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Journal Article

Evaluation of Prog-Die Wear Properties on Bare DP1180 Steel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0310
The die wear up to 80,800 hits on a prog-die setup for bare DP1180 steel was investigated in real production condition. In total, 31 die inserts with the combination of 11 die materials and 9 coatings were evaluated. The analytical results of die service life for each insert were provided by examining the evolution of surface wear on inserts and formed parts. The moments of appearance of die defects, propagation of die defects, and catastrophic failure were determined. Moreover, the surface roughness of the formed parts for each die insert was characterized using Wyko NT110 machine. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the die durability of various tooling materials and coatings for flange operations on bare DP 1180 steel and update OEM tooling standards based on the experimental results. The current study provides the guidance for the die material and coating selections in large volume production for next generation AHSSs.
Journal Article

Engine Diagnostics Using Acoustic Emissions Sensors

2016-04-05
2016-01-0639
Engine acoustics measured by microphones near the engine have been used in controlled laboratory settings for combustion feedback and even combustion phasing control, but the use of these techniques in a vehicle where many other noise sources exist is problematic. In this study, surface-mounted acoustic emissions sensors are embedded in the block of a 2.0L turbocharged GDI engine, and the signal is analyzed to identify useful feedback features. The use of acoustic emissions sensors, which have a very high frequency response and are commonly used for detecting material failures for health monitoring, including detecting gear pitting and ring scuffing on test stands, enables detection of acoustics both within the range of human hearing and in the ultrasonic spectrum. The high-speed acoustic time-domain data are synchronized with the crank-angle-domain combustion data to investigate the acoustic emissions response caused by various engine events.
Technical Paper

Multiphase Flow Simulations of Poppet Valve Noise and Vibration

2015-04-14
2015-01-0666
A deeper understanding of the complex phenomenology associated with the multiphase flow-induced noise and vibration in a dynamic valve is of critical importance to the automotive industry. To this purpose, a two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical model has been developed to simulate the complex processes that are responsible for the noise and vibration in a poppet valve. More specifically, an Eulerian multiphase flow model, a dynamic mesh and a user-defined function are utilized to facilitate the modeling of this complicated two-phase fluid-structure interaction problem. For a two-phase flow through the valve, our simulations showed that the deformation and breakup of gas bubbles in the gap between the poppet and the valve seat generates a vibration that arises primarily from the force imbalance between the spring and the two-phase fluid flow induced forces on the poppet.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Approach to Requirements Development and Hazard Analysis

2015-04-14
2015-01-0274
The introduction of new safety critical features using software-intensive systems presents a growing challenge to hazard analysis and requirements development. These systems are rich in feature content and can interact with other vehicle systems in complex ways, making the early development of proper requirements critical. Catching potential problems as early as possible is essential because the cost increases exponentially the longer problems remain undetected. However, in practice these problems are often subtle and can remain undetected until integration, testing, production, or even later, when the cost of fixing them is the highest. In this paper, a new technique is demonstrated to perform a hazard analysis in parallel with system and requirements development. The proposed model-based technique begins during early development when design uncertainty is highest and is refined iteratively as development progresses to drive the requirements and necessary design features.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Close-Coupled Pilot Injections to Reduce Combustion Noise in a Small-Bore Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0796
A pilot-main injection strategy is investigated for a part-load operating point in a single cylinder optical Diesel engine. As the energizing dwell between the pilot and main injections decreases below 200 μs, combustion noise reaches a minimum and a reduction of 3 dB is possible. This decrease in combustion noise is achieved without increased pollutant emissions. Injection schedules employed in the engine are analyzed with an injection analyzer to provide injection rates for each dwell tested. Two distinct injection events are observed even at the shortest dwell tested; rate shaping of the main injection occurs as the dwell is adjusted. High-speed elastic scattering imaging of liquid fuel is performed in the engine to examine initial liquid penetration rates.
Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for General Motors' High-Efficiency Range Extender Ecotec Small Gas Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1272
General Motors has developed an all-new Ecotec 1.5 L range extender engine for use in the 2016 next generation Voltec propulsion system. This engine is part of a new Ecotec family of small displacement gasoline engines introduced in the 2015 model year. Major enhancements over the range extender engine in the current generation Voltec propulsion system include the adoption of direct injection (DI), cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a high 12.5:1 geometric compression ratio (CR). Additional enhancements include the adoption of high-authority phasers on both the intake and exhaust camshafts, and an integrated exhaust manifold (IEM). The combination of DI with cooled EGR has enabled significant thermal efficiency gains over the 1.4 L range extender engine in the current generation Voltec propulsion system at high engine loads.
Technical Paper

Symbolic Sensitivity Analysis of Math-Based Spark Ignition Engine with Two-Zone Combustion Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-1072
This paper presents a math-based spark ignition (SI) engine model for fast simulation with enough fidelity to predict in-cylinder thermodynamic properties at each crank angle. The quasi-dimensional modelling approach is chosen to simulate four-stroke operation. The combustion model is formulated based on two-zone combustion theory with a turbulent flame propagation model [1]. Cylinder design parameters such as bore and stroke play an important role to achieve higher performance (e.g. power) and reduce undesirable in-cylinder phenomenon (e.g. knocking). A symbolic sensitivity analysis is used to study the effect of the design parameters on the SI engine performance. We used the symbolic Maple/MapleSim environment to obtain highly-optimized simulation code [3]. It also facilitates a sensitivity analysis that identifies the critical parameters for design and control purposes.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Effects on Performance and Emissions of an Automotive Euro 5 Diesel Engine Fuelled with B30 from RME and HVO

2013-04-08
2013-01-1679
The effects of using blended renewable diesel fuel (30% vol.), obtained from Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO), in a Euro 5 small displacement passenger car diesel engine have been evaluated in this paper. The hydraulic behavior of the common rail injection system was verified in terms of injected volume and injection rate with both RME and HVO blends fuelling in comparison with commercial diesel. Further, the spray obtained with RME B30 was analyzed and compared with diesel in terms of global shape and penetration, to investigate the potential differences in the air-fuel mixing process. Then, the impact of a biofuel blend usage on engine performance at full load was first analyzed, adopting the same reference calibration for all the tested fuels.
Technical Paper

Development of the Combustion System for the General Motors Fifth Generation “Small Block” Engine Family

2013-04-08
2013-01-1732
The fifth generation of General Motor's “Small Block” 90-degree V engine family has been developed with a totally new combustion system. This system employs direct fuel injection (DI) and carefully architected in-cylinder flow field development in order to significantly improve all aspects of combustion system performance. Efficiency improvements stem from increased compression ratio, greatly improved dilution tolerance, and excellent knock resistance. The asymmetric, 2-valve (2V) layout of the “Small Block” engine presented unique challenges in developing the combustion system, but also offered unusual opportunities for an elegant solution while retaining the traditional “Small Block” attributes of packaging efficiency and power density.
Journal Article

Study of the Motion of Floating Piston Pin against Pin Bore

2013-04-08
2013-01-1215
One of the major problems that the automotive industry faces is reducing friction to increase efficiency. Researchers have shown that 30% of the fuel energy was consumed to overcome the friction forces between the moving parts of any automobile, Holmberg et al. [1]. The interface of the piston pin and pin bore is one of the areas that generate high friction under severe working conditions of high temperature and lack of lubrication. In this research, experimental investigation and theoretical simulation have been carried out to analyze the motion of the floating pin against pin bore. In the experimental study, the focus was on analyzing the floating pin motion by using a bench test rig to simulate the floating pin motion in an internal combustion engine. A motion data acquisition system was developed to capture and record the pin motion. Thousands of images were recorded and later analyzed by a code written by MATLAB.
Journal Article

Optimal Torque Control for an Electric-Drive Vehicle with In-Wheel Motors: Implementation and Experiments

2013-04-08
2013-01-0674
This paper presents the implementation of an off-line optimized torque vectoring controller on an electric-drive vehicle with four in-wheel motors for driver assistance and handling performance enhancement. The controller takes vehicle longitudinal, lateral, and yaw acceleration signals as feedback using the concept of state-derivative feedback control. The objective of the controller is to optimally control the vehicle motion according to the driver commands. Reference signals are first calculated using a driver command interpreter to accurately interpret what the driver intends for the vehicle motion. The controller then adjusts the braking/throttle outputs based on discrepancy between the vehicle response and the interpreter command.
Journal Article

Effect of Temperature and Aeration on Fluid-Elastomer Compatibility

2013-04-08
2013-01-0652
To investigate the effect of aeration on fluid-elastomer compatibility, 4 types of elastomers were aged in three gear lubes. The four types of elastomers include a production fluorinated rubber (FKM) and production hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) mixed by the part fabricator, a standard low temperature flexible fluorinated rubber (FKM, ES-4) and a standard ethylene-acrylic copolymer (AEM, ES-7) mixed by SAE J2643 approved rubber mixer. The three gear lubes are Fluid a, Fluid b and Fluid c, where Fluid b is a modified Fluid with additional friction modifier, and Fluid c is friction modified chemistry from a different additive supplier. The aeration effect tests were performed at 125°C for 504 hours. The aerated fluid aging test was performed by introducing air into fluid aging tubes as described in General Motors Company Materials Specification GMW16445, Appendix B, side-by-side with a standard ASTM D471 test.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Buoyancy-Driven Flow in a Simplified Underhood with Open Enclosure

2013-04-08
2013-01-0842
Numerical results are presented for simulating buoyancy driven flow in a simplified full-scale underhood with open enclosure in automobile. The flow condition is set up in such a way that it mimics the underhood soak condition, when the vehicle is parked in a windbreak with power shut-down after enduring high thermal loads due to performing a sequence of operating conditions, such as highway driving and trailer-grade loads in a hot ambient environment. The experimental underhood geometry, although simplified, consists of the essential components in a typical automobile underhood undergoing the buoyancy-driven flow condition. It includes an open enclosure which has openings to the surrounding environment from the ground and through the top hood gap, an engine block and two exhaust cylinders mounted along the sides of the engine block. The calculated temperature and velocity were compared with the measured data at different locations near and away from the hot exhaust plumes.
Journal Article

Effects of Gasoline and Ethanol Fuel Corrosion Inhibitors on Powertrain Intake Valve Deposits

2013-04-08
2013-01-0893
Corrosion inhibitors (CIs) have been used for years to protect the supply and distribution hardware used for transportation of fuel from refineries and to buffer the potential organic acids present in an ethanol blended fuel to enhance storage stability. The impact of these inhibitors on spark-ignition engine fuel systems, specifically intake valve deposits, is known and presented in open literature. However, the relationship of the corrosion inhibitors to the powertrain intake valve deposit performance is not understood. This paper has two purposes: to present and discuss a second market place survey of corrosion inhibitors and how they vary in concentration in the final blended fuel, specifically E85 (Ethanol Fuel Blends); and, to show how the variation in the concentrations of the components of the CIs impacts the operation and performance of vehicles, specifically, the effects on intake valve deposit formation.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Analysis of Condensation in Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers

2013-04-08
2013-01-0540
Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely used in diesel engines to control engine-out NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emissions. A portion of the exhaust gases is re-circulated into the intake manifold of the engine after cooling it through a heat exchanger. EGR cooler heat exchangers, however, tend to lose efficiency and have increased pressure drop as deposit forms on the heat exchanger surface due to transport of soot particles and condensing species to the cooler walls. In this study, condensation of water vapor and hydrocarbons at the exit of the EGR cooler was visualized using a fiberscope coupled to a camera equipped with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) color sensor. A multi-cylinder diesel engine was used to produce a range of engine-out hydrocarbon concentrations. Both surface and bulk gas condensation were observed with the visualization setup over a range of EGR cooler coolant temperatures.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Diesel EGR Cooler Fouling and Effectiveness Recovery

2013-04-08
2013-01-0533
Diesel engine developers are continually striving to reduce harmful NOx emissions through various calibration and hardware strategies. One strategy being implemented in production Diesel engines involves utilizing cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Although there is a significant NOx reduction potential by utilizing cooled EGR, there are also several issues associated with it, such as EGR cooler fouling and a reduction in cooler effectiveness that can occur over time. The exact cause of these issues and many others related to cooler fouling are not clearly understood. One such unanswered issue or phenomenon that has been observed in both field tested and lab tested EGR coolers is that of a recovery in EGR cooler effectiveness after a shutdown or after cycling between various conditions.
Technical Paper

A Unified Framework of Adaptive Cruise Control for Speed Limit Follower and Curve Speed Control Function

2013-04-08
2013-01-0618
Today many vehicles are being developed with advanced computing and sensing technologies. These new technologies have contributed in enhancing driving safety and convenience. As an example, the Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) can automatically adjust the vehicle speed to driver's set speed and maintain the driver-requested headway distance to the lead vehicle. In this paper, we further consider the automatic control of speed according to the road attributes, e.g., the speed limit and curve of the road. Two new features, ‘speed limit follower’ and ‘curve speed control’ algorithms, are proposed in this paper. These new features communicate with the conventional ACC system and control the vehicle speed while traveling across different curved roads and speed limit zones. These new features were developed as an independent function, so they can be integrated with any other existing ACC systems.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Impact of Grille Opening and Engine Cooling Fan Power on a Mid-Size Sedan

2013-04-08
2013-01-0857
This paper investigates changes in fuel economy of a mid-size sedan at various engine cooling fan power levels and front grille opening areas. A full vehicle model was built using MATLAB Simulink to calculate the fuel economy (MPG). The model utilized inputs from aerodynamic wind tunnel testing as well as FTP and MVEG dynamometer tests results. Simulation and testing was carried out at three front opening areas and three engine cooling fan power levels. The results provide a guideline for optimizing the front grille opening vs. engine cooling fan power combination at various driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Light-Medium Load Operating Sensitivity in a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0896
The light-medium load operating range (4-7 bar net IMEP) presents many challenges for advanced low temperature combustion strategies utilizing low cetane fuels (specifically, 87-octane gasoline) in light-duty, high-speed engines. The overly lean overall air-fuel ratio (Φ≺0.4) sometimes requires unrealistically high inlet temperatures and/or high inlet boost conditions to initiate autoignition at engine speeds in excess of 1500 RPM. The objective of this work is to identify and quantify the effects of variation in input parameters on overall engine operation. Input parameters including inlet temperature, inlet pressure, injection timing/duration, injection pressure, and engine speed were varied in a ~0.5L single-cylinder engine based on a production General Motors 1.9L 4-cylinder high-speed diesel engine.
Technical Paper

ASIL Decomposition: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

2013-04-08
2013-01-0195
ASIL decomposition is a method described in the ISO 26262 standard for the assignment of ASILs to redundant requirements. Although ASIL decomposition appears to have similar intent to the hardware fault tolerance concept of IEC 61508-2, ASIL decomposition is not intended to reduce ASIL assignments to hardware elements for random hardware failures, but instead focuses on functions and requirements in the context of systematic failures. Based on our participation in the development of the standard, the method has been applied in different ways in practice, not all of which are fully consistent with the intent of the standard. Two potential reasons that may result in the use of “modified” ASIL algebra include the need of OEMs to partition a system and specify subsystem requirements to suppliers and the need for designers to construct systems bottom up.
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