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Journal Article

A Model-Free Stability Control Design Scheme with Active Steering Actuator Sets

2016-04-05
2016-01-1655
This paper presents the application of a proposed fuzzy inference system as part of a stability control design scheme implemented with active steering actuator sets. The fuzzy inference system is used to detect the level of overseer/understeer at the high level and a speed-adaptive activation module determines whether an active front steering, active rear steering, or active 4 wheel steering is suited to improve vehicle handling stability. The resulting model-free system is capable of minimizing the amount of model calibration during the vehicle stability control development process as well as improving vehicle performance and stability over a wide range of vehicle and road conditions. A simulation study will be presented that evaluates the proposed scheme and compares the effectiveness of active front steer (AFS) and active rear steer (ARS) in enhancing the vehicle performance. Both time and frequency domain results are presented.
Journal Article

A Fuzzy Inference System for Understeer/Oversteer Detection Towards Model-Free Stability Control

2016-04-05
2016-01-1630
In this paper, a soft computing approach to a model-free vehicle stability control (VSC) algorithm is presented. The objective is to create a fuzzy inference system (FIS) that is robust enough to operate in a multitude of vehicle conditions (load, tire wear, alignment), and road conditions while at the same time providing optimal vehicle stability by detecting and minimizing loss of traction. In this approach, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is generated using previously collected data to train and optimize the performance of the fuzzy logic VSC algorithm. This paper outlines the FIS detection algorithm and its benefits over a model-based approach. The performance of the FIS-based VSC is evaluated via a co-simulation of MATLAB/Simulink and CarSim model of the vehicle under various road and load conditions. The results showed that the proposed algorithm is capable of accurately indicating unstable vehicle behavior for two different types of vehicles (SUV and Sedan).
Journal Article

Flow-Induced Whistle in the Joint of Thermal Expansion Valve and Suction Tube in Automotive Refrigerant System

2015-06-15
2015-01-2275
In the thermal expansion valve (TXV) refrigerant system, transient high-pitched whistle around 6.18 kHz is often perceived following air-conditioning (A/C) compressor engagements when driving at higher vehicle speed or during vehicle acceleration, especially when system equipped with the high-efficiency compressor or variable displacement compressor. The objectives of this paper are to conduct the noise source identification, investigate the key factors affecting the whistle excitation, and understand the mechanism of the whistle generation. The mechanism is hypothesized that the whistle is generated from the flow/acoustic excitation of the turbulent flow past the shallow cavity, reinforced by the acoustic/structural coupling between the tube structural and the transverse acoustic modes, and then transmitted to evaporator. To verify the mechanism, the transverse acoustic mode frequency is calculated and it is coincided to the one from measurement.
Journal Article

NVH Development of the Ford 2.7L 4V-V6 Turbocharged Engine

2015-06-15
2015-01-2288
A new turbocharged 60° 2.7L 4V-V6 gasoline engine has been developed by Ford Motor Company for both pickup trucks and car applications. This engine was code named “Nano” due to its compact size; it features a 4-valves DOHC valvetrain, a CGI cylinder block, an Aluminum ladder, an integrated exhaust manifold and twin turbochargers. The goal of this engine is to deliver 120HP/L, ULEV70 emission, fuel efficiency improvements and leadership level NVH. This paper describes the upfront design and optimization process used for the NVH development of this engine. It showcases the use of analytical tools used to define the critical design features and discusses the NVH performance relative to competitive benchmarks.
Technical Paper

Sound Package Design for Lightweight Vehicles

2015-06-15
2015-01-2343
OEMs are racing to develop lightweight vehicles as government regulations now mandate automakers to nearly double the average fuel economy of new cars and trucks by 2025. Lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber composites are being used as structural members in vehicle body and suspension components. The reduction in weight in structural panels increases noise transmission into the passenger compartment. This poses a great challenge in vehicle sound package development since simply increasing weight in sound package components to reduce interior noise is no longer an option [1]. This paper discusses weight saving approaches to reduce noise level at the sources, noise transmission paths, and transmitted noise into the passenger compartment. Lightweight sound package materials are introduced to treat and reduce airborne noise transmission into multi-material lightweight body structure.
Technical Paper

Study of Stick-Slip Friction between Plunging Driveline

2015-06-15
2015-01-2171
Driveline plunge mechanism dynamics has a significant contribution to the driver's perceivable transient NVH error states and to the transmission shift quality. As it accounts for the pitch or roll movements of the front powerplant and rear drive unit, the plunging joints exhibit resisting force in the fore-aft direction under various driveline torque levels. This paper tackles the difficult task of quantifying the coefficient of static friction and the coefficient of dynamic friction in a simple to use metric as it performs in the vehicle. The comparison of the dynamic friction to the static friction allows for the detection of the occurrence of stick-slip in the slip mechanism; which enables for immediate determination of the performance of the design parameters such as spline geometry, mating parts fit and finish, and lubrication. It also provides a simple format to compare a variety of designs available to the automotive design engineer.
Technical Paper

A Multibody Dynamics Approach to Leaf Spring Simulation for Upfront Analyses

2015-06-15
2015-01-2228
Drivelines used in modern pickup trucks commonly employ universal joints. This type of joint is responsible for second driveshaft order vibrations in the vehicle. Large displacements of the joint connecting the driveline and the rear axle have a detrimental effect on vehicle NVH. As leaf springs are critical energy absorbing elements that connect to the powertrain, they are used to restrain large axle windup angles. One of the most common types of leaf springs in use today is the multi-stage parabolic leaf spring. A simple SAE 3-link approximation is adequate for preliminary studies but it has been found to be inadequate to study axle windup. A vast body of literature exists on modeling leaf springs using nonlinear FEA and multibody simulations. However, these methods require significant amount of component level detail and measured data. As such, these techniques are not applicable for quick sensitivity studies at design conception stage.
Technical Paper

Real-time Determination of Driver's Handling Behavior

2015-04-14
2015-01-0257
This paper proposes an approach to determine driver's driving behavior, style or habit during vehicle handling maneuvers and heavy traction and braking events in real-time. It utilizes intelligence inferred from driver's control inputs, vehicle dynamics states, measured signals, and variables processed inside existing control modules such as those of anti-lock braking, traction control, and electronic stability control systems. The algorithm developed for the proposed approach has been experimentally validated and shows the effectiveness in characterizing driver's handling behavior. Such driver behavior can be used for personalizing vehicle electronic controls, driver assistant and active safety systems, and the other vehicle control features.
Journal Article

An Iterative Application of Multi-Disciplinary Optimization for Vehicle Body Weight Reduction Based on 2015 Mustang Product Development

2015-04-14
2015-01-0470
Designing a vehicle body involves meeting numerous performance requirements related to different attributes such as NVH, Durability, Safety, and others. Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) is an efficient way to develop a design that optimizes vehicle performance while minimizing the weight. Since a body design evolves in course of the product development cycle, it is essential to repeat the MDO process several times as a design matures and more accurate data become available. This paper presents a real life application of the MDO process to reduce weight while optimizing performance over the design cycle of the 2015 Mustang. The paper discusses the timing and results of the applied Multi-Disciplinary Optimization process. The attributes considered during optimization include Safety, Durability and Body NVH. Several iterations of MDO have been performed at different milestones in the design cycle leading to a significant weight reduction of the already optimized design by over 16kg.
Journal Article

Finite-Element-Based Transfer Equations: Post-Mortem Human Subjects versus Hybrid III Test Dummy in Frontal Sled Impact

2015-04-14
2015-01-1489
Transfer or response equations are important as they provide relationships between the responses of different surrogates under matched, or nearly identical loading conditions. In the present study, transfer equations for different body regions were developed via mathematical modeling. Specifically, validated finite element models of the age-dependent Ford human body models (FHBM) and the mid-sized male Hybrid III (HIII50) were used to generate a set of matched cases (i.e., 192 frontal sled impact cases involving different restraints, impact speeds, severities, and FHBM age). For each impact, two restraint systems were evaluated: a standard three-point belt with and without a single-stage inflator airbag. Regression analyses were subsequently performed on the resulting FHBM- and HIII50-based responses. This approach was used to develop transfer equations for seven body regions: the head, neck, chest, pelvis, femur, tibia, and foot.
Journal Article

Driver Lane Change Prediction Using Physiological Measures

2015-04-14
2015-01-1403
Side swipe accidents occur primarily when drivers attempt an improper lane change, drift out of lane, or the vehicle loses lateral traction. Past studies of lane change detection have relied on vehicular data, such as steering angle, velocity, and acceleration. In this paper, we use three physiological signals from the driver to detect lane changes before the event actually occurs. These are the electrocardiogram (ECG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and respiration rate (RR) and were determined, in prior studies, to best reflect a driver's response to the driving environment. A novel system is proposed which uses a Granger causality test for feature selection and a neural network for classification. Test results showed that for 30 lane change events and 60 non lane change events in on-the-road driving, a true positive rate of 70% and a false positive rate of 10% was obtained.
Journal Article

Model-Based Parameter Identification of Healthy and Aged Li-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicle Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-0252
Electric vehicles are receiving considerable attention because they offer a more efficient and sustainable transportation alternative compared to conventional fossil-fuel powered vehicles. Since the battery pack represents the primary energy storage component in an electric vehicle powertrain, it requires accurate monitoring and control. In order to effectively estimate the battery pack critical parameters such as the battery state of charge (SOC), state of health (SOH), and remaining capacity, a high-fidelity battery model is needed as part of a robust SOC estimation strategy. As the battery degrades, model parameters significantly change, and this model needs to account for all operating conditions throughout the battery's lifespan. For effective battery management system design, it is critical that the physical model adapts to parameter changes due to aging.
Journal Article

Real-time Determination of Driver's Driving Behavior during Car Following

2015-04-14
2015-01-0297
This paper proposes an approach that characterizes a driver's driving behavior and style in real-time during car-following drives. It uses an online learning of the evolving Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model combined with the Markov model. The inputs fed into the proposed algorithm are from the measured signals of on-board sensors equipped with current vehicles, including the relative distance sensors for Adaptive Cruise Control feature and the accelerometer for Electronic Stability Control feature. The approach is verified using data collected using a test vehicle from several car-following test trips. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been shown in the paper.
Journal Article

Towards an Optimum Aftertreatment System Architecture

2015-01-14
2015-26-0104
Aftertreatment system design involves multiple tradeoffs between engine performance, fuel economy, regulatory emission levels, packaging, and cost. Selection of the best design solution (or “architecture”) is often based on an assumption that inherent catalyst activity is unaffected by location within the system. However, this study acknowledges that catalyst activity can be significantly impacted by location in the system as a result of varying thermal exposure, and this in turn can impact the selection of an optimum system architecture. Vehicle experiments with catalysts aged over a range of mild to moderate to severe thermal conditions that accurately reflect select locations on a vehicle were conducted on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle test data indicated CO and NOx could be minimized with a catalyst placed in an intermediate location.
Journal Article

A Comparative Benchmark Study of using Different Multi-Objective Optimization Algorithms for Restraint System Design

2014-04-01
2014-01-0564
Vehicle restraint system design is a difficult optimization problem to solve because (1) the nature of the problem is highly nonlinear, non-convex, noisy, and discontinuous; (2) there are large numbers of discrete and continuous design variables; (3) a design has to meet safety performance requirements for multiple crash modes simultaneously, hence there are a large number of design constraints. Based on the above knowledge of the problem, it is understandable why design of experiment (DOE) does not produce a high-percentage of feasible solutions, and it is difficult for response surface methods (RSM) to capture the true landscape of the problem. Furthermore, in order to keep the restraint system more robust, the complexity of restraint system content needs to be minimized in addition to minimizing the relative risk score to achieve New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) 5-star rating.
Journal Article

Power Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles based on Pareto Optimal Maps

2014-04-01
2014-01-1820
Pareto optimal map concept has been applied to the optimization of the vehicle system control (VSC) strategy for a power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system. The methodology relies on an inner-loop optimization process to define Pareto maps of the best engine and electric motor/generator operating points given wheel power demand, vehicle speed, and battery power. Selected levels of model fidelity, from simple to very detailed, can be used to generate the Pareto maps. Optimal control is achieved by applying Pontryagin's minimum principle which is based on minimization of the Hamiltonian comprised of the rate of fuel consumption and a co-state variable multiplied by the rate of change of battery SOC. The approach delivers optimal control for lowest fuel consumption over a drive cycle while accounting for all critical vehicle operating constraints, e.g. battery charge balance and power limits, and engine speed and torque limits.
Technical Paper

Development of Battery Hardware-In-the-Loop System Implemented with Reduced-Order Electrochemistry Li-Ion Battery Models

2014-04-01
2014-01-1858
Aggressive battery usage profiles in electrified vehicle applications require extensive efforts in developing battery management strategy and system design determination to guarantee safe operation under every real-world driving conditions. Experiment based approaches have been widely used for battery system development, but higher costs and longer testing time restrain the number of test cases in the product development process. Battery experiments tend to be conservative to avoid inherent risks of battery failure modes under aggressive battery operation close to the capability limits. Battery Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) is an alternative way to overcome the limitations of experiment-based approaches. Battery models in the HIL should provide real-time computation capability and high (at least acceptable) prediction accuracy. Equivalent circuit model (ECM) based HILs have been used owing to their relatively good balance between computational time and prediction accuracy.
Technical Paper

Powersplit HEV Performance Simulation Capability

2014-04-01
2014-01-1813
A new performance simulation capability has been developed for powersplit HEVs to enable analytical assessment of new engine technologies in the context of HEV system operation and to analyze/understand important system dynamics and control interactions affecting HEV performance. This new capability allows direct simulation with closed-loop controls and the driver, is compatible with Ford standard HEV system simulation capabilities and enables simulation with multiple levels of model fidelity and feature content across the vehicle system. The combined plant Vehicle Model Architecture (VMA) in Simulink was used for the infrastructure. The simulation capability includes a Dymola model of the powersplit transaxle, a Vehicle System Control (VSC) model implemented in Simulink, a high fidelity 2L Atkinson GT-Power engine model, and a simplified representation of the engine controls in Simulink.
Technical Paper

Switched-Capacitor Cell Balancing: A Fresh Perspective

2014-04-01
2014-01-1846
No two battery cells can be identical. Charging/discharging a battery pack without monitoring cell voltages or SoC (State-of-Charge) will cause cell voltages to deviate over time and the packs useable capacity to decrease quickly. To redistribute charge uniformly among cells, various cell balancing methods have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, a cell balancing method based on a single switched-capacitor is presented from a brand new perspective. Unlike the traditional balancing methods that rely on the voltage divergence criterion, this paper uses the SoC divergence criterion to shuttle charge from a highly charged cell to a poorly charged cell. Moreover, an equivalent resistance of the single-switched capacitor topology is derived in steady state. For fast cell balancing, design guidelines are provided for selecting a proper switching-time period and the capacitor parameters. Ultracapacitors are recommended to achieve this goal.
Technical Paper

Shudder and Frictional Characteristics Evaluation of Dual Clutch Transmission Fluids

2014-04-01
2014-01-1988
Under the initiative of The United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR) [1], we have developed and run comprehensive friction tests of dual clutch transmission fluids (DCTFs). The focus of this study is to quantify the anti-shudder durability over a simulated oil life of 75,000 shifts. We have evaluated six DCT fluids, including 2 fluids with known field shudder performance. Six different tests were conducted using a DC motor-driven friction test machine (GK test bench): 1. Force Controlled Continuous Slip, 2. Dynamic Friction, 3. Speed controlled Acceleration-Deceleration, 4. Motor-torque controlled Acceleration-Deceleration, 5. Static Friction, and 6. Static Break-Away. The test fluids were aged (with the clutch system) on the test bench to create a realistic aging of the entire friction system simultaneously.
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