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Technical Paper

Modeling the Effect of Substrate Cell Shape on Conversion in Monolith Catalysts

Mass transfer limitations from the bulk gas phase to the surface of the catalyst as well as mass transfer limitations within the washcoat itself have important effects on conversion in washcoated monolith catalysts. These factors depend upon the shape of the channel as well as the loading of washcoat material. This paper outlines a method to describe the washcoat distribution profile for different channel shapes and washcoat loadings. This allows for prediction of effectiveness factors and bulk mass transfer coefficients as a function of cell geometry and washcoat loading for the oxidation of propane. It was found that differences in the diffusion limitations within the washcoat control conversion in the catalyst more than differences in bulk mass transfer rates when comparing different cell shapes. The results show that optimum washcoat loadings exist for the geometry of each cell, and that these optimum loadings are a function of catalyst temperature.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Investigation of Catalyzed Hydrocarbon Trap Performance

The majority of unburned hydrocarbon emissions from vehicles occur during cold start operation of the vehicle before the catalyst system has heated to the point where it has reached high operating efficiency. One promising technology to reduce cold start hydrocarbon emissions is the catalyzed hydrocarbon trap. This paper presents the results of a vehicle, laboratory, and modeling study of the performance of this relatively new type of catalyst. A procedure to evaluate trap performance in the laboratory is presented that correlates well with trap performance on a vehicle. Additionally, a mathematical model of the catalyzed hydrocarbon trap is presented. This model utilizes laboratory determined parameters to calibrate the model for specific catalyzed hydrocarbon trap formulations to simulate the performance of that formulation on a vehicle. Data is presented that shows the model agrees well with vehicle data during the bag 1 portion of the Federal Test Procedure.