A Comparison of the Emissions from a Vehicle in Both Normal and Selected Malfunctioning Operation Modes
A 1990 Ford Taurus operated on reformulated gasoline was tested under three modes of malfunction: disabled heated exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO) sensor, inactive catalytic converter, and controlled misfire. The vehicle was run for four U.S. EPA UDDS driving schedule (FTP-75) tests at each of the malfunction conditions, as well as under normal operating conditions. An extensive set of emissions data were collected. In addition to the regulated emissions (HC, CO, and NOx), a detailed chemical analysis was carried out to determine the gas- and particle-phase non-regulated emissions. The effect of vehicle malfunction on gas phase emissions was significantly greater than it was on particle phase emissions. For example, CO emissions ranged from 2.57 g/mi (normal operation) to 34.77 g/mi (disable HEGO). Total HCs varied from 0.22 g/mi (normal operation) to 2.21 g/mi (blank catalyst). Emissions of air toxics (1,3-butadiene, benzene, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde) were also significantly effected.