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Mechanics Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming

Functioning as an introduction to modern mechanics principles and various applications that deal with the science, mathematics and technical aspects of sheet metal forming, Mechanics Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming details theoretically sound formulations based on principles of continuum mechanics for finite or large deformation, which can then be implemented into simulation codes. The forming processes of complex panels by computer codes, in addition to extensive practical examples, are recreated throughout the many chapters of this book in order to benefit practicing engineers by helping them better understand the output of simulation software.
Technical Paper

USCAR Traction Test Methodology for Traction-CVT Fluids

A traction test machine, developed for evaluation of traction-CVT fluids for the automotive consortium, USCAR, provides precision traction measurements to stresses up to 4 GPa. The high stress machine, WAMhs, provides an elliptical contact between AISI 52100 steel roller and disc specimens. Machine stiffness and positioning technology offer precision control of linear slip, sideslip and spin. A USCAR traction test methodology includes entrainment velocities from 2 to 10 m/sec and temperatures from -20°C to 140°C. The purpose of the USCAR machine and test methodology is to encourage traction fluid development and to establish a common testing approach for fluid qualification. The machine utilizes custom software, which provides flexibility to conduct comprehensive traction fluid evaluations.
Technical Paper

Failure of Laser Welds in Aluminum Sheets

In this paper, the formability of AA5754 aluminum laser-welded blanks produced by Nd:YAG laser welding is investigated under biaxial straining conditions. The mechanical behavior of the laser-welded blanks is first examined by uniaxial tensile tests conducted with the weld line perpendicular to the tensile axis. Shear failure in the weld metal is observed in the experiments. Finite element simulations under generalized plane strain conditions are then conducted in order to further understand the effects of weld geometry and strength on the shear failure and formability of these welded blanks. The strain histories of the material elements in the weld metal obtained from finite element computations are finally used in a theoretical failure analysis based on the material imperfection approach to predict the failure strains for the laser-welded blanks under biaxial straining conditions.
Technical Paper

Composition of Clusters Formed by Plasma Discharge in Simulated Engine Exhaust

Previously reported experiments revealed the presence of a small number of clusters or very small particles in the effluent of a nonthermal plasma reactor when treating a simulated engine exhaust mixture. These clusters are smaller than 7 nm. The quantity of clusters is orders of magnitude smaller than the particulate diesel or gasoline engine exhaust typically contains. In this report, we describe further experiments designed to determine the chemical composition of the clusters. Clusters were collected on the surface of a silicon substrate by exposing it to the effluent flow for extended time periods. The resulting deposits were analyzed by high mass resolution SIMS and by XPS. The SIMS analysis reveals NH4+, CH6N+, SO-, SO2-, SO3- and HSO4- ions. XPS reveals the presence of N and S at binding energies consistent with that of ammonium sulfate.
Technical Paper

Locking Phenomena in the Use of Solid Elements for Sheet Metal Forming Simulation

This paper is concerned with the use of solid elements in sheet metal forming simulation, particularly springback prediction for flanging when the flanging radii are comparable with the metal thickness. It is demonstrated that appropriate solid elements must be used instead of shell elements in order to obtain adequate results. Numerical difficulties associated with development of suitable solid elements are discussed in detail, with emphasis on the volumetric locking and transverse shear locking phenomena respectively. The transverse shear locking arises from the incompatible deformation modes when the element is used for thin structure bending analysis. A four point bending testing problem is used to study the performances of different solid elements. A locking-free solid element based on assumed strain formulation is developed in Ford in-house program MTLFRM for accurate springback prediction, and a flanging example is given to demonstrate its application.
Technical Paper

Process and Materials Development for Adherently Sprayed Valve Seats on Aluminum Engine Heads

Thermally-sprayed, composite coatings have been developed and sprayed on aluminum engine heads to replace powdered metal valve seat inserts. The process uses a conventional two-wire arc (TWA) gun with nickel and iron-based wire feedstocks. A unique surface preparation technique was developed to assure excellent coating adhesion. A composite Fe/Fe3O4/Ni/NiO/CrO coating was dynamometer tested using a single-cylinder Rotax engine, and showed improved wear performance over a conventional powdered-metal insert. Details of surface preparation, coating development, tribological properties and engine testing are described in this work.
Technical Paper

Influence of Tooling Geometry on the Quality of Aluminum Sheet Shearing Surface

The present research is concerned with the quality of the shearing process, which is an integral part of automotive vehicle body stamping. Experiments were done to analyse the influence of the gap between the cutting edges and the geometry of the cutting blades, on the quality of the sheared surface. Experimental results are presented as microstructures of polished samples. To predict the quality of sheared surfaces, a numerical code based on solid mechanics equations, elastoplastic flow theory and cummulative theory of damages was created.