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Journal Article

Evaluation of Prog-Die Wear Properties on Bare DP1180 Steel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0310
The die wear up to 80,800 hits on a prog-die setup for bare DP1180 steel was investigated in real production condition. In total, 31 die inserts with the combination of 11 die materials and 9 coatings were evaluated. The analytical results of die service life for each insert were provided by examining the evolution of surface wear on inserts and formed parts. The moments of appearance of die defects, propagation of die defects, and catastrophic failure were determined. Moreover, the surface roughness of the formed parts for each die insert was characterized using Wyko NT110 machine. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the die durability of various tooling materials and coatings for flange operations on bare DP 1180 steel and update OEM tooling standards based on the experimental results. The current study provides the guidance for the die material and coating selections in large volume production for next generation AHSSs.
Technical Paper

Multiphase Flow Simulations of Poppet Valve Noise and Vibration

2015-04-14
2015-01-0666
A deeper understanding of the complex phenomenology associated with the multiphase flow-induced noise and vibration in a dynamic valve is of critical importance to the automotive industry. To this purpose, a two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical model has been developed to simulate the complex processes that are responsible for the noise and vibration in a poppet valve. More specifically, an Eulerian multiphase flow model, a dynamic mesh and a user-defined function are utilized to facilitate the modeling of this complicated two-phase fluid-structure interaction problem. For a two-phase flow through the valve, our simulations showed that the deformation and breakup of gas bubbles in the gap between the poppet and the valve seat generates a vibration that arises primarily from the force imbalance between the spring and the two-phase fluid flow induced forces on the poppet.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Approach to Requirements Development and Hazard Analysis

2015-04-14
2015-01-0274
The introduction of new safety critical features using software-intensive systems presents a growing challenge to hazard analysis and requirements development. These systems are rich in feature content and can interact with other vehicle systems in complex ways, making the early development of proper requirements critical. Catching potential problems as early as possible is essential because the cost increases exponentially the longer problems remain undetected. However, in practice these problems are often subtle and can remain undetected until integration, testing, production, or even later, when the cost of fixing them is the highest. In this paper, a new technique is demonstrated to perform a hazard analysis in parallel with system and requirements development. The proposed model-based technique begins during early development when design uncertainty is highest and is refined iteratively as development progresses to drive the requirements and necessary design features.
Technical Paper

Physics-Based Models, Sensitivity Analysis, and Optimization of Automotive Batteries

2014-04-01
2014-01-1865
The analysis of nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery performance is very important for automotive researchers and manufacturers. The performance of a battery can be described as a direct consequence of various chemical and physical phenomena taking place inside the container. In this paper, a physics-based model of a Ni-MH battery will be presented. To analyze its performance, the efficiency of the battery is chosen as the performance measure, which is defined as the ratio of the energy output from the battery and the energy input to the battery while charging. Parametric sensitivity analysis will be used to generate sensitivity information for the state variables of the model. The generated information will be used to showcase how sensitivity information can be used to identify unique model behavior and how it can be used to optimize the capacity of the battery. The results will be validated using a finite difference formulation.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Life Test Methodology for Li-Ion Batteries in Automotive Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-1548
Determining Li-ion battery life through life modeling is an excellent tool in determining and estimating end-of-life performance. Achieving End-of-Life (EOL) can be challenging since it is difficult to achieve both cycle and calendar life during the same test without years of testing. The plan to correlate testing with the model included three (3) distinct temperature ranges, beginning with the four-Season temperature profile, an aggressive profile with temperatures in the 50 to 55°C range, and using a mid-temperature range (40-45°C) as a final comparison test. A high duty-cycle drive profile was used to cycle all of the batteries as quickly as possible to reach the one potential definition of EOL; significant increases in resistance or capacity fade.
Journal Article

Optimal Torque Control for an Electric-Drive Vehicle with In-Wheel Motors: Implementation and Experiments

2013-04-08
2013-01-0674
This paper presents the implementation of an off-line optimized torque vectoring controller on an electric-drive vehicle with four in-wheel motors for driver assistance and handling performance enhancement. The controller takes vehicle longitudinal, lateral, and yaw acceleration signals as feedback using the concept of state-derivative feedback control. The objective of the controller is to optimally control the vehicle motion according to the driver commands. Reference signals are first calculated using a driver command interpreter to accurately interpret what the driver intends for the vehicle motion. The controller then adjusts the braking/throttle outputs based on discrepancy between the vehicle response and the interpreter command.
Journal Article

Effect of Temperature and Aeration on Fluid-Elastomer Compatibility

2013-04-08
2013-01-0652
To investigate the effect of aeration on fluid-elastomer compatibility, 4 types of elastomers were aged in three gear lubes. The four types of elastomers include a production fluorinated rubber (FKM) and production hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) mixed by the part fabricator, a standard low temperature flexible fluorinated rubber (FKM, ES-4) and a standard ethylene-acrylic copolymer (AEM, ES-7) mixed by SAE J2643 approved rubber mixer. The three gear lubes are Fluid a, Fluid b and Fluid c, where Fluid b is a modified Fluid with additional friction modifier, and Fluid c is friction modified chemistry from a different additive supplier. The aeration effect tests were performed at 125°C for 504 hours. The aerated fluid aging test was performed by introducing air into fluid aging tubes as described in General Motors Company Materials Specification GMW16445, Appendix B, side-by-side with a standard ASTM D471 test.
Journal Article

Effects of Gasoline and Ethanol Fuel Corrosion Inhibitors on Powertrain Intake Valve Deposits

2013-04-08
2013-01-0893
Corrosion inhibitors (CIs) have been used for years to protect the supply and distribution hardware used for transportation of fuel from refineries and to buffer the potential organic acids present in an ethanol blended fuel to enhance storage stability. The impact of these inhibitors on spark-ignition engine fuel systems, specifically intake valve deposits, is known and presented in open literature. However, the relationship of the corrosion inhibitors to the powertrain intake valve deposit performance is not understood. This paper has two purposes: to present and discuss a second market place survey of corrosion inhibitors and how they vary in concentration in the final blended fuel, specifically E85 (Ethanol Fuel Blends); and, to show how the variation in the concentrations of the components of the CIs impacts the operation and performance of vehicles, specifically, the effects on intake valve deposit formation.
Journal Article

Idealized Vehicle Crash Test Pulses for Advanced Batteries

2013-04-08
2013-01-0764
This paper reports a study undertaken by the Crash Safety Working Group (CSWG) of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) to determine generic acceleration pulses for testing and evaluating advanced batteries subjected to inertial loading for application in electric passenger vehicles. These pulses were based on characterizing vehicle acceleration time histories from standard laboratory vehicle crash tests. Crash tested passenger vehicles in the United States vehicle fleet of the model years 2005-2009 were used in this study. Crash test data, in terms of acceleration time histories, were collected from various crash modes conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) during their New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) evaluations, and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS).
Technical Paper

A Unified Framework of Adaptive Cruise Control for Speed Limit Follower and Curve Speed Control Function

2013-04-08
2013-01-0618
Today many vehicles are being developed with advanced computing and sensing technologies. These new technologies have contributed in enhancing driving safety and convenience. As an example, the Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) can automatically adjust the vehicle speed to driver's set speed and maintain the driver-requested headway distance to the lead vehicle. In this paper, we further consider the automatic control of speed according to the road attributes, e.g., the speed limit and curve of the road. Two new features, ‘speed limit follower’ and ‘curve speed control’ algorithms, are proposed in this paper. These new features communicate with the conventional ACC system and control the vehicle speed while traveling across different curved roads and speed limit zones. These new features were developed as an independent function, so they can be integrated with any other existing ACC systems.
Technical Paper

The Simscape Language and Powertrain Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-0822
Simscape is a physical modeling language developed by Mathworks Inc. The language uses equation statements instead of assignment statements to describe physical systems. The paper focuses on the Simscape language itself instead of using components in the Simscape libraries. The language will be introduced from a perspective different from the Mathworks' Physical Network point of view. Our perspective focuses on two types of variables at the connectors. In additional, internal variables are not separated into through and across variables. The alternative perspective is more general and easier to understand. The paper also illustrates how to develop components in a powertrain library following the proposed new perspective.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach for Correlation/Validation of Hot-Soak Terminal Temperature of a Vehicle Cabin CFD Model

2013-04-08
2013-01-0854
A Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) statistical approach is presented in this report to correlate a CFD cabin model with test results. The target is the volume-averaged hot-soak terminal temperature. The objective is to develop an effective correlation process for a simplified CFD cabin model so it can be used in practical design process. It is, however, not the objective in this report to develop the most accurate CFD cabin model that would be too expensive computationally at present to be used in routine design analysis. A 3-D CFD model of a vehicle cabin is the central part of the computer modeling in the development of automotive HVAC systems. Hot-soak terminal temperature is a thermal phenomenon in the cabin of a parked vehicle under the Sun when the overall heat transfer reaches equilibrium. It is often part of the simulation of HVAC system operation.
Technical Paper

ASIL Decomposition: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

2013-04-08
2013-01-0195
ASIL decomposition is a method described in the ISO 26262 standard for the assignment of ASILs to redundant requirements. Although ASIL decomposition appears to have similar intent to the hardware fault tolerance concept of IEC 61508-2, ASIL decomposition is not intended to reduce ASIL assignments to hardware elements for random hardware failures, but instead focuses on functions and requirements in the context of systematic failures. Based on our participation in the development of the standard, the method has been applied in different ways in practice, not all of which are fully consistent with the intent of the standard. Two potential reasons that may result in the use of “modified” ASIL algebra include the need of OEMs to partition a system and specify subsystem requirements to suppliers and the need for designers to construct systems bottom up.
Technical Paper

Fault Tolerance Characteristics of FlexRay Central Devices

2013-04-08
2013-01-1185
FlexRay is a communication system targeted at, among other things, fault tolerant applications. In contrast to some other communication systems, FlexRay systems often contain a central device such as an active star. Due to their ability to isolate portions of the communication system central devices offer opportunities to mitigate certain faults. This paper presents several alternatives for the central device of a FlexRay system, specifically active stars, FlexRay switches, and Central Bus Guardians. The paper analyzes the fault detection, isolation and mitigation mechanisms of each central device based on available documentation and specifications.
Technical Paper

Application of Insulation Standards to High Voltage Automotive Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-1528
Insulation coordination requirements for electrical equipment applications are defined in various standards. The standards are defined for application to stationary mains connected equipment, like IT, power supply or industrial equipment. Protection from an electric shock is considered the primary hazard in these standards. These standards have also been used in the design of various automotive components. IEC 60664-1 is an example of the standard. Automobiles are used across the world, in various environments and in varied usage by the customers. Automobiles need to consider possible additional hazards including electric shock. This paper will provide an overview of how to adapt these standards for automotive application in the design of High Voltage (HV) automotive components, including High Voltage batteries and other HV components connected to the battery. The basic definitions from the standards and the principles are applied for usage in automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Methods and Tools for End-to-End Latency Analysis and Optimization of a Dual-Processor Control Module

2012-04-16
2012-01-0029
Automotive HW/SW architectures are becoming increasingly complex to support the deployment of new safety, comfort, and energy-efficiency features. Such architectures include several software tasks (100+), messages (1000+), computational and communication resources (70+ CPUs, 10+ buses), and (smart) sensors and actuators (20+). To cope with the increasing system complexity at lowest development and product costs, highest safety, and fastest time to market, model-based rapid-prototyping development processes are essential. The processes, coupled with optimization steps aimed at reducing the number of software and hardware resources while satisfying the safety requirements, enable reduction of the system complexity and ease downstream testing/validation efforts. This paper describes a novel model-based design exploration and optimization process for the deployment of a set of software tasks on a dual-processor control module implementing a fail-safe strategy.
Journal Article

Cabin Heating and Windshield Defrosting for Extended Range Electric, Pure Electric, & Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-0121
Conventional HVAC systems adjust the position of a temperature door, to achieve a required air temperature discharged into the passenger compartment. Such systems are based upon the fact that a conventional (non-hybrid) vehicle's engine coolant temperature is controlled to a somewhat constant temperature, using an engine thermostat. Coolant flow rate through the cabin heater core varies as the engine speed changes. EREVs (Extended Range Electric Vehicles) & PHEVs (Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles) have two key vehicle requirements: maximize EV (Electric Vehicle) range and maximize fuel economy when the engine is operating. In EV mode, there is no engine heat rejection and battery pack energy is consumed in order to provide heat to the passenger compartment, for windshield defrost/defog and occupant comfort. Energy consumption for cabin heating must be optimized, if one is to optimize vehicle EV range.
Journal Article

Iterative Learning Control for a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation in a Test Cell

2012-04-16
2012-01-0162
An iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm has been developed for a test cell electro-hydraulic, fully flexible valve actuation system to track valve lift profile under steady-state and transient operation. A dynamic model of the plant was obtained from experimental data to design and verify the ILC algorithm. The ILC is implemented in a prototype controller. The learned control input for two different lift profiles can be used for engine transient tests. Simulation and bench test are conducted to verify the effectiveness and robustness of this approach. The simple structure of the ILC in implementation and low cost in computation are other crucial factors to recommend the ILC. It does not totally depend on the system model during the design procedure. Therefore, it has relatively higher robustness to perturbation and modeling errors than other control methods for repetitive tasks.
Journal Article

Methods and Tools for Calculating the Flexibility of Automotive HW/SW Architectures

2012-04-16
2012-01-0005
To cope with the increasing number of advanced features (e.g., smart-phone integration and side-blind zone alert.) being deployed in vehicles, automotive manufacturers are designing flexible hardware architectures which can accommodate increasing feature content with as fewer as possible hardware changes so as to keep future costs down. In this paper, we propose a formal and quantitative definition of flexibility, a related methodology and a tool flow aimed at maximizing the flexibility of an automotive hardware architecture with respect to the features that are of greater importance to the designer. We define flexibility as the ability of an architecture to accommodate future changes in features with no changes in hardware (no addition/replacement of processors, buses, or memories). We utilize an optimization framework based on mixed integer linear programming (MILP) which computes the flexibility of the architecture while guaranteeing performance and safety requirements.
Journal Article

Development of General Motors' eAssist Powertrain

2012-04-16
2012-01-1039
General Motors' (GM) eAssist powertrain builds upon the knowledge and experience gained from GM's first generation 36Volt Belt-Alternator-Starter (BAS) system introduced on the Saturn VUE Green Line in 2006. Extensive architectural trade studies were conducted to define the eAssist system. The resulting architecture delivers approximately three times the peak electric boost and regenerative braking capability of 36V BAS. Key elements include a water-cooled induction motor/generator (MG), an accessory drive with a coupled dual tensioner system, air cooled power electronics integrated with a 115V lithium-ion battery pack, a direct-injection 2.4 liter 4-cylinder gasoline engine, and a modified 6-speed automatic transmission. The torque-based control system of the eAssist powertrain was designed to be fully integrated with GM's corporate common electrical and controls architectures, enabling the potential for broad application across GM's global product portfolio.
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