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Technical Paper

Combined Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measurement of Austenite Transformation with Strain in TRIP-Assisted Steels

2016-04-05
2016-01-0419
The strain-induced diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing.
Journal Article

Effect of Prior Austenite Grain Size on Impact Toughness of Press Hardened Steel

2016-04-05
2016-01-0359
Impact toughness (or resistance to fracture) is a key material property for press hardened steel used in construction of the safety-critical elements of automotive body structures. Prior austenite grain size, as primarily controlled by the incoming microstructure and austenitization process, is a key microstructural feature that influences the impact toughness of press hardened steel. In this paper, a special Charpy V-notch impact test is developed to quantify the impact toughness of press hardened steel sheets with various prior austenite grain sizes, by stacking a number of thin sheets via mechanical riveting. Both the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature and upper shelf energy are analyzed in an effort to establish a correlation between impact toughness and prior austenite grain size. Within tested conditions, impact performance shows only a slight decrease as the prior austenitic grain size increases from 18 to 38 microns.
Technical Paper

The GM RWD PHEV Propulsion System for the Cadillac CT6 Luxury Sedan

2016-04-05
2016-01-1159
This paper describes the capabilities of a new two-motor plug-in hybrid-electric propulsion system developed for rear wheel drive. The PHEV system comprises a 2.0L turbocharged 4-cylinder direct-injected gasoline engine with the new hybrid transmission [1], a new traction power inverter module, a liquid-cooled lithium-ion battery pack, and on-board battery charger and 12V power converter module. The capability and features of the system components are described, and component performance and vehicle data are reported. The resulting propulsion system provides an excellent combination of electric-only driving, acceleration, and fuel economy.
Journal Article

Further Research into the Role of the Caliper Piston in Brake Roughness

2015-09-27
2015-01-2667
Previously published research [1] covering the role of piston material properties in brake torque variation sensitivity and roughness concluded that phenolic pistons have significantly higher low-pressure range compliance than steel pistons, which promotes lower roughness propensity. It also determined that this property could be successfully characterized using a modern generation of direct-acting servo hydraulically actuated brake component compression test stands. This paper covers a subsequent block of research into the role of the caliper piston in brake torque variation sensitivity (BTV sensitivity) and thermal roughness of a brake corner. It includes measurements of hydraulic stiffness of pistons in a “wet” fixture, both with and without a brake pad and multi-layer bonded noise shim.
Journal Article

Methods for Sizing Brake Pads for High Performance Brakes

2015-09-27
2015-01-2679
An aspect of high performance brake design that has remained strikingly empirical is that of determining the correct sizing of the brake pad - in terms of both area and volume - to match well with a high performance vehicle application. Too small of a pad risks issues with fade and wear life on the track, and too large has significant penalties in cost, mass, and packaging space of the caliper, along with difficulties in maintaining adequate caliper stiffness and its impact on pedal feel and response time. As most who have spent time around high performance brakes can attest to, there methods for determining minimum brake pad area, usually related in some form or another to the peak power the brake must absorb (functions of vehicle mass and top speed are common). However, the basis for these metrics are often lost (or closely guarded), and provide very little guidance for the effects of the final design (pad area) deviating from the recommended value.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Performance Evaluation of Hood Liner Constructions

2015-06-15
2015-01-2206
In automotive noise control, the hood liner is an important acoustic part for mitigating engine noise. The random incidence absorption coefficient is used to quantify the component level acoustic performance. Generally, air gaps, type of substrate materials, density of the substrate materials and Air Flow Resistivity (AFR) of the cover scrim are the dominant control factors in the sound absorption performance. This paper describes a systematic experimental investigation of how these control factors affect flat sample performance. The first stage of this study is full factorial measurement based on current available solutions from sound absorber suppliers. The acoustic absorption of different hood liner constructions, with variations in materials, density, air gaps, and scrims was measured.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) on Passenger Cars to Improve Emission Robustness

2015-04-14
2015-01-1013
Emission compliance at the production level has been a challenge for vehicle manufacturers. Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) plays a very important role in controlling the emissions for the diesel vehicles. Vehicle manufacturers tend to ‘over design’ the diesel oxidation catalyst to ‘absorb’ the production variations which seems an easier and faster solution. However this approach increases the DOC cost phenomenally which impacts the overall vehicle cost. The main objective of this paper is to address the high variation in CO tail pipe emissions which were observed on a diesel passenger car during development. This variation was posing a challenge in consistently meeting the internal product requirement/specification.
Technical Paper

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Third Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel Development

2015-04-14
2015-01-0459
This paper presents an overview of a four-year project focused on development of an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) toolset for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS). Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific aims of the individual tasks are multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, toolset assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is initially illustrated using a 980MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment, as an example.
Journal Article

FEA Development of Spot Weld Modeling with Fracture Forming Limit Diagram(FFLD) Failure Criteria and Its Application to Vehicle Body Structure

2015-04-14
2015-01-1316
Spot weld separation in vehicle development stage is one of the critical phenomena in structural analyses regarding quasi-static test condition, like roof strength or seat/belt pull. It directly reduces structural performance by losing connected load path and occasionally introduces tearing on surrounding sheet metals. Traditionally many efforts have been attempted to capture parent metal ductile fracture, but not applied to spot weld separations in automotive FEA simulations. [1,2,3] This paper introduces how to develop FFLD failure criteria from a series of parametric study on ultra high strength sheet steel and deals with failure criteria around spot weld and parent metal. Once the fracture strains for sheet steels are determined, those developed values were applied to traditional spot weld coupon FEA simulations and tests. Full vehicle level roof strength FEA simulations on a typical automotive body structure were performed and verified to the physical tests.
Journal Article

Assessment of the Capability of EPS to Reduce Steering Wheel Pull and Vehicle Misalignment

2015-04-14
2015-01-1505
Vehicle steering wheel pull is a condition experienced by customers where a constant torque at the steering wheel is required to maintain a straight path. Steering wheel pull may be accompanied by the secondary effects of steering wheel angle misalignment and vehicle thrust angle “dog-tracking.” EPS pull compensation is a feature that can automatically compensate vehicle steering wheel pull. This paper examines customer benefits, operating principles, effectiveness, and robustness of EPS pull compensation in vehicles. Vehicle road test data indicate EPS can correct a severe vehicle steering wheel pull. Using fundamental physics equations, an analysis tool is derived to support further investigation of steering wheel angle misalignment and vehicle thrust angle. The final section presents a designed experiment revealing parameters most influencing vehicle robustness to chassis and road characteristics.
Journal Article

Tuning Dampers for Ride and Handling of Production Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1589
The goal of this paper is to discuss the critical aspects of damper tuning for production vehicles. These aspects include ride and handling performance attributes, damper basics, conflicts in achieving desirable results, tuning philosophies, and the influence of the damper design. The marketplace has become increasingly competitive. Customer preference, cost, mass and regulatory pressures often conflict. Yet each year more vehicles are required to do all these things well. Damper tuning can play a significant role in resolving these conflicts. Although many papers have been written on the theory behind damper design and capabilities, there has been very little written about the techniques of tuning dampers for production vehicles. This paper attempts to discuss the critical aspects of damper tuning for production vehicles in four sections. The first section discusses the performance attributes of ride and handling. The second section provides a basic understanding of dampers.
Technical Paper

Park Pawl Dynamic System Engagement Speed Calculation Using Isight

2015-04-14
2015-01-1363
For a CAE model of the park pawl dynamic system, the engagement speed calculation is done by controlling the input rotational velocity of the vehicle. Usually, it requires multiple adjustment of the input rotational velocity to get the engagement speed and that demands time, effort and file management skill of an analyst. The current objective of this paper is to demonstrate how software Isight, working with ABAQUS Explicit as the solver, can be used to automate the engagement speed calculation procedure and thus reduce the time and effort required of a CAE analyst. The automated system is developed in a way such that the accuracy of the results can be controlled by the end user. It is observed that the automated system significantly saves an analyst's effort. The system design can be optimized easily for modifiable design features such as the torsional spring and the actuator spring stiffness values using the proposed procedure.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Customer Experience for Routine Handling Performance

2015-04-14
2015-01-1588
Rapidly increasing customer, financial, and regulatory pressures are creating clear changes in the calculus of vehicle design for modern automotive OEM's (Original Equipment Manufacturers). Customers continue to demand shorter product lifecycles; the increasingly competitive global market exerts pressure to reduce costs in all stages of development; and environmental regulations drive a continuous need to reduce mass and energy consumption. OEM's must confront these challenges while continuing to satisfy the customer. The foundation to meeting these challenges includes: (1) Continued development of objective metrics to quantify performance; (2) Frontloading vehicle design content and performance synthesis; (3) A precise understanding of the customer and their performance preferences under diverse usage conditions. These combined elements will enable products better optimized amongst competing (and often contradictory) imperatives.
Technical Paper

Normally-Engaged Dual-Piston Clutch for Engine Stop-Start Application

2015-04-14
2015-01-1141
For the conventional 6 speed automatic transmission with engine stop-start powertrain, an electrically-driven auxiliary pump is implemented to maintain the transmission line pressure as required to lock-up the CB1234 clutch during engine auto-stop conditions. Upon releasing the brake pedal, the transmission engages into first gear with the objective to accelerate the vehicle in a responsive manner. In this study, a novel normally-engaged dual-piston clutch concept is designed to keep the CB1234 clutch locked-up during engine auto-stop conditions with the intention to eliminate the auxiliary pump without compromising vehicle performance. This dual piston clutch concept requires a relatively low line pressure to release the normally-engaged clutch when needed, thus, minimizing the hydraulic pumping work. To explore the functionality of this concept under a wide-open-throttle (WOT) auto-start transition, modeling and simulation of the normally-engaged dual-piston clutch is completed.
Journal Article

A Study of Mass Drivers in the Brake System

2014-09-28
2014-01-2506
It is obvious at this point even to the most casual observer of the automotive industry that efforts to reduce mass throughout the vehicle are at a fervor. The industry is facing its most significant increase in fuel economy standards in its history, and light-weighting the vehicle is a major enabler. Despite the performance and quality of the brake system being intensely related to its mass, it too has not been spared scrutiny. However, like many modern automotive subsystems, it is very complex and mass reduction opportunities that do not sacrifice performance or quality are not always obvious. There are some interesting and sometimes even profound relationships between mass and other vehicle attributes built into brake system design, and making these more visible can enable a better balancing of brake system with the rest of the vehicle design objectives. Examples include - what is the cost, in terms of brake system mass, of added engine power? Of tire and wheel size?
Journal Article

Methodology for Sizing and Validating Life of Brake Pads Analytically

2014-09-28
2014-01-2495
An area of brake system design that has remained continually resistant to objective, computer model based predictive design and has instead continued to rely on empirical methods and prior history, is that of sizing the brake pads to insure satisfactory service life of the friction material. Despite advances in CAE tools and methods, the ever-intensifying pressures of shortened vehicle development cycles, and the loss of prototype vehicle properties, there is still considerable effort devoted to vehicle-level testing on public roads using “customer-based” driving cycles to validate brake pad service life. Furthermore, there does not appear to be a firm, objective means of designing the required pad volume into the calipers early on - there is still much reliance on prior experience.
Technical Paper

Minimum Cycle Requirement for SAE J2562

2014-04-01
2014-01-0073
SAE J2562 defines the background, apparatus and the directions for modifying the Scaled Base Load Sequence for a given a wheel rated load for a wheel design. This practice has been conducted on multiple wheel designs and over one hundred wheel specimens. All of the wheels were tested to fracture. Concurrently, some of the wheel designs were found to be unserviceable in prior or subsequent proving grounds on-vehicle testing. The remainder of the wheel designs have sufficient fatigue strength to sustain the intended service for the life of the vehicle. This is termed serviceable. Using the empirical data with industry accepted statistics a minimum requirement can be projected, below which a wheel design will likely have samples unserviceable in its intended service. The projections of serviceability result in a recommendation of a minimum cycle requirement for SAE J2562 Ballasted Passenger Vehicle Load Sequence.
Technical Paper

HIL Driveline Dyno

2014-04-01
2014-01-1738
Today's sophisticated state-of-the-art powertrains with various intelligent control units (xCU) need to be calibrated and tested stand-alone as well as in interaction. Today the majority of this work is still carried out with prototype vehicles on test tracks. Moving prototype vehicle tests from the road into the lab is key in achieving shorter development times and saving development cost. This kind of frontloading requires a modular and powerful simulation of all vehicle components, test track, and driver in steady state and dynamic operation. The described HIL (Hardware In the Loop) high performance driveline dyno test bed uses driveline components and models from the engine all the way to the wheel ends. The test cell was built to do real time vehicle maneuvers and NVH testing. This test setup can emulate any road surface and grade and vehicle inertia including wheels and engine as close to reality as possible.
Technical Paper

Optimal Production Trimming Process for AHSS Sheared Edge Stretchability Improvement

2014-04-01
2014-01-0994
Edge fracture is one of the major issues for stamping Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS). Recent studies have showed this type of fracture is greatly affected by an improper trimming process. The current production trimming process used for the conventional mild steels has not been modified for AHSS trimming. In addition to the high-energy requirement, the current mechanical trimming process would generate a rough edge (burr) with microcracks in trimmed edges for AHSS trimming, which could serve as the crack initiation during forming. The purpose of this study is to develop a proper production trimming process for AHSS and elucidate the effect of the trimmed edge conditions on edge fracture. A straight edge shearing device with the capability of adjusting the shearing variables is used in this study.
Technical Paper

Technological Comparison for Dual Phase and Advanced High Strength Low Alloy Steels Regarding Weldability and Mechanical Properties

2014-04-01
2014-01-0988
This paper presents a technological comparison of weldability and mechanical properties between a dual phase steel (DP) and an advanced high strength low alloy steel (AHSLA) used for automotive structural parts in order to demonstrate some unclear characteristics of each. Samples were spot welded and had their hardness and microstructure analyzed, also a shear test was applied on the weld button area. The edge stretchability was analyzed using hole expansion tests and tensile tests to determine the tensile and yield strength, anisotropic coefficients and total elongation. Data were used to estimate crash energy absorption. The results showed an AHSLA steel with higher than typical ductility. Finally, while DP showed improved stretchability, it was also concluded that such AHSLA could perform better bendability, drawability, flangeability and weldability.
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