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Technical Paper

Combined Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measurement of Austenite Transformation with Strain in TRIP-Assisted Steels

2016-04-05
2016-01-0419
The strain-induced diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing.
Technical Paper

A Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) Bench Test of a GT-Power Fast Running Model for Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) Verification

2016-04-05
2016-01-0549
A GT-Power Fast Run Model simplified from detail model for HIL is verified with a bench test using the dSPACE Simulator. Firstly, the conversion process from a detailed model to FRM model is briefly described. Then, the spark timing, fuel pulse with control for FAR, and torque level control are developed for proof of concept. Moreover a series of FRM/Simulink co-simulation and HIL tests are conducted. In the summary, the test results are presented and compared with GT detailed model simulations. The test results show that the FRM/dSPACE HIL stays consistent in most variables of interest under 0.7-0.9 real-time factor condition between 1000 - 5000 RPM. The same steady-state can be reached by RCP controllers or with GT-Power internal controllers. The transient states are close using different control algorithm. The main purpose of HIL application is achieved, despite inconsistencies in performance data like fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Moving from Single-Core to Multicore: Initial Findings on a Fuel Injection Case Study

2016-04-05
2016-01-0017
Several application developers are currently faced with the problem of moving a complex system from a single-core to a multicore platform. The problem encompasses several issues that go from modeling issues (the need to represent the system features of interest with sufficient accuracy) to analysis and optimization techniques, to the selection of the right formulations for constraints that relate to time. We report on the initial findings in a case study in which the application of interest is a fuel injection system. We provide an analysis on the limitations of AUTOSAR and the existing modeling tools with respect to the representation of the parameters of interest for timing analysis, and we discuss applicable optimization methods and analysis algorithms.
Journal Article

Adjoint-Driven Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Based on a Combination of Steady State and Transient Flow Solutions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1599
Aerodynamic vehicle design improvements require flow simulation driven iterative shape changes. The 3-D flow field simulations (CFD analysis) are not explicitly descriptive in providing the direction for aerodynamic shape changes (reducing drag force or increasing the down-force). In recent times, aerodynamic shape optimization using the adjoint method has been gaining more attention in the automotive industry. The traditional DOE (Design of Experiment) optimization method based on the shape parameters requires a large number of CFD flow simulations for obtaining design sensitivities of these shape parameters. The large number of CFD flow simulations can be significantly reduced if the adjoint method is applied. The main purpose of the present study is to demonstrate and validate the adjoint method for vehicle aerodynamic shape improvements.
Journal Article

Effect of Prior Austenite Grain Size on Impact Toughness of Press Hardened Steel

2016-04-05
2016-01-0359
Impact toughness (or resistance to fracture) is a key material property for press hardened steel used in construction of the safety-critical elements of automotive body structures. Prior austenite grain size, as primarily controlled by the incoming microstructure and austenitization process, is a key microstructural feature that influences the impact toughness of press hardened steel. In this paper, a special Charpy V-notch impact test is developed to quantify the impact toughness of press hardened steel sheets with various prior austenite grain sizes, by stacking a number of thin sheets via mechanical riveting. Both the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature and upper shelf energy are analyzed in an effort to establish a correlation between impact toughness and prior austenite grain size. Within tested conditions, impact performance shows only a slight decrease as the prior austenitic grain size increases from 18 to 38 microns.
Technical Paper

Application of CAEBAT Full Field Approach for a Liquid-Cooled Automotive Battery Pack

2016-04-05
2016-01-1217
The Computer-Aided Engineering of Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) Phase 1 project is a U.S. Department of Energy-funded, multi-year project which is aimed at developing a complete CAE tool set for the automotive battery pack design. This paper reports the application of the full field approach of the CAEBAT which is developed by the General Motors-led industry team, for a 24-cell liquid-cooled prototype battery pack. It also summarizes the verification of the approach by comparing the simulation results with the measurement data. The simulation results using the Full Field Approach are found to have a very good agreement with the measurement data.
Technical Paper

The GM RWD PHEV Propulsion System for the Cadillac CT6 Luxury Sedan

2016-04-05
2016-01-1159
This paper describes the capabilities of a new two-motor plug-in hybrid-electric propulsion system developed for rear wheel drive. The PHEV system comprises a 2.0L turbocharged 4-cylinder direct-injected gasoline engine with the new hybrid transmission [1], a new traction power inverter module, a liquid-cooled lithium-ion battery pack, and on-board battery charger and 12V power converter module. The capability and features of the system components are described, and component performance and vehicle data are reported. The resulting propulsion system provides an excellent combination of electric-only driving, acceleration, and fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Fast and Stable Quasi-Static Bending Simulations in LS-DYNA: Identification of Optimal Finite Element Model Parameters

2016-04-05
2016-01-1392
The quality of material model input files for finite element analysis (FEA) is a fundamental factor governing the fidelity and accuracy of simulations at a sub-system or a vehicle level, dictating an investment of due diligence in developing and validating the material models. Several material models conventionally employed for FEA typically allow accounting for only uniaxial tensile behavior of the material; however, the models may be required to predict component-level response in a complex loading scenario. Therefore in developing LSDYNA material input files for such models, it becomes critical to validate their performance in alternative loading scenarios. For out-ofplane loading, typically a three or four-point bending load-case is used for validation. Simulating three point bending (TPB), particularly in the quasi-static regime, requires detailed representation of the moving pin impacting the specimen, and sliding of the specimen on the stationary pins.
Journal Article

Further Research into the Role of the Caliper Piston in Brake Roughness

2015-09-27
2015-01-2667
Previously published research [1] covering the role of piston material properties in brake torque variation sensitivity and roughness concluded that phenolic pistons have significantly higher low-pressure range compliance than steel pistons, which promotes lower roughness propensity. It also determined that this property could be successfully characterized using a modern generation of direct-acting servo hydraulically actuated brake component compression test stands. This paper covers a subsequent block of research into the role of the caliper piston in brake torque variation sensitivity (BTV sensitivity) and thermal roughness of a brake corner. It includes measurements of hydraulic stiffness of pistons in a “wet” fixture, both with and without a brake pad and multi-layer bonded noise shim.
Journal Article

Methods for Sizing Brake Pads for High Performance Brakes

2015-09-27
2015-01-2679
An aspect of high performance brake design that has remained strikingly empirical is that of determining the correct sizing of the brake pad - in terms of both area and volume - to match well with a high performance vehicle application. Too small of a pad risks issues with fade and wear life on the track, and too large has significant penalties in cost, mass, and packaging space of the caliper, along with difficulties in maintaining adequate caliper stiffness and its impact on pedal feel and response time. As most who have spent time around high performance brakes can attest to, there methods for determining minimum brake pad area, usually related in some form or another to the peak power the brake must absorb (functions of vehicle mass and top speed are common). However, the basis for these metrics are often lost (or closely guarded), and provide very little guidance for the effects of the final design (pad area) deviating from the recommended value.
Technical Paper

Headliner Absorption Parameter Prediction and Modeling

2015-06-15
2015-01-2303
The headliner system in a vehicle is an important element in vehicle noise control. In order to predict the performance of the headliner, it is necessary to develop an understanding of the substrate performance, the effect of air gaps, and the contribution from any acoustic pads in the system. Current Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) models for predicting absorption performance of acoustic absorbers are based on material Biot properties. However, the resources for material Biot property testing are limited and cost is high. In this paper, modeling parameters for the headliner substrate are identified from a set of standard absorption measurements on substrates, using curve fitting and optimization techniques. The parameters are then used together with thickness/design information in a SEA model to predict the vehicle headliner system absorption performance.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Performance Evaluation of Hood Liner Constructions

2015-06-15
2015-01-2206
In automotive noise control, the hood liner is an important acoustic part for mitigating engine noise. The random incidence absorption coefficient is used to quantify the component level acoustic performance. Generally, air gaps, type of substrate materials, density of the substrate materials and Air Flow Resistivity (AFR) of the cover scrim are the dominant control factors in the sound absorption performance. This paper describes a systematic experimental investigation of how these control factors affect flat sample performance. The first stage of this study is full factorial measurement based on current available solutions from sound absorber suppliers. The acoustic absorption of different hood liner constructions, with variations in materials, density, air gaps, and scrims was measured.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) on Passenger Cars to Improve Emission Robustness

2015-04-14
2015-01-1013
Emission compliance at the production level has been a challenge for vehicle manufacturers. Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) plays a very important role in controlling the emissions for the diesel vehicles. Vehicle manufacturers tend to ‘over design’ the diesel oxidation catalyst to ‘absorb’ the production variations which seems an easier and faster solution. However this approach increases the DOC cost phenomenally which impacts the overall vehicle cost. The main objective of this paper is to address the high variation in CO tail pipe emissions which were observed on a diesel passenger car during development. This variation was posing a challenge in consistently meeting the internal product requirement/specification.
Technical Paper

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Third Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel Development

2015-04-14
2015-01-0459
This paper presents an overview of a four-year project focused on development of an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) toolset for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS). Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific aims of the individual tasks are multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, toolset assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is initially illustrated using a 980MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment, as an example.
Journal Article

Transmission Dynamic Modeling and Parametric NVH Analysis

2015-04-14
2015-01-1147
A new approach for modeling and analysis of a transmission and driveline system is proposed. By considering the stiffness, damping and inertias, model equations based on lumped parameters can be created through standard Lagrangian Mechanics techniques. A sensitivity analysis method has then been proposed on the eigenspace of the system characteristic equation to reveal the dynamic nature of a transmission and driveline system. The relative sensitivity calculated can clearly show the vibration modes of the system and the key contributing components. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated through the GM 6-speed RWD transmission by analyzing the dynamic nature of the driveline system. The results can provide a fundamental explanation of the vibration issue experienced and the solution adopted for the transmission.
Journal Article

Automatic Transmission Gear Ratio Optimization and Monte Carlo Simulation of Fuel Consumption with Parasitic Loss Uncertainty

2015-04-14
2015-01-1145
This investigation utilizes energy analysis and statistical methods to optimize step gear automatic transmissions gear selection for fuel consumption. A full factorial matrix of simulations using energy analysis was performed to determine the optimal number of gears and gear ratios that provide the best fuel consumption performance for a particular vehicle - engine application. The full factorial matrix setup as a design of experiment (DOE) was applied to five vehicle applications, each with two engines to examine the potential differences that variations in road load and engine characteristics might have on optimal transmission gearing selection. The transmission gearing options considered in the DOE were number of gears, launch gear ratio and top gear ratio. Final drive ratio was also included due to its global influence on vehicle performance and powertrain operating speeds and torque.
Journal Article

FEA Development of Spot Weld Modeling with Fracture Forming Limit Diagram(FFLD) Failure Criteria and Its Application to Vehicle Body Structure

2015-04-14
2015-01-1316
Spot weld separation in vehicle development stage is one of the critical phenomena in structural analyses regarding quasi-static test condition, like roof strength or seat/belt pull. It directly reduces structural performance by losing connected load path and occasionally introduces tearing on surrounding sheet metals. Traditionally many efforts have been attempted to capture parent metal ductile fracture, but not applied to spot weld separations in automotive FEA simulations. [1,2,3] This paper introduces how to develop FFLD failure criteria from a series of parametric study on ultra high strength sheet steel and deals with failure criteria around spot weld and parent metal. Once the fracture strains for sheet steels are determined, those developed values were applied to traditional spot weld coupon FEA simulations and tests. Full vehicle level roof strength FEA simulations on a typical automotive body structure were performed and verified to the physical tests.
Journal Article

Assessment of the Capability of EPS to Reduce Steering Wheel Pull and Vehicle Misalignment

2015-04-14
2015-01-1505
Vehicle steering wheel pull is a condition experienced by customers where a constant torque at the steering wheel is required to maintain a straight path. Steering wheel pull may be accompanied by the secondary effects of steering wheel angle misalignment and vehicle thrust angle “dog-tracking.” EPS pull compensation is a feature that can automatically compensate vehicle steering wheel pull. This paper examines customer benefits, operating principles, effectiveness, and robustness of EPS pull compensation in vehicles. Vehicle road test data indicate EPS can correct a severe vehicle steering wheel pull. Using fundamental physics equations, an analysis tool is derived to support further investigation of steering wheel angle misalignment and vehicle thrust angle. The final section presents a designed experiment revealing parameters most influencing vehicle robustness to chassis and road characteristics.
Journal Article

Tuning Dampers for Ride and Handling of Production Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1589
The goal of this paper is to discuss the critical aspects of damper tuning for production vehicles. These aspects include ride and handling performance attributes, damper basics, conflicts in achieving desirable results, tuning philosophies, and the influence of the damper design. The marketplace has become increasingly competitive. Customer preference, cost, mass and regulatory pressures often conflict. Yet each year more vehicles are required to do all these things well. Damper tuning can play a significant role in resolving these conflicts. Although many papers have been written on the theory behind damper design and capabilities, there has been very little written about the techniques of tuning dampers for production vehicles. This paper attempts to discuss the critical aspects of damper tuning for production vehicles in four sections. The first section discusses the performance attributes of ride and handling. The second section provides a basic understanding of dampers.
Technical Paper

Park Pawl Dynamic System Engagement Speed Calculation Using Isight

2015-04-14
2015-01-1363
For a CAE model of the park pawl dynamic system, the engagement speed calculation is done by controlling the input rotational velocity of the vehicle. Usually, it requires multiple adjustment of the input rotational velocity to get the engagement speed and that demands time, effort and file management skill of an analyst. The current objective of this paper is to demonstrate how software Isight, working with ABAQUS Explicit as the solver, can be used to automate the engagement speed calculation procedure and thus reduce the time and effort required of a CAE analyst. The automated system is developed in a way such that the accuracy of the results can be controlled by the end user. It is observed that the automated system significantly saves an analyst's effort. The system design can be optimized easily for modifiable design features such as the torsional spring and the actuator spring stiffness values using the proposed procedure.
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