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Technical Paper

Calibration and Validation of GISSMO Damage Model for A 780-MPa Third Generation Advanced High Strength Steel

2020-04-14
2020-01-0198
To evaluate vehicle crash performance in the early design stages, a reliable fracture model is needed in crash simulations to predict material fracture initiation and propagation. In this paper, a generalized incremental stress state dependent damage model (GISSMO) in LS-DYNA® was calibrated and validated for a 780-MPa third generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS), namely 780 XG3TM steel that combines high strength and ductility. The fracture locus of the 780 XG3TM steel was experimentally characterized under various stress states including uniaxial tension, shear, plane strain and equi-biaxial stretch conditions. A process to calibrate the parameters in the GISSMO model was developed and successfully applied to the 780 XG3TM steel using the fracture test data for these stress states.
Technical Paper

Full Body Car Analysis in the Time and Frequency Domains - Sheet, Spot and Seam Weld Fatigue Benchmark Studies

2020-04-14
2020-01-0195
The fatigue analysis of a full car body requires the sheet metal (sheet fatigue), spot welds (spot weld fatigue) and seam welds (seam weld fatigue) to be thoroughly evaluated for durability. Traditionally this has always been done in the time domain, but recently new frequency domain techniques are able to perform these tasks with numerous advantages. This paper will summarize the frequency domain process and then compare the results and performance against the more usual time domain process.
Technical Paper

Composite Hybrid Automotive Suspension System Innovative Structures (CHASSIS)

2020-04-14
2020-01-0777
The Composite Hybrid Automotive Suspension System Innovative Structures (CHASSIS) is a project to develop structural commercial vehicle suspension components in high volume utilising hybrid materials and joining techniques to offer a viable lightweight production alternative to steel. Three components are in scope for the project:- Front Subframe Front Lower Control Arm (FLCA) Rear Deadbeam Axle
Technical Paper

Robustness Design to Avoid Noise on Exterior Handle System

2020-01-13
2019-36-0137
Squeak and rattle are two undesirable occurrences during component operation and during vehicle driving condition, resulting in one of the top complains from costumers. One common grievance could happen during the user exterior handle operation and during side door closing. The exterior handle system during the operation could generate a squeak between interface parts, if materials and geometric tolerances was not been carefully designed. Also, vibration generated during door closing effort, might generate squeak between parts since the reinforcement for exterior handle touches the outer sheet metal internally. For this reason several guidelines might be included to avoid potential noise condition for this system during vehicle lifetime as correct material reduce friction between parts, taking into consideration the geometric condition between parts. Plus, coupling system on handles two pieces should also be evaluated to avoid squeak during use.
Technical Paper

Detection of Presence and Posture of Vehicle Occupants Using a Capacitance Sensing Mat

2019-04-02
2019-01-1232
Capacitance sensing is the technology that detects the presence of nearby objects by measuring the change in capacitance. A change in capacitance is triggered either by a change in dielectric constant, area of overlap or distance of separation between the electrodes of the capacitor. It is a technology that finds wide use in applications such as touch screens, proximity sensing etc. Drawing motivation from such applications, this paper investigates how capacitive sensing can be employed to detect the presence and posture of occupants inside vehicles. Compared to existing solutions, the proposed approach is low-cost, easy to deploy and highly efficient. The sensing system consists of a capacitance-sensing mat that is embedded with copper foils and an associated sensing circuitry. Inside the mat the foils are arranged in rows and columns to form several touch-nodes across the surface of the mat.
Technical Paper

One piece hot formed AB ring reinforcement

2018-09-03
2018-36-0022
The usage of Boron steel in the South American automotive industry has been increasing in recent years. Considering its high hardening properties, sheet metal parts can only be manufactured using a hot forming process, as compared to a conventional cold forming process; however, the hot stamping process offers the advantage to stamp a part in a single die vs. multiple dies using a regular cold stamping process. The main objective is to present the advantages of constructing the whole AB ring reinforcement out of Boron steel and made out of a single die, and no welding among the A pillar reinforcement, B Pillar reinforcement and rocker panel. This type of design has helped to achieve crash safety performance goals, enhance the structural characteristics of joints, improve dimensional control, reduce the number of welds, manage BIW overall weight and improve torsion rigidity.
Journal Article

Failure Mode and Fatigue Behavior of Flow Drill Screw Joints in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum 6082-T6 Sheets Made with Different Processing Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1237
Failure mode and fatigue behavior of flow drill screw (FDS) joints in lap-shear specimens of aluminum 6082-T6 sheets made with different processing conditions are investigated based on the experimental results and a structural stress fatigue life estimation model. Lap-shear specimens with FDS joints without clearance hole and lap-shear specimens with stripped FDS joints with clearance hole were made and then tested under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions. Optical micrographs show the failure modes of the FDS joints without clearance hole (with gap) and the stripped FDS joints with clearance hole under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions. The fatigue failure mode of the FDS joints without clearance hole (with gap) in lap-shear specimens is similar to those with clearance hole. The fatigue lives of lap-shear specimens with FDS joints without clearance hole are lower than those with clearance hole for given load ranges under cyclic loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Influence of Pressure Wheel Design on Heat Dissipation for a Laser Robotic End of Arm Tooling

2018-04-03
2018-01-1235
The initiative of this paper is focused on improving the heat dissipation from the pressure wheel of a laser welding assembly in order to achieve a longer period of use. The work examines the effects of different geometrical designs on the thermal performance of pressure wheel assembly during a period of cooling time. Three disc designs were manufactured for testing: Design 1 – a plain wheel, Design 2 – a pierced wheel, and Design 3 – a wheel with ventilating vanes. All of the wheels were made of carbon steel. The transient thermal reaction were compared. The experimental results indicate that the ventilated wheel cools down faster with the convection in the ventilated channels, while the solid plain wheel continues to possess higher temperatures. A comparison among the three different designs indicates that the Design 3 has the best cooling performance.
Technical Paper

Development of a Thermal Fatigue Test Bench for Cylinder Head Materials

2018-04-03
2018-01-1410
An innovative specimen design and test system for thermal fatigue (TF) analysis is developed to compare the fatigue behavior of different cylinder head materials under realistic cyclic thermal loadings. Finite element analyses were performed to optimize the specimen geometry and thermal cycles. The reduced section of the TF specimen is heated locally by a high frequency induction heater and cooled by compressed air. The mechanical strain is then induced internally by the non-uniform thermal gradient generated within the specimen to closely simulate what valve bridges in cylinder heads experience in real operation. The resulting fatigue life is a function not only of the inherent fatigue resistance of the alloys, but also of other relevant properties such as thermal conductivity, modulus of elasticity, and coefficient of thermal expansion. This test is an essential tool for comparing different alloys for thermal fatigue applications.
Technical Paper

Copper Effect on the Ultrasonic Fatigue Life of A356 Aluminum Alloy Under Variable Humidity Levels

2018-04-03
2018-01-1411
Ultrasonic fatigue tests (testing frequency around 20kHz) have been conducted on A356 aluminum alloys with different copper contents and AS7GU aluminum alloy. Tests were performed in dry air and submerged in water conditions. The effect of copper content was investigated and it was concluded that copper content plays an important role influencing the humidity effect on A356 aluminum alloy ultrasonic fatigue lives. Also, for the same copper content, copper in solute solution or in precipitate have different humidity sensitivities.
Technical Paper

The Development of Low Temperature Three-Way Catalysts for High Efficiency Gasoline Engines of the Future: Part II

2018-04-03
2018-01-0939
It is anticipated that future gasoline engines will have improved mechanical efficiency and consequently lower exhaust temperatures at low load conditions, although the exhaust temperatures at high load conditions are expected to remain the same or even increase due to the increasing use of downsized turbocharged engines. In 2014, a collaborative project was initiated at Ford Motor Company, Oak Ridge National Lab, and the University of Michigan to develop three-way catalysts with improved performance at low temperatures while maintaining the durability of current TWCs. This project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and is intended to show progress toward the USDRIVE target of 90% conversion of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at 150 °C after high mileage aging. The testing protocols specified by the USDRIVE ACEC team for stoichiometric S-GDI engines were utilized during the evaluation of experimental catalysts at all three facilities.
Journal Article

A New Catalyzed HC Trap Technology that Enhances the Conversion of Gasoline Fuel Cold-Start Emissions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0938
Passive in-line catalyzed hydrocarbon (HC) traps have been used by some manufacturers in the automotive industry to reduce regulated tailpipe (TP) emissions of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) during engine cold-start conditions. However, most NMOG molecules produced during gasoline combustion are only weakly adsorbed via physisorption onto the zeolites typically used in a HC trap. As a consequence, NMOG desorption occurs at low temperatures resulting in the use of very high platinum group metal (PGM) loadings in an effort to combust NMOG before it escapes from a HC trap. In the current study, a 2.0 L direct-injection (DI) Ford Focus running on gasoline fuel was evaluated with full useful life aftertreatment where the underbody converter was either a three-way catalyst (TWC) or a HC trap. A new HC trap technology developed by Ford and Umicore demonstrated reduced TP NMOG emissions of 50% over the TWC-only system without any increase in oxides of oxygen (NOx) emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of a Simulation Tool for High Capacity Metal Foam Heat Exchanger with Phase Change Material

2018-04-03
2018-01-0783
Metal foam with their high porosity and heat storage capacity can be combined with phase change materials to be a powerful heat storage device. Numerical simulations of metal foam behavior can be challenging due to their complex geometric patterns necessitating high mesh requirements. Furthermore, simulations of the inner workings of a metal foam heat exchanger comprising of a large number of individual metal foam canisters can be impossible. The objective of the current work is to develop a computational model using a proprietary CFD tool Simerics-MP/Simerics-MP+® to simulate the workings of a metal foam heat exchanger with phase change element. A heat transfer coefficient capturing this heat transfer between wax and metal is used to formulate the “simplified” mixture model. The versatility of the proposed model is in the universality of its application to any shape or structure of metal foam. The computational model developed is tested to replicate the results of the 3D simulation.
Technical Paper

New FR Lower Spring Pad Design to Avoid Squeak Noise During Suspension Travel

2017-11-07
2017-36-0238
During a B-Car durability validation route, it was observed a squeak noise coming from front suspension structure. In the teardown, it was verified metal to metal contact between coil spring and damper spring plate and squeeze-out of spring pad. To reproduce the vehicle failure, it was developed in laboratory a fixture and test to reflect a B-Car McPherson suspension motion, to reproduce the failure and validate a proposal. After root cause understanding, the challenge was to design a new spring pad to avoid squeeze-out keeping the coil spring lower pigtail unchanged. It was tested some prototype parts also in vehicle to approve the design proposal.
Technical Paper

A Method of Evaluating the Joint Effectiveness on Contribution to Global Stiffness and NVH Performance of Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-0376
While Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) and the next generation AHSS grades offer improved crash safety and reduced weight for vehicles, the global stiffness and NVH performance are often compromised due to reduced material thickness. This paper discusses an advanced method of evaluating the joint effectiveness on contribution to global stiffness and NVH performance of vehicles. A stiffness contribution ratio is proposed initiatively in this research, which evaluates the current contribution of the joints to the global stiffness and NVH performance of vehicles. Another parameter, joint effectiveness factor, has been used to study the potential of each joint on enhancing the global stiffness. The critical joints to enhance the vehicle stiffness and NVH performance can be identified based on above two parameters, and design changes be made to those critical joints to improve the vehicle performance.
Journal Article

Stress-Strain Relations for Nodular Cast Irons with Different Graphite Volume Fractions under Tension and Compression

2017-03-28
2017-01-0399
In this paper, the results of finite element analyses for nodular cast irons with different volume fractions of graphite particles based on an axisymmetric unit cell model under uniaxial compression and tension are presented. The experimental compressive stress-strain data for a nodular cast iron with the volume fraction of graphite particles of 4.5% are available for use as the baseline material data. The elastic-plastic stress-strain relation for the matrix of the cast iron is estimated based on the experimental compressive stress-strain curve of the cast iron with the rule of mixture. The elastic-plastic stress-strain relation for graphite particles is obtained from the literature. The compressive stress-strain curve for the cast iron based on the axisymmetric unit cell model with the use of the von Mises yield function was then obtained computationally and compared well with the compressive stress-strain relation obtained from the experiment.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Prog-Die Wear Properties on Bare DP1180 Steel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0310
The die wear up to 80,800 hits on a prog-die setup for bare DP1180 steel was investigated in real production condition. In total, 31 die inserts with the combination of 11 die materials and 9 coatings were evaluated. The analytical results of die service life for each insert were provided by examining the evolution of surface wear on inserts and formed parts. The moments of appearance of die defects, propagation of die defects, and catastrophic failure were determined. Moreover, the surface roughness of the formed parts for each die insert was characterized using Wyko NT110 machine. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the die durability of various tooling materials and coatings for flange operations on bare DP 1180 steel and update OEM tooling standards based on the experimental results. The current study provides the guidance for the die material and coating selections in large volume production for next generation AHSSs.
Journal Article

Analysis of Tool Wear for Trimming of DP980 Sheet Metal Blanks

2017-03-28
2017-01-0302
In recent years, implementation of dual phase (DP) Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) and Ultra High Strength Steels (UHSS) is increasing in automotive components due to their superior structural performance and vehicle weight reduction capabilities. However, these materials are often sensitive to trimmed edge cracking if stretching along sheared edge occurs in such processes as stretch flanging. Tool wear is another major issue in the trimming of UHSS because of higher contact pressures at the interface between cutting tools and sheet metal blank caused by UHSS’s higher flow stresses and the presence of a hard martensitic in the microstructure. The objective of the present paper is to discuss the methodology of analyzing die wear for trimming operations of UHSS components and illustrate it with some examples of tool wear analysis for trimming 1.5mm thick DP980 steel.
Technical Paper

Characterization of 6XXX Series Aluminum Extrusions Using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique

2017-03-28
2017-01-0316
Aluminum extrusions are used in the automotive industry for body structure applications requiring cross-section design flexibility, high section stiffness, and high strength. Heat-treatable 6xxx series extrusion alloys have typically been used in automotive due to commercial availability, competitive cost, high strength, and impact performance. This paper presents a characterization study of mechanical properties of 6xxx series aluminum extrusions using digital image correlation (DIC). DIC has been used to capture spatial strain distribution and its evolution in time during material deformation. The materials of study were seamless and structural 6061 and 6082 extrusions. The alloys have been tensile tested using an MTS load frame with a dual optical camera system to capture the stereoscopic digital images. Notable results include the differing anisotropy of seamless and structural extrusions, as well as the influence of artificial aging on anisotropy.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Two RVE Modelling Methods for Chopped Carbon Fiber SMC

2017-03-28
2017-01-0224
To advance vehicle lightweighting, chopped carbon fiber sheet molding compound (SMC) is identified as a promising material to replace metals. However, there are no effective tools and methods to predict the mechanical property of the chopped carbon fiber SMC due to the high complexity in microstructure features and the anisotropic properties. In this paper, a Representative Volume Element (RVE) approach is used to model the SMC microstructure. Two modeling methods, the Voronoi diagram-based method and the chip packing method, are developed to populate the RVE. The elastic moduli of the RVE are calculated and the two methods are compared with experimental tensile test conduct using Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Furthermore, the advantages and shortcomings of these two methods are discussed in terms of the required input information and the convenience of use in the integrated processing-microstructure-property analysis.
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