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Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Close-Coupled Pilot Injections to Reduce Combustion Noise in a Small-Bore Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0796
A pilot-main injection strategy is investigated for a part-load operating point in a single cylinder optical Diesel engine. As the energizing dwell between the pilot and main injections decreases below 200 μs, combustion noise reaches a minimum and a reduction of 3 dB is possible. This decrease in combustion noise is achieved without increased pollutant emissions. Injection schedules employed in the engine are analyzed with an injection analyzer to provide injection rates for each dwell tested. Two distinct injection events are observed even at the shortest dwell tested; rate shaping of the main injection occurs as the dwell is adjusted. High-speed elastic scattering imaging of liquid fuel is performed in the engine to examine initial liquid penetration rates.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Light-Medium Load Operating Sensitivity in a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0896
The light-medium load operating range (4-7 bar net IMEP) presents many challenges for advanced low temperature combustion strategies utilizing low cetane fuels (specifically, 87-octane gasoline) in light-duty, high-speed engines. The overly lean overall air-fuel ratio (Φ≺0.4) sometimes requires unrealistically high inlet temperatures and/or high inlet boost conditions to initiate autoignition at engine speeds in excess of 1500 RPM. The objective of this work is to identify and quantify the effects of variation in input parameters on overall engine operation. Input parameters including inlet temperature, inlet pressure, injection timing/duration, injection pressure, and engine speed were varied in a ~0.5L single-cylinder engine based on a production General Motors 1.9L 4-cylinder high-speed diesel engine.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Diesel EGR Cooler Fouling and Effectiveness Recovery

2013-04-08
2013-01-0533
Diesel engine developers are continually striving to reduce harmful NOx emissions through various calibration and hardware strategies. One strategy being implemented in production Diesel engines involves utilizing cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Although there is a significant NOx reduction potential by utilizing cooled EGR, there are also several issues associated with it, such as EGR cooler fouling and a reduction in cooler effectiveness that can occur over time. The exact cause of these issues and many others related to cooler fouling are not clearly understood. One such unanswered issue or phenomenon that has been observed in both field tested and lab tested EGR coolers is that of a recovery in EGR cooler effectiveness after a shutdown or after cycling between various conditions.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Analysis of Condensation in Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers

2013-04-08
2013-01-0540
Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely used in diesel engines to control engine-out NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emissions. A portion of the exhaust gases is re-circulated into the intake manifold of the engine after cooling it through a heat exchanger. EGR cooler heat exchangers, however, tend to lose efficiency and have increased pressure drop as deposit forms on the heat exchanger surface due to transport of soot particles and condensing species to the cooler walls. In this study, condensation of water vapor and hydrocarbons at the exit of the EGR cooler was visualized using a fiberscope coupled to a camera equipped with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) color sensor. A multi-cylinder diesel engine was used to produce a range of engine-out hydrocarbon concentrations. Both surface and bulk gas condensation were observed with the visualization setup over a range of EGR cooler coolant temperatures.
Technical Paper

Developing the AC17 Efficiency Test for Mobile Air Conditioners

2013-04-08
2013-01-0569
Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) have collaborated over the past two years to develop an efficiency test for mobile air conditioner (MAC) systems. Because the effect of efficiency differences between different MAC systems and different technologies is relatively small compared to overall vehicle fuel consumption, quantifying these differences has been challenging. The objective of this program was to develop a single dynamic test procedure that is capable of discerning small efficiency differences, and is generally representative of mobile air conditioner usage in the United States. The test was designed to be conducted in existing test facilities, using existing equipment, and within a sufficiently short time to fit standard test facility scheduling. Representative ambient climate conditions for the U.S. were chosen, as well as other test parameters, and a solar load was included.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Effects on Performance and Emissions of an Automotive Euro 5 Diesel Engine Fuelled with B30 from RME and HVO

2013-04-08
2013-01-1679
The effects of using blended renewable diesel fuel (30% vol.), obtained from Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO), in a Euro 5 small displacement passenger car diesel engine have been evaluated in this paper. The hydraulic behavior of the common rail injection system was verified in terms of injected volume and injection rate with both RME and HVO blends fuelling in comparison with commercial diesel. Further, the spray obtained with RME B30 was analyzed and compared with diesel in terms of global shape and penetration, to investigate the potential differences in the air-fuel mixing process. Then, the impact of a biofuel blend usage on engine performance at full load was first analyzed, adopting the same reference calibration for all the tested fuels.
Journal Article

Optimal Torque Control for an Electric-Drive Vehicle with In-Wheel Motors: Implementation and Experiments

2013-04-08
2013-01-0674
This paper presents the implementation of an off-line optimized torque vectoring controller on an electric-drive vehicle with four in-wheel motors for driver assistance and handling performance enhancement. The controller takes vehicle longitudinal, lateral, and yaw acceleration signals as feedback using the concept of state-derivative feedback control. The objective of the controller is to optimally control the vehicle motion according to the driver commands. Reference signals are first calculated using a driver command interpreter to accurately interpret what the driver intends for the vehicle motion. The controller then adjusts the braking/throttle outputs based on discrepancy between the vehicle response and the interpreter command.
Journal Article

Idealized Vehicle Crash Test Pulses for Advanced Batteries

2013-04-08
2013-01-0764
This paper reports a study undertaken by the Crash Safety Working Group (CSWG) of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) to determine generic acceleration pulses for testing and evaluating advanced batteries subjected to inertial loading for application in electric passenger vehicles. These pulses were based on characterizing vehicle acceleration time histories from standard laboratory vehicle crash tests. Crash tested passenger vehicles in the United States vehicle fleet of the model years 2005-2009 were used in this study. Crash test data, in terms of acceleration time histories, were collected from various crash modes conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) during their New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) evaluations, and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS).
Technical Paper

Effect of DPF Design Parameters on Fuel Economy and Thermal Durability

2012-04-16
2012-01-0847
Diesel particle filters (DPF) have become the standard and essential aftertreatment components for all on-road diesel engines used in the US and Europe. The OBD requirements for DPF are becoming rigorously strict starting from 2015 model year. The pressure sensor or other strategies currently used for DPF diagnostics will most likely become insufficient to meet the new OBD requirements and a post DPF soot sensor might be necessary. This means that it will be even more imperative to develop a DPF design that would not have any soot leaks in its emission lifetime, otherwise the DPF will become a high warranty item.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Biodiesel Fuel Quality on Modern Diesel Vehicle Performance

2012-04-16
2012-01-0858
Vehicle manufacturers have developed new vehicle and diesel engine technologies compatible with B6-B20 biodiesel blends meeting ASTM D7467, “Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oil, Biodiesel Blend (B6 to B20).” However, recent U.S. market place fuel surveys have shown that many retail biodiesel samples are out of specification. A vehicle designed to use biodiesel blends is likely to encounter occasional use of poor quality biodiesel fuel; and therefore understanding the effects of bad marketplace biodiesel fuels on engine and fuel system performance is critical to develop durable automotive technologies. The results presented herein are from vehicle evaluation studies with both on-specification and off-specification bio-based fuels. These studies focused on the performance of fuel injection equipment, engine, engine oil, emissions and emissions system durability.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions of a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine Operating at Moderate to High Engine Speed and Load

2012-04-16
2012-01-0863
It is advantageous to increase the specific power output of diesel engines and to operate them at higher load for a greater portion of a driving cycle to achieve better thermal efficiency and thus reduce vehicle fuel consumption. Such operation is limited by excessive smoke formation at retarded injection timing and high rates of cylinder pressure rise at more advanced timing. Given this window of operation, it is desired to understand the influence of fuel properties such that optimum combustion performance and emissions can be retained over the range of fuels commonly available in the marketplace. Data are examined from a direct-injection single-cylinder research engine for eight common diesel fuels including soy-based biodiesel blends at two high load operating points with no exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and at a moderate load with four levels of EGR.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Diesel Injector Nozzle Flow Number Impact on Emissions and Performance of a Euro5 Automotive Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0891
The present paper describes the results of a research project aimed at studying the impact of nozzle flow number on a Euro5 automotive diesel engine, featuring Closed-Loop Combustion Control. In order to optimize the trade-offs between fuel economy, combustion noise, emissions and power density for the next generation diesel engines, general trend among OEMs is lowering nozzle flow number and, as a consequence, nozzle hole size. In this context, three nozzle configurations have been characterized on a 2.0L Euro5 Common Rail Diesel engine, coupling experimental activities performed on multi-cylinder and optical single cylinder engines to analysis on spray bomb and injector test rigs. More in detail, this paper deeply describes the investigation carried out on the multi-cylinder engine, specifically devoted to the combustion evolution and engine performance analysis, varying the injector flow number.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Injector Nozzle Flow Number Impact on Spray Formation and Combustion Evolution by Optical Diagnostics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0701
The present paper describes an experimental investigation over the impact of diesel injector nozzle flow number on spray formation and combustion evolution for a modern EURO5 light-duty diesel engine. The analysis has been carried out by coupling the investigations in non evaporative spray bomb to tests in optical single cylinder engine in firing conditions. The research activity, which is the result of a collaborative project between Istituto Motori Napoli - CNR and GM Powertrain Europe, is devoted to understanding the basic operating behaviour of low flow number nozzles which are showing promising improvements in diesel engine behaviour at partial load. In fact, because of the compelling need to push further emission, efficiency, combustion noise and power density capabilities of the last-generation diesel engines, the combination of high injection pressure fuel pumps and low flow number nozzles is general trend among major OEMs.
Technical Paper

Communication for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-1036
This paper is the third in the series of documents designed to record the progress on the SAE Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) communication task force. The initial paper (2010-01-0837) introduced utility communications (J2836/1™ & J2847/1) and how the SAE task force interfaced with other organizations. The second paper (2011-01-0866) focused on the next steps of the utility requirements and added DC charging (J2836/2™ & J2847/2) along with initial effort for Reverse Power Flow (J2836/3™ & J2847/3). This paper continues with the following: 1. Completion of DC charging's 1st step publication of J2836/2™ & J2847/2. 2. Completion of 1st step of communication requirements as it relates to PowerLine Carrier (PLC) captured in J2931/1. This leads to testing of PLC products for Utility and DC charging messages using EPRI's test plan and schedule. 3. Progress for PEV communications interoperability in J2953/1.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Analysis and Optimization of Turbocharged Diesel Engines with a Variable Geometry Compressor and Turbine System

2012-04-16
2012-01-0716
In the last few years, the application of downsizing and turbocharging to internal combustion engines has considerably increased due to the proven potential of this technology to increase engine efficiency. Variable geometry turbines have been largely adopted to optimize the exhaust energy recovery over a large operating range. Two-stage turbocharger systems have also been studied as a solution to improve engine low-end torque and efficiency, with the first units currently available on the market. However, the compressor technology is today still based on fixed geometry machines, which are sized to efficiently operate at the maximum air flow and therefore lead to poor efficiency values at low air flow conditions. Furthermore, the surge limits prevents the full capabilities of VGT systems to increase the boosting at low engine speed.
Technical Paper

Electrically Heated Catalysts for Cold-Start Emissions in Diesel Aftertreatment

2012-04-16
2012-01-1092
With a tighter regulatory environment, reduction of hydrocarbon (HC) and NOx emissions during cold-start has emerged as a major challenge for diesel engines. In the complex diesel aftertreatment system, more than 90% of engine-out NOx is removed in the underfloor SCR. However, the combination of low temperature exhaust and heat sink over DOC delays the SCR light-off during the cold start. In fact, the first 350 seconds during the cold light-duty FTP75 cycle contribute more than 50% of the total NOx tailpipe emission due to the low SCR temperature. For a fast SCR light-off, electrically heated catalyst (EHC) technology has been suggested to be an effective solution as a rapid warm-up strategy. In this work, the EHC, placed in front of DOC, utilizes both electrical power and hydrocarbon fuel. The smart energy management during the cold-start was crucial to optimize the EHC integrated aftertreatment system.
Technical Paper

Methods and Tools for End-to-End Latency Analysis and Optimization of a Dual-Processor Control Module

2012-04-16
2012-01-0029
Automotive HW/SW architectures are becoming increasingly complex to support the deployment of new safety, comfort, and energy-efficiency features. Such architectures include several software tasks (100+), messages (1000+), computational and communication resources (70+ CPUs, 10+ buses), and (smart) sensors and actuators (20+). To cope with the increasing system complexity at lowest development and product costs, highest safety, and fastest time to market, model-based rapid-prototyping development processes are essential. The processes, coupled with optimization steps aimed at reducing the number of software and hardware resources while satisfying the safety requirements, enable reduction of the system complexity and ease downstream testing/validation efforts. This paper describes a novel model-based design exploration and optimization process for the deployment of a set of software tasks on a dual-processor control module implementing a fail-safe strategy.
Journal Article

Analysis of Various Operating Strategies for a Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

2012-04-16
2012-01-1008
The sustainable use of energy and the reduction of pollutant emissions are main concerns of the automotive industry. In this context, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system and allow advanced strategies to reduce pollutant and noise emissions. The paper presents the results of a simulation study that addresses the minimization of fuel consumption, NOx emissions and combustion noise of a medium-size passenger car. Such a vehicle has a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. The simulation reproduces real-driver behavior through a dynamic modeling approach and actuates an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM). Typical characteristics of parallel hybrid technologies, such as Stop&Start, regenerative braking and electric power assistance, are implemented via an operating strategy that is based on the reduction of total losses.
Journal Article

Methods and Tools for Calculating the Flexibility of Automotive HW/SW Architectures

2012-04-16
2012-01-0005
To cope with the increasing number of advanced features (e.g., smart-phone integration and side-blind zone alert.) being deployed in vehicles, automotive manufacturers are designing flexible hardware architectures which can accommodate increasing feature content with as fewer as possible hardware changes so as to keep future costs down. In this paper, we propose a formal and quantitative definition of flexibility, a related methodology and a tool flow aimed at maximizing the flexibility of an automotive hardware architecture with respect to the features that are of greater importance to the designer. We define flexibility as the ability of an architecture to accommodate future changes in features with no changes in hardware (no addition/replacement of processors, buses, or memories). We utilize an optimization framework based on mixed integer linear programming (MILP) which computes the flexibility of the architecture while guaranteeing performance and safety requirements.
Journal Article

Cabin Heating and Windshield Defrosting for Extended Range Electric, Pure Electric, & Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-0121
Conventional HVAC systems adjust the position of a temperature door, to achieve a required air temperature discharged into the passenger compartment. Such systems are based upon the fact that a conventional (non-hybrid) vehicle's engine coolant temperature is controlled to a somewhat constant temperature, using an engine thermostat. Coolant flow rate through the cabin heater core varies as the engine speed changes. EREVs (Extended Range Electric Vehicles) & PHEVs (Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles) have two key vehicle requirements: maximize EV (Electric Vehicle) range and maximize fuel economy when the engine is operating. In EV mode, there is no engine heat rejection and battery pack energy is consumed in order to provide heat to the passenger compartment, for windshield defrost/defog and occupant comfort. Energy consumption for cabin heating must be optimized, if one is to optimize vehicle EV range.
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