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Journal Article

Vehicle Level Brake Drag Target Setting for EPA Fuel Economy Certification

2016-09-18
2016-01-1925
The strong focus on reducing brake drag, driven by a historic ramp-up in global fuel economy and carbon emissions standards, has led to renewed research on brake caliper drag behaviors and how to measure them. However, with the increased knowledge of the range of drag behaviors that a caliper can exhibit comes a particularly vexing problem - how should this complex range of behaviors be represented in the overall road load of the vehicle? What conditions are encountered during coastdown and fuel economy testing, and how should brake drag be measured and represented in these conditions? With the Environmental Protection Agency (amongst other regulating agencies around the world) conducting audit testing, and the requirement that published road load values be repeatable within a specified range during these audits, the importance of answering these questions accurately is elevated. This paper studies these questions, and even offers methodology for addressing them.
Technical Paper

Least-Enthalpy Based Control of Cabin Air Recirculation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0372
The vehicle air-conditioning system has significant impact on fuel economy and range of electric vehicles. Improving the fuel economy of vehicles therefore demand for energy efficient climate control systems. Also the emissions regulations motivate the reduced use of fuel for vehicle's cabin climate control. Solar heat gain of the passenger compartment by greenhouse effect is generally treated as the peak thermal load of the climate control system. Although the use of advanced glazing is considered first to reduce solar heat gain other means such as ventilation of parked car and recirculation of cabin air also have impetus for reducing the climate control loads.
Technical Paper

Switching Roller Finger Follower Meets Lifetime Passenger Car Durability Requirements

2012-09-10
2012-01-1640
An advanced variable valve actuation (VVA) system is characterized following end-of-life testing to enable fuel economy solutions for passenger car applications. The system consists of a switching roller finger follower (SRFF) combined with a dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster and an oil control valve that are integrated into a four cylinder gasoline engine. The SRFF provides discrete valve lift capability on the intake valves. The motivation for designing this type of VVA system is targeted to improve fuel economy by reducing the air pumping losses during part load engine operation. This paper addresses the durability of a SRFF for meeting passenger car durability requirements. Extensive durability tests were conducted for high speed, low speed, switching, and cold start operation. High engine speed test results show stable valvetrain dynamics above 7000 engine rpm. System wear requirements met end-of-life criteria for the switching, sliding, rolling and torsion spring interfaces.
Journal Article

Design and Development of a Switching Roller Finger Follower for Discrete Variable Valve Lift in Gasoline Engine Applications

2012-09-10
2012-01-1639
Global environmental and economic concerns regarding increasing fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission are driving changes to legislative regulations and consumer demand. As regulations become more stringent, advanced engine technologies must be developed and implemented to realize desired benefits. Discrete variable valve lift technology is a targeted means to achieve improved fuel economy in gasoline engines. By limiting intake air flow with an engine valve, as opposed to standard throttling, road-load pumping losses are reduced resulting in improved fuel economy. This paper focuses on the design and development of a switching roller finger follower system which enables two mode discrete variable valve lift on end pivot roller finger follower valvetrains. The system configuration presented includes a four-cylinder passenger car engine with an electro-hydraulic oil control valve, dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster, and switching roller finger follower.
Technical Paper

Concept and Implementation of a Robust HCCI Engine Controller

2009-04-20
2009-01-1131
General Motors recently demonstrated two driveable test vehicles powered by a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. HCCI combustion has the potential of a significant fuel economy benefit with reduced after-treatment cost. However, the biggest challenge of realizing HCCI in vehicle applications is controlling the combustion process. Without a direct trigger mechanism for HCCI's flameless combustion, the in-cylinder mixture composition and temperature must be tightly controlled in order to achieve robust HCCI combustion. The control architecture and strategy that was implemented in the demo vehicles is presented in this paper. Both demo vehicles, one with automatic transmission and the other one with manual transmission, are powered by a 2.2-liter HCCI engine that features a central direct-injection system, variable valve lift on both intake and exhaust valves, dual electric camshaft phasers and individual cylinder pressure transducers.
Technical Paper

Opportunities and Challenges for Blended 2-Way SCR/DPF Aftertreatment Technologies

2009-04-20
2009-01-0274
Diesel engines offer better fuel economy compared to their gasoline counterpart, but simultaneous control of NOx and particulates is very challenging. The blended 2-way SCR/DPF is recently emerging as a compact and cost-effective technology to reduce NOx and particulates from diesel exhaust using a single aftertreatment device. By coating SCR catalysts on and inside the walls of the conventional wall-flow filter, the 2-way SCR/DPF eliminates the volume and mass of the conventional SCR device. Compared with the conventional diesel aftertreatment system with a SCR and a DPF, the 2-way SCR/DPF technology offers the potential of significant cost saving and packaging flexibility. In this study, an engine dynamometer test cell was set up to repeatedly load and regenerate the SCR/DPF devices to mimic catalyst aging experienced during periodic high-temperature soot regenerations in the real world.
Technical Paper

Observer Design for Fuel Reforming in HCCI Engines Using a UEGO Sensor

2009-04-20
2009-01-1132
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion shows a high potential of reducing both fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. Many works have been devoted to extend the HCCI operation range in order to maximize its fuel economy benefit. Among them, fuel injection strategies that use fuel reforming to increase the cylinder charge temperature to facilitate HCCI combustion at low engine loads have been proposed. However, to estimate and control an optimal amount of fuel reforming in the cylinder of an HCCI engine proves to be challenging because the fuel reforming process depends on many engine variables. It is conceivable that the amount of fuel reforming can be estimated since it correlates with the combustion phasing which in turn can be measured using a cylinder pressure sensor.
Technical Paper

Modeling Costs and Fuel Economy Benefits of Lightweighting Vehicle Closure Panels

2008-04-14
2008-01-0370
This paper illustrates a methodology in which complete material-manufacturing process cases for closure panels, reinforcements, and assembly are modeled and compared in order to identify the preferred option for a lightweight closure design. First, process-based cost models are used to predict the cost of lightweighting the closure set of a sample midsized sports utility vehicle (SUV) via material and process substitution. Weight savings are then analyzed using a powertrain simulation to understand the impact of lightweighting on fuel economy. The results are evaluated in the context of production volume and total mass change.
Journal Article

Late Intake Valve Closing as an Emissions Control Strategy at Tier 2 Bin 5 Engine-Out NOx Level

2008-04-14
2008-01-0637
A fully flexible valve actuation (FFVA) system was developed for a single cylinder research engine to investigate high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) in a diesel engine. The main objectives of the study were to examine the emissions, performance, and combustion characteristics of the engine using late intake valve closing (LIVC) to determine the benefits and limitations of this strategy to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx requirements without after-treatment. The most significant benefit of LIVC is a reduction in particulates due to the longer ignition delay time and a subsequent reduction in local fuel rich combustion zones. More than a 95% reduction in particulates was observed at some operating conditions. Combustion noise was also reduced at low and medium loads due to slower heat release. Although it is difficult to assess the fuel economy benefits of LIVC using a single cylinder engine, LIVC shows the potential to improve the fuel economy through several approaches.
Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for General Motors' 3.6L DOHC 4V V6 Engine with Direct Injection

2008-04-14
2008-01-0132
General Motors' 3.6L DOHC 4V V6 engine has been upgraded to provide substantial improvements in performance, fuel economy, and emissions for the 2008 model year Cadillac CTS and STS. The fundamental change was a switch from traditional manifold-port fuel injection (MPFI) to spark ignition direct injection (SIDI). Additional modifications include enhanced cylinder head and intake manifold air flow capacities, optimized camshaft profiles, and increased compression ratio. The SIDI fuel system presented the greatest opportunities for system development and optimization in order to maximize improvements in performance, fuel economy, and emissions. In particular, the injector flow rate, orifice geometry, and spray pattern were selected to provide the optimum balance of high power and torque, low fuel consumption, stable combustion, low smoke emissions, and robust tolerance to injector plugging.
Technical Paper

Development and Control of Electro-hydraulic Fully Flexible Valve Actuation System for Diesel Combustion Research

2007-10-29
2007-01-4021
Fully flexible valve actuation (FFVA) system, often referred to as camless valvetrain, employs electronically controlled actuators to drive the intake and/or exhaust valves. This technology enables the engine controller to tailor the valve event according to the engine operating condition in real-time to improve fuel economy, emissions and performance. At GM Research and Development Center, we have developed laboratory electro-hydraulic FFVA systems for single cylinder gasoline engines. The objective of this work is to develop a FFVA system for advanced diesel combustion research. There are three major differences between gasoline and diesel engines in terms of applying the FFVA systems. First, the orientation of the diesel engine valves and the location of the fuel injection system complicate the packaging issue. Second, the clearance between the valves and the piston for diesel engines are extremely small.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Cycle to Cycle Variability of the Inlet Flow of Fuel Injectors Using LDA

2006-10-16
2006-01-3314
The focus of this research effort was to develop a technique to measure the cyclic variability of the mass injected by fuel injectors. Successful implementation of the measurement technique introduced in this paper can be used to evaluate injectors and improve their designs. More consistent and precise fuel injectors have the potential to improve fuel efficiency, engine performance, and reduce emissions. The experiments for this study were conducted at the Michigan State University Automotive Research Experiment Station. The setup consists of a fuel supply vessel pressurized by compressed nitrogen, a Dantec laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system to measure the centerline velocity of fuel, a quartz tube for optical access, and a Cosworth IC 5460 to control the injector. The detector on the LDA system is capable of resolving Doppler bursts as short as 6μs, depending on the level of seeding, thus giving a detailed time/velocity profile.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Model for the Saturn VUE Green Line Hybrid Vehicle

2006-04-03
2006-01-0441
In developing the 2007 Model Year Saturn VUE Green Line hybrid vehicle, a vehicle model for prediction of fuel economy and performance was developed. This model was developed in Matlab / Simulink / Stateflow by augmenting an existing conventional vehicle model to include hybrid components and controls. The generic structure and the functionalities of the model are presented. This simulation model was used for rapid concept selection and requirements balancing early in the vehicle development process. Engine usage and energy distributions are shown based on simulation results. Fuel economy breakdown was also discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of the Hybrid System for the Saturn VUE Hybrid

2006-04-03
2006-01-1502
The hybrid system for the 2007 Model Year Saturn VUE Green Line Hybrid SUV was designed to provide the fuel economy of a compact sedan, while delivering improved acceleration performance over the base vehicle, and maintaining full vehicle utility. Key elements of the hybrid powertrain are a 2.4L DOHC engine with dual cam-phasers, a modified 4-speed automatic transmission, an electric motor-generator connected to the crankshaft through a bi-directional belt-drive system, power electronics to control the motor-generator, and a NiMH battery pack. The VUE's hybrid functionality includes: engine stop-start, regenerative braking, intelligent charge control of the hybrid battery, electric power assist, and electrically motored creep. Methods of improving urban and highway fuel economy via optimal use of the hybrid motor and battery, engine and transmission hardware and controls modifications, and vehicle enhancements, are discussed.
Technical Paper

Factors Affecting Axle Lubricant Stability

2005-10-24
2005-01-3892
There are many factors that can affect the service lifetime of a lubricant. In automobiles, one lubricant that has been heavily tested in recent years for fuel efficiency improvement and durability is axle lubricant. While a substantial amount of testing has been performed toward developing new axle lubricants to aid original equipment manufacturers to reduce warranty costs, improve Corporate Average Fuel Economy, and provide extended drain intervals, not as much testing has been documented to show some of the effects that different operating conditions have on these lubricants. The scope of this work is to bring to light some of the different parameters that affect axle lubricant.
Technical Paper

Development of the 2006 Corvette Z06 Structural Cast Magnesium Crossmember

2005-04-11
2005-01-0340
Since its very beginning in 1953, Corvette has been a pioneer in light weight material applications. The new 6th generation corvette high performance Z06 model required aggressive weight savings to achieve its performance and fuel economy targets. In addition to aluminum body structure and some carbon fiber components, the decision to use a magnesium front crossmember was identified to help achieve the targets. An overview of the Structural Cast Magnesium Development (SCMD) project will be presented which will provide information on key project tasks. Project focus was to develop the science and technical expertise to manufacture and validate large structural magnesium castings, which provide a weight reduction potential of 35 percent with respect to aluminum. The die cast magnesium cradle is being produced from a Mg-Al-RE alloy, designated AE44, for high temperature creep and strength performance as well as casting ductility requirements.
Technical Paper

Development and Optimization of a Small-Displacement Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine - Stratified Operation

2004-03-08
2004-01-0033
Superior fuel economy was achieved for a small-displacement spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine by optimizing the stratified combustion operation. The optimization was performed using computational analyses and subsequently testing the most promising configurations experimentally. The fuel economy savings are achieved by the use of a multihole injector with novel spray shape, which allows ultra-lean stratification for a wide range of part-load operating conditions without compromising smoke and hydrocarbon emissions. In this regard, a key challenge for wall-controlled SIDI engines is the minimization of wall wetting to prevent smoke, which may require advanced injection timings, while at the same time minimizing hydrocarbon emissions, which may require retarding injection and thereby preventing over-mixing of the fuel vapor.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of a Reverse-Tumble Wall-Controlled Direct-Injection Stratified-Charge Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0543
Experimentally obtained combustion responses of a typical reverse-tumble wall-controlled direct-injection stratified-charge engine to operating variables are described. During stratified-charge operation, the injection timing, ignition timing, air-fuel ratio, and levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) generally determine the fuel economy and emissions performance of the engine. A detailed heat-release analysis of the experimental cylinder-pressure data was conducted. It was observed that injection and ignition timings determine the thermal efficiency of the engine by controlling primarily the combustion efficiency of the stratified charge. Hence, combustion phasing is determined by a compromise between work-conversion efficiency and combustion efficiency. To reduce nitric-oxide (NOx) emissions, a reduction in overall air-fuel ratio as well as EGR addition is required.
Technical Paper

The Next Generation Northstar DOHC 4.6L V8 Engine with Four-Cam Continuously Variable Valve Timing for Cadillac

2003-03-03
2003-01-0922
A new generation Northstar DOHC V8 engine has been developed for a new family of rear-wheel-drive (RWD) Cadillac vehicles. The new longitudinal engine architecture includes strategically selected technologies to enable a higher level of performance and refinement. These technologies include four-cam continuously variable valve timing, low restriction intake and exhaust manifolds and cylinder head ports, a steel crankshaft, electronic throttle control, and close-coupled catalysts. Additional design features beyond those required for RWD include optimized block ribbing, improved coolant flow, and a newly developed lubrication and ventilation system for high-speed operation and high lateral acceleration. This new design results in improved performance over the entire operating range, lower emissions, improved fuel economy, improved operating refinement, and reduced noise/vibration/harshness (NVH).
Technical Paper

Aggregating Technologies for Reduced Fuel Consumption: A Review of the Technical Content in the 2002 National Research Council Report on CAFE

2002-03-04
2002-01-0628
The National Research Council (NRC) recently published a report entitled “Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards” intended to help U.S. policymakers in the formulation of CAFE policy. In the Report, the NRC projects fuel consumption reductions from the application of a wide range of engine, transmission, and vehicle technologies. The Report employs a simple multiplicative method to aggregate the effects of multiple technologies on fuel consumption. In this paper, a basic energy balance calculation is used to examine the NRC results against theoretical limits. Theoretical limits are calculated using measured and simulated breakdowns of system energy losses incurred during vehicle operation on EPA driving cycles. This analysis demonstrates the inherently optimistic results produced by simple aggregation methodologies. Methods for enhancing the accuracy of the technology-aggregation process are proposed.
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