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Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on the Propensity to Establish Propagating Flames at SPI-Relevant Engine Conditions

In order to further understand the sequence of events leading to stochastic preignition in a spark-ignition engine, a methodology previously developed by the authors was used to evaluate the propensity of a wide range of fuels to establishing propagating flames under conditions representative of those at which stochastic preignition (SPI) occurs. The fuel matrix included single component hydrocarbons, binary mixtures, and real fuel blends. The propensity of each fuel to establish a flame was correlated to multiple fuel properties and shown to exhibit consistent blending behaviors. No single parameter strongly predicted a fuel’s propensity to establish a flame, while multiple reactivity-based parameters exhibited moderate correlation. A two-stage model of the flame establishment process was developed to interpret and explain these results.
Technical Paper

Impact of Fuel Detergent Type and Concentration on the Rate and Severity of Stochastic Preignition in a Turbocharged Spark Ignition Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

Stochastic Preignition (SPI) is an abnormal combustion event that occurs in a turbocharged engine and can lead to the loss in fuel economy and engine hardware damage, and in turn result in customer dissatisfaction. It is a significant limiting factor on the use and continued downsizing of turbocharged spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) gasoline engines. Understanding and mitigating all the factors that cause and influence the rate and severity of SPI occurrence are of critical importance to the engine’s continued use and fuel economy improvements for future designs. Previous studies have shown that the heavy molecular weight components of the fuel formulations are one factor that influences the rate of SPI from a turbocharged SIDI gasoline engine. All the previous studies have involved analyzing the fuel’s petroleum hydrocarbon chemistry, but not specifically the additives that are put in the fuel to protect and clean the internal components over the life of the engine.
Technical Paper

Global Market Gasoline Quality Review: Five Year Trends in Particulate Emission Indices

A gasoline’s chemical composition impacts a vehicle’s sooting tendency and therefore has been the subject of numerous emissions studies. From these studies, several mathematical correlation equations have been developed to predict a gasoline’s sooting tendency in modern spark-ignited internal combustion engine vehicles. This paper reviews the recently developed predictive tool methods and summarizes five years of global market fuel survey data to characterize gasoline sooting tendency trends around the world. Additionally, the paper will evaluate and suggest changes to the predictive methods to improve emissions correlations.
Journal Article

Detailed Analyses and Correlation of Fuel Effects on Stochastic Preignition

Stochastic or Low-Speed Preignition (SPI or LSPI) is an undesirable abnormal combustion phenomenon encountered in spark-ignition engines. It is characterized by very early heat release and high cylinder pressure and can cause knock, noise and ultimately engine damage. Much of the focus on mitigating SPI has been directed towards the engine oil formulation, leading to the emergence of the Sequence IX test and second-generation GM dexos® oil requirements. Engine design, calibration and fuels also contribute to the prevalence of SPI. As part of a recently completed research consortium, a series of engine tests were completed to determine the impact of fuel composition on SPI frequency. The fuel blends had varying levels of paraffins, olefins, aromatics and ethanol.
Technical Paper

Development of an Alternative Predictive Model for Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter and Particulate Number

The Particulate Matter Index (PMI) is a helpful tool which provides an indication of a fuel’s sooting tendency. Currently, the index is being used by various laboratories and OEMs as a metric to understand the gasoline fuels impact on both sooting found on engine hardware and vehicle out emissions. This paper will explore a new method that could be used to give indication of the sooting tendency of the gasoline range fuels, called the Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI), and provide the detailed equation in its initial form. In addition, the PEI will be shown to have a good correlation agreement to PMI. The paper will then give a detailed explanation of the data used to develop it. Initial vehicle PM/PN data will also be presented that shows correlations of the indices to the vehicle response.
Technical Paper

China Market Gasoline Review Using Fuel Particulate Emission Correlation Indices

The impact of gasoline composition on vehicle particulate emissions response has been widely investigated and documented. Correlation equations between fuel composition and particulate emissions have also been documented, e.g. Particulate Matter Index (PMI) and Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI). Vehicle PM/PN emissions correlate very well with these indices. In a previous paper, global assessment with PEI on fuel sooting tendency was presented [1]. This paper will continue the previous theme by the authors, and cover China gasoline in more detail. With air pollution an increasing concern, along with more stringent emission requirements in China, both OEMs and oil industries are facing new challenges. Emissions controls require a systematic approach on both fuels and vehicles. Chinese production vehicle particulate emissions for a range of PEI fuels are also presented.