Information Message (BIM) was developed to wirelessly transmit infrastructure-centric information. The Traveler Information Message (TIM) structure, as described in the SAE J2735, provides a mechanism for the infrastructure to issue and display in-vehicle signage of various types of advisory and road sign information. This approach, though effective in communicating traffic advisories, is limited by the type of information that can be broadcast from infrastructures.
Technical Paper

A Side Impact Taxonomy for USA Field Data

2018-04-03
2018-01-1331
An eleven-group taxonomy was created to classify real-world side crashes from the Crashworthiness Data System (CDS) component of the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). Three steps were taken to develop the classification scheme: (1) side-impact towaway crashes were identified by examining 1987-2016 model year light passenger vehicles with Collision Deformation Classification (CDC) data from the 1997-2015 calendar years of NASS; (2) case reviews, engineering judgments, and categorization assessments were conducted on these data to produce the eleven-group taxonomy; and (3) taxonomic groups were reviewed relative to regulated crash test procedures. Two of the taxonomic groups were found to have the most frequent crash types, each contributing approximately 22% to the total, followed closely by a third taxonomic group contributing approximately 19%.
Technical Paper

Using Machine Learning to Guide Simulations Over Unique Samples from Trip Profiles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1202
Electric vehicles are highly sensitive to variations in environmental factors (like temperature, drive style, grade, etc.). The distribution of real-world range of electric vehicles due to these environmental factors is an important consideration in target setting. This distribution can be obtained by running several simulations of an electric vehicle for a number of high-frequency velocity, grade, and temperature real-world trip profiles. However, in order to speed up simulation time, a unique set of drive profiles that represent the entire real-world data set needs to be developed. In this study, we consider 40,000 unique velocity and grade profiles from various real-world applications in EU. We generate metadata that describes these profiles using trip descriptor variables. Due to the large number of descriptor variables when considering second order effects, we normalize each descriptor and use principal component analysis to reduce the dimensions of our dataset to six components.
Technical Paper

Stress Analysis on the Single-Lap SPR- Adhesive Hybrid Joint

2018-04-03
2018-01-1445
Self-pierced rivet (SPR) and adhesive are two important joining technologies widely used in automobile industry, and they are often used together to form a hybrid joint. SPR and adhesives can often be used in close proximity in a component, leading to an interaction of the two joints. This interaction can influence the corrosion and noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) characteristics of the structure, as well as its strength and durability. In this paper, the stress distribution in an SPR-adhesive hybrid joint is evaluated by using the finite element method, and then compared with that in an adhesive joint. Results indicate that the stress concentrates at the edge of adhesive layer in hybrid joint and adhesive joint and around the rivet in an SPR joint. The effect of rivet is numerically investigated by either removing the rivet from the hybrid joint or changing the position of the rivet on the overlapping area.
Technical Paper

AUREATE: An Augmented Reality Test Environment for Realistic Simulations

2018-04-03
2018-01-1080
Automated driving is currently one of the most active areas of research worldwide. While the general progress in developing specific algorithms for perception, planning and control tasks is very advanced, testing and validation of the resulting functions is still challenging due to the large number of possible scenarios and generation of ground-truth. Currently, real world testing and simulations are used in combination to overcome some of these challenges. While real world testing does not suffer from imperfect sensor models and environments, it is expensive, slow and not accurately repeatable and therefore unable to capture all possible scenarios. However, simulation models are not sophisticated enough to fully replace real world testing. In this paper, we propose a workflow that is capable of augmenting real sensor-level data with simulated sensor data.
Journal Article

Decoupling Vehicle Work from Powertrain Properties in Vehicle Fuel Consumption

2018-04-03
2018-01-0322
The fuel consumption of a vehicle is shown to be linearly proportional to (1) total vehicle work required to drive the cycle due to mass and acceleration, tire friction, and aerodynamic drag and (2) the powertrain (PT) mechanical losses, which are approximately proportional to the engine displaced volume per unit distance travelled (displacement time gearing). The fuel usage increases linearly with work and displacement over a wide range of applications, and the rate of increase is inversely proportional to the marginal efficiency of the engine. The theoretical basis for these predictions is reviewed. Examples from current applications are discussed, where a single PT is used across several vehicles. A full vehicle cycle simulation model also predicts a linear relationship between fuel consumption, vehicle work, and displacement time gearing and agrees well with the application data.
Technical Paper

A Methodology of Real-World Fuel Consumption Estimation: Part 1. Drive Cycles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0644
To assess the fuel consumption of vehicles, three sets of input data are required; drive cycles, vehicle parameters, and environmental conditions. As the first part of a series of studies on real-world fuel consumption, this study focuses on the drive cycles. In principle, drive cycles should represent real-world usage. Some of them aim at a specific usage such as a city driving condition or an aggressive driving style. However, the definition of city or aggressive driving is very subjective and difficult to quantitatively correlate with the real-world usage. This study proposes a methodology to quantify the speed and dynamics of drive cycles, or vehicle speed traces in general, against the real-world usage. After reviewing parameter sets found in other studies, relative cubic speed (RCS) and positive kinetic energy (PKE) are selected to represent the speed and dynamics through energy flow balance at the wheels.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Friction Modifiers and DI Package on Friction Reduction Potential of Next Generation Engine Oils: Part I Fresh Oils

2018-04-03
2018-01-0933
Friction reduction in lubricated components through engine oil formulations has been investigated in the present work. Three different DI packages in combination with one friction modifier were blended in SAE 5 W-20 and SAE 0 W-16 viscosity grades. The friction performance of these oils was compared with GF-5 SAE 5 W-20 oil. A motored cranktrain assembly has been used to evaluate these, in which friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) as a function of engine speeds at different lubricant temperatures is measured. Results show that the choice of DI package plays a significant role in friction reduction. Results obtained from the mini-traction machine (MTM2) provide detailed information on traction coefficient in boundary, mixed and elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication regimes. It has been shown that the results from the cranktrain rig are fairly consistent with those found in MTM2 tests for all the lubricants tested.
Journal Article

Experiment and Simulation Study on Unidirectional Carbon Fiber Composite Component under Dynamic Three-Point Bending Loading

2018-04-03
2018-01-0096
In the current work, unidirectional (UD) carbon fiber composite hatsection component with two different layups are studied under dynamic three-point bending loading. The experiments are performed at various impact velocities, and the effects of impactor velocity and layup on acceleration histories are compared. A macro model is established with LS-DYNA for a more detailed study. The simulation results show that the delamination plays an important role during dynamic three-point bending test. Based on the analysis with a high-speed camera, the sidewall of hatsection shows significant buckling rather than failure. Without considering the delamination, the current material model cannot capture the post-failure phenomenon correctly. The sidewall delamination is modeled by assumption of larger failure strain together with slim parameters, and the simulation results of different impact velocities and layups match the experimental results reasonably well.
Journal Article

Multidisciplinary Optimization of Auto-Body Lightweight Design Using Hybrid Metamodeling Technique and Particle Swarm Optimizer

2018-04-03
2018-01-0583
Because of rising complexity during the automotive product development process, the number of disciplines to be concerned has been significantly increased. Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) methodology, which provides an opportunity to integrate each discipline and conduct compromise searching process, is investigated and introduced to achieve the best compromise solution for the automotive industry. To make a better application of MDO, the suitable coupling strategy of different disciplines and efficient optimization techniques for automotive design are studied in this article. Firstly, considering the characteristics of automotive load cases which include many shared variables but rare coupling variables, a multilevel MDO coupling strategy based on enhanced collaborative optimization (ECO) is studied to improve the computational efficiency of MDO problems.
Technical Paper

Application of CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) Superelement Technique for NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) Attributes on a Trimmed-Body Vehicle Structure in Order to Assist Supplier Commodity Development Based Also on NVH Requirements

2017-11-07
2017-36-0081
The business environment is ever changing, several innovations have allowed companies to transcend borderlines and become global entities. While the opportunities are numerous so are the challenges. In this fiercely competitive global marketplace, success requires companies to pay closer attention to supplier relations. The relationship between an automotive industry and its suppliers is an example of it, so the application of CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) superelement technique may improve, in terms of NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness), the vehicle development efficiency, without compromising confidentiality directives. Most of NVH requirements must be tracked through Transfer Functions (TFs) analyses at response points located on the Trimmed-Body Finite Element Model (FEM), as for example: Point Mobility, Vibration Transfer Function (VTF) and Acoustic Transfer Function (ATF).
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